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1.
Pulmonology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1763951

ABSTRACT

Aim to determine whether the duration of respiratory distress symptoms in severe COVID-19 pneumonia affects the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and clinical outcomes. Materials and methods an observational multicentre cohort study of patients hospitalised in five COVID-19–designated ICUs of the University Hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Patients included were adults with pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 with PaO₂/FiO₂ ratio <300 mmHg, respiratory distress symptoms, and need for mechanical ventilation (invasive or non-invasive). Exclusion criteria were an uncertain time of respiratory distress, end-of-life decision, and mechanical respiratory support before hospital admission. Measurements and main results we analysed 171 patients stratified into tertiles according to respiratory distress duration (distress time, DT) before application of mechanical ventilation support. The rate of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly different (p <0.001) among the tertiles: 17/57 patients in the shortest duration, 29/57 in the intermediate duration, and 40/57 in the longest duration. The respiratory distress time significantly increased the risk of invasive ventilation in the univariate analysis (OR 5.5 [CI 2.48–12.35], p = 0.003). Multivariable regression analysis confirmed this association (OR 10.7 [CI 2.89–39.41], p <0.001). Clinical outcomes (mortality and hospital stay) did not show significant differences between DT tertiles. Discussion albeit preliminary and retrospective, our data raised the hypothesis that the duration of respiratory distress symptoms may play a role in COVID-19 patients’ need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, our observations suggested that specific strategies may be directed towards identifying and managing early symptoms of respiratory distress, regardless of the levels of hypoxemia and the severity of the dyspnoea itself.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760681

ABSTRACT

The latest guidelines for the hospital care of patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory failure have moved towards the widely accepted use of noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) as opposed to early intubation at the pandemic onset. The establishment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia goes through different pathophysiological phases that partially resemble typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and have been categorized into different clinical-radiological phenotypes. These can variably benefit on the application of external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during noninvasive mechanical ventilation, mainly due to variable levels of lung recruitment ability and lung compliance during different phases of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that intense respiratory effort producing excessive negative pleural pressure swings (Ppl) plays a critical role in the onset and progression of lung and diaphragm damage in patients treated with noninvasive respiratory support. Routine respiratory monitoring is mandatory to avoid the nasty continuation of NIRS in patients who are at higher risk for respiratory deterioration and could benefit from early initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation instead. Here we propose different monitoring methods both in the clinical and experimental settings adapted for this purpose, although further research is required to allow their extensive application in clinical practice. We reviewed the needs and available tools for clinical-physiological monitoring that aims at optimizing the ventilatory management of patients affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

3.
OTO open ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733275

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has notably increased the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with respiratory failure. This has increased the risk of extensive tracheal injury (ETI) associated with life-threatening complications in complex cases. Furthermore, tracheal injury treatment in patients with COVID-19 has not been described yet. Three patients with COVID-19 and ETI who required MV between April and November 2020 were included. A multistep approach was performed to restore tracheal integrity with a custom-remodeled stent and tracheostomy tube placement to allow ventilatory support. Efficient MV with no residual air leaks was obtained in all cases. One patient died 6 weeks after the procedure due to COVID-19 lung damage. Two patients have completely been weaned from MV. This multistep procedure could be used to maintain ventilatory support in the case of ETI, working as a bridge to subsequent surgery when clinical conditions improve.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317659

ABSTRACT

Background: Whilst there is literature on impact of the SARS viruses in the severely immunosuppressed, and those who develop exaggerated immune response, less is known about the link between routine immunosuppressant use and outcome in COVID-19. Consequently, guidelines on their use vary depending on specific patient populations. Methods: : The study population was drawn from the COPE Study (COVID-19 in Older People), a multicentre observational cohort study, carried out in UK and Italy. Data were collected between 27th February and 28th April 2020 by trained data collectors and included all unselected consecutive admissions with Covid-19. Load (name/number of medications) and dosage of immunosuppressant were collected along with other covariate data. The primary outcome was time-to-mortality from the date of admission (or) date of diagnosis, if diagnosis was five or more days after admission. Secondary outcomes were Day-14 mortality and time-to-discharge (length of stay). Data were analysed with mixed-effects, Cox proportional hazards and Logistic regression models using non-users of immunosuppressants as the reference group. Results: : 1184 patients were eligible for inclusion. The median (IQR) age was 74(62-83), 676(57%) were male, and 299(25.3%) died in hospital (total person follow-up 15,540 days). Most patients exhibited at least one comorbidity, and 113(~10%) were on immunosuppressants. We found that any immunosuppressant use was associated with increased mortality: aHR 1.87,95%CI:1.30,2.69 (time to mortality) and aOR1.71,95%CI:1.01-2.88 (14-day mortality). There also appeared to be a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Despite the possibility of indication bias, until further evidence emerges we recommend adhering to public health measures stringently, a low threshold to seek medical advice and close monitoring of worsening symptoms in those who take immunosuppressants routinely regardless of their indication.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308709

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of cytokine-blocking agents has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory response in patients with COVID19. Tocilizumab and Anakinra were included in the local protocol as an optional treatment in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by SARS-CoV2 infection. This cohort study evaluated the effects of therapy with cytokine blocking agents on in-hospital mortality in COVID19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and admitted to intensive care unit. Methods The association between therapy with Tocilizumab or Anakinra and in-hospital mortality was assessed in consecutive adult COVID19 patients admitted to our ICU with moderate to severe ARDS. The association was evaluated by comparing patients who receive to those who did not receive Tocilizumab or Anakinra and by using different multivariable Cox models adjusted for variables related to poor outcome, for the propensity to be treated with Tocilizumab or Anakinra and after patient matching. Results Sixty-six patients who received immunotherapy (49 Tocilizumab, 17 Anakinra) and 28 patients who did not receive immunotherapy were included. The in-hospital crude mortality was 30,3% in treated patients and 50% in non-treated (OR 0,77, 95% CI 0,56-1,05, p=0,069). The adjusted Cox model showed an association between therapy with immunotherapy and in-hospital mortality (HR 0,35, 95% CI 0,16-0,77, p=0,009). This protective effect was further confirmed in the analysis adjusted for propensity score, in the propensity-matched cohort and in the cohort of patients with invasive mechanical ventilation within 2 hours after ICU admission. Conclusions Although important limitations, our study showed that cytokine-blocking agents seem to be safe and to improve survival in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU with ARDS and the need of mechanical ventilation.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306884

ABSTRACT

We have deeply investigated T cell compartment, plasma cytokines and cells producing cytokines in patients affected by Covid-19. At admission, patients were lymphopenic;in all of them SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a nasopharyngeal swab specimen by real-time RT-PCR, and pneumonia was subsequently confirmed by X-rays.Detailed 18-parameter flow cytometry was performed in 21 patients and 13 controls. Coupling polychromatic cytometry with unsupervised data analysis, we found that patients show an increased amount of CD4+ T lymphocytes that were activated, exhausted, stem memory or Treg. Similar results concerning activation and exhaustion were found in the CD8+ T cell compartment, within which the differences were even greater.Measuring plasma level of 31 cytokines linked to inflammation revealed that Covid-19 showed a dramatic increase of several molecules, such as TH1 and TH2 cytokines, chemokines, galectins, pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, confirming the importance of a massive immune activation causing the cytokine storm. Then, intracellular staining detecting the simultaneous production of different cytokines after a para-physiologic stimulus given by anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs revealed not only a high capacity to produce a variety of molecules, including TNF-a, IFN-g and IL-2, but also a significant skewing of CD4+ T cells towards the TH17 phenotype.A therapeutic approach now exists based on the administration of drugs that block IL-6 pathway, and is now consistently improving the course of the disease. IL-17 is crucial in recruiting and activating neutrophils, cells that can migrate to the lung and are heavily involved in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. We show here that a significant skewing of activated T cells towards TH17 functional phenotype exists in Covid-19 patients. Thus, we suggest that blocking IL-17 pathway by already available biological drugs that are used to treat different pathologies could be a novel, additional strategy to improve the health of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac003, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684767

ABSTRACT

Background: A proposal has recently been advanced to change the traditional definition of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), to reflect the cluster of metabolic abnormalities that may be more closely associated with cardiovascular risk. Long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a smoldering inflammatory condition, characterized by several symptom clusters. This study aims to determine the prevalence of MAFLD in patients with postacute COVID syndrome (PACS) and its association with other PACS-cluster phenotypes. Methods: We included 235 patients observed at a single university outpatient clinic. The diagnosis of PACS was based on ≥1 cluster of symptoms: respiratory, neurocognitive, musculoskeletal, psychological, sensory, and dermatological. The outcome was prevalence of MAFLD detected by transient elastography during the first postdischarge follow-up outpatient visit. The prevalence of MAFLD at the time of hospital admission was calculated retrospectively using the hepatic steatosis index. Results: Of 235 patients, 162 (69%) were men (median age 61). The prevalence of MAFLD was 55.3% at follow-up and 37.3% on admission (P < .001). Insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.96), body mass index (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.24), and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.13-5.68) were independent predictors of MAFLD. The number of PACS clusters was inversely associated with MAFLD (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, .76-0.97). Thirty-one patients (13.2%) had MAFLD with no other associated PACS clusters. All correlations between MAFLD and other PACS clusters were weak. Conclusions: Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease was highly prevalent after hospital discharge and may represent a specific PACS-cluster phenotype, with potential long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health implications.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054069, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The first COVID-19-19 epidemic wave was over the period of February-May 2020. Since 1 October 2020, Italy, as many other European countries, faced a second wave. The aim of this analysis was to compare the 28-day mortality between the two waves among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Standard survival analysis was performed to compare all-cause mortality within 28 days after hospital admission in the two waves. Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Cox regression model analysis were used. The effect of wave on risk of death was shown by means of HRs with 95% CIs. A sensitivity analysis around the impact of the circulating variant as a potential unmeasured confounder was performed. SETTING: University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Patients admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first (22 February-31 May 2020) and second (1 October-31 December 2020) waves were included. RESULTS: During the two study periods, a total of 1472 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to our hospital, 449 during the first wave and 1023 during the second. Median age was 70 years (IQR 56-80), 37% women, 49% with PaO2/FiO2 <250 mm Hg, 82% with ≥1 comorbidity, median duration of symptoms was 6 days. 28-day mortality rate was 20.0% (95% CI 16.3 to 23.7) during the first wave vs 14.2% (95% CI 12.0 to 16.3) in the second (log-rank test p value=0.03). After including key predictors of death in the multivariable Cox regression model, the data still strongly suggested a lower 28-day mortality rate in the second wave (aHR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90, p value=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with severe pneumonia, the 28-day mortality appeared to be reduced by 36% during the second as compared with the first wave. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may have contributed to this improved survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 538-549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579085

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications after a SARS-CoV-2 infection are a phenomenon of relevant scientific interest. The aim of this study was to analyze the onset of post-COVID-19 cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized in a tertiary care center. This is a retrospective study conducted on patients hospitalized over a period of three months. The patients were older than 18 years of age and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection confirmed from a nasopharyngeal swab sample. Anamnestic and clinical-laboratory data were collected. Cardiovascular events at 30 days were defined as follows: arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism. Univariate analysis (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate) and multivariate analysis (multinomial logistic regression) were applied to the data. A total of 394 patients were included; they were mostly males and had a median age of 65.5 years. Previous cardiovascular disease was present in 14.7% of patients. Oxygen therapy was required for 77.9%, and 53% received anticoagulant therapy. The overall 30-day mortality was 20.3%. A cardiovascular event developed in 15.7% of the subjects. These were mainly pulmonary embolism (9.4%), followed by arrhythmias (3.3%), myocardial infarction (2.3%), and myocarditis (0.8%). Patients who developed cardiovascular events upon univariate analysis were significantly older, with major comorbidities, a more compromised respiratory situation, and a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed independent factors that were significantly associated with the development of cardiovascular events: hypertension, endotracheal intubation, and age older than 75 years. In patients with COVID-19, the development of a cardiovascular event occurs quite frequently and is mainly seen in elderly subjects with comorbidities (especially hypertension) in the presence of a severe respiratory picture.

11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung parenchyma is highly prone to ventilator-related injury, with pneumothorax and persistent air leak as the most serious adverse events. So far, endobronchial valve (EBV) positioning has proved efficacious in treating air leaks with a high success rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report, for the first time, two cases of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia complicated with bacterial super-infection, experiencing pneumothorax and persistent air leaks after invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite the severity of respiratory failure both patients underwent rigid interventional bronchoscopy and were successfully treated through EBV positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent air leaks may result from lung tissue damage due to a complex interaction between inflammation and ventilator-related injury (VILI), especially in the advanced stages of ARDS. EBV positioning seems to be a feasible and effective minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating this subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumothorax/surgery , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Respiratory Tract Fistula/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex 1 co-infections in patients with COVID-19 are considered relatively uncommon; some reports on re-activations in patients in intensive-care units were published. The aim of the study was to analyze herpetic re-activations and their clinical manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, performing HSV-1 PCR on plasma twice a week. METHODS: we conducted a prospective, observational, single-center study involving 70 consecutive patients with severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia tested for HSV-1 hospitalized at Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Modena. RESULTS: of these 70 patients, 21 (30.0%) showed detectable viremia and 13 (62%) had clinically relevant manifestations of HSV-1 infection corresponding to 15 events (4 pneumonia, 5 herpes labialis, 3 gingivostomatitis, one encephalitis and two hepatitis). HSV-1 positive patients were more frequently treated with steroids than HSV-1 negative patients (76.2% vs. 49.0%, p = 0.036) and more often underwent mechanical ventilation (IMV) (57.1% vs. 22.4%, p = 0.005). In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, steroid treatment, IMV, and higher LDH were significantly associated with an increased risk of HSV1 re-activation (odds ratio 3.33, 4.61, and 16.9, respectively). The association with the use of steroids was even stronger after controlling for previous use of both tocilizumab and IMV (OR = 5.13, 95% CI:1.36-19.32, p = 0.016). The effect size was larger when restricting to participants who were treated with high doses of steroids while there was no evidence to support an association with the use of tocilizumab Conclusions: our study shows a high incidence of HSV-1 re-activation both virologically and clinically in patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia, especially in those treated with steroids.

14.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 387-391, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232492

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The unprecedented covid-19 pandemic has shown the weaknesses of health systems and opened new spaces for e-health and telemedicine. Recent literature states that chatbots, if implemented effectively, could be useful tools for quickly sharing information, promoting healthy behaviors, and helping reduce the psychological burden of isolation. The aim of this project is to develop and test a secure and reliable computerized decision support system (CDSS) in web-app and evaluate its use, usability and its outputs in a pre-specified way. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team was recruited to plan and design, based on the SMASS medical CDSS, the scenarios of the COVID-Guide web-app, a self-triage system for patients with suspected covid-19. The output data for the period May-September 2020 from Germany were analyzed. RESULTS: During the period under review, the total number of consultations in Germany was 96,012. 3,415 (3.56%) consultations indicated the need for immediate evaluation, by activating the emergency service (calling an ambulance) - 1,942, equal to 2.02% - or by advising the patient to go to hospital - 1,743, equal to 1.54%. CONCLUSIONS: Data seems to show good usability and a consistent number of consultations carried out. Regular use of COVID-Guide could help collect epidemiological data on the spread of (suspected) covid-19 cases, easily and quickly available in all countries where the tool will be used. Using the SSDC could help reduce the load on operators. Furthermore, the use of anonymous and geolocatable clinical data together with the generation of alerts and indicators produced by COVID-Guide could become a useful tool for epidemiological surveillance in the future phases of the pandemic (Telemedical Syndromic Surveillance).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Mobile Applications , Triage/methods , Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics
16.
Pulmonology ; 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in two teaching hospitals over a 3-month period (March 2010-June 2020) comparing severe and critical COVID-19 patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit for non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) and subjected to awake prone position (PP) with those receiving standard care (SC). Primary outcome was endotracheal intubation (ETI) rate. In-hospital mortality, time to ETI, tracheostomy, length of RICU and hospital stay served as secondary outcomes. Risk factors associated to ETI among PP patients were also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were included, 76 in the SC and 38 in the PP group. Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimates showed greater effect of PP compared to SC on ETI rate (HR = 0.45 95% CI [0.2-0.9], p = 0.02) even after adjustment for baseline confounders (HR = 0.59 95% CI [0.3-0.94], p = 0.03). After stratification according to non-invasive respiratory support, PP showed greater significant benefit for those on High Flow Nasal Cannulae (HR = 0.34 95% CI [0.12-0.84], p = 0.04). Compared to SC, PP patients also showed a favorable difference in terms of days free from respiratory support, length of RICU and hospital stay while mortality and tracheostomy rate were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Prone positioning in awake and spontaneously breathing Covid-19 patients is feasible and associated with a reduction of intubation rate, especially in those patients undergoing HFNC. Although our results are intriguing, further randomized controlled trials are needed to answer all the open questions remaining pending about the real efficacy of PP in this setting.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125725

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of acute respiratory failure other than inflammation and complicating the SARS-CoV-2 infection are still far from being fully understood, thus challenging the management of COVID-19 patients in the critical care setting. In this unforeseen scenario, the role of an individual's excessive spontaneous breathing may acquire critical importance, being one potential and important driver of lung injury and disease progression. The consequences of this acute lung damage may impair lung structure, forecasting the model of a fragile respiratory system. This perspective article aims to analyze the progression of injured lung phenotypes across the SARS-CoV-2 induced respiratory failure, pointing out the role of spontaneous breathing and also tackling the specific respiratory/ventilatory strategy required by the fragile lung type.

18.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 12: 2042098620985690, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst there is literature on the impact of SARS viruses in the severely immunosuppressed, less is known about the link between routine immunosuppressant use and outcome in COVID-19. Consequently, guidelines on their use vary depending on specific patient populations. METHODS: The study population was drawn from the COPE Study (COVID-19 in Older People), a multicentre observational cohort study, across the UK and Italy. Data were collected between 27 February and 28 April 2020 by trained data-collectors and included all unselected consecutive admissions with COVID-19. Load (name/number of medications) and dosage of immunosuppressant were collected along with other covariate data. Primary outcome was time-to-mortality from the date of admission (or) date of diagnosis, if diagnosis was five or more days after admission. Secondary outcomes were Day-14 mortality and time-to-discharge. Data were analysed with mixed-effects, Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models using non-users of immunosuppressants as the reference group. RESULTS: In total 1184 patients were eligible for inclusion. The median (IQR) age was 74 (62-83), 676 (57%) were male, and 299 (25.3%) died in hospital (total person follow-up 15,540 days). Most patients exhibited at least one comorbidity, and 113 (~10%) were on immunosuppressants. Any immunosuppressant use was associated with increased mortality: aHR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.69 (time to mortality) and aOR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.01-2.88 (14-day mortality). There also appeared to be a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSION: Despite possible indication bias, until further evidence emerges we recommend adhering to public health measures, a low threshold to seek medical advice and close monitoring of symptoms in those who take immunosuppressants routinely regardless of their indication. However, it should be noted that the inability to control for the underlying condition requiring immunosuppressants is a major limitation, and hence caution should be exercised in interpretation of the results. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Regular Use of Immune Suppressing Drugs is Associated with Increased Risk of Death in Hospitalised Patients with COVID-19 Background: We do not have much information on how the COVID-19 virus affects patients who use immunosuppressants, drugs which inhibit or reduce the activity of the immune system. There are various conflicting views on whether immune-suppressing drugs are beneficial or detrimental in patients with the disease. Methods: This study collected data from 10 hospitals in the UK and one in Italy between February and April 2020 in order to identify any association between the regular use of immunosuppressant medicines and survival in patients who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Results: 1184 patients were included in the study, and 10% of them were using immunosuppressants. Any immunosuppressant use was associated with increased risk of death, and the risk appeared to increase if the dose of the medicine was higher. Conclusion: We therefore recommend that patients who take immunosuppressant medicines routinely should carefully adhere to social distancing measures, and seek medical attention early during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this secondary analysis of the TESEO cohort is to identify, early in the course of treatment with tocilizumab, factors associated with the risk of progressing to mechanical ventilation and death and develop a risk score to estimate the risk of this outcome according to patients' profile. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 severe pneumonia receiving standard of care + tocilizumab who were alive and free from mechanical ventilation at day 6 after treatment initiation were included in this retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify predictors of mechanical ventilation or death by day-28 from treatment initiation and ß-coefficients were used to develop a risk score. Secondary outcome was mortality. Patients with the same inclusion criteria as the derivation cohort from 3 independent hospitals were used as validation cohort. RESULTS: 266 patients treated with tocilizumab were included. By day 28 of hospital follow-up post treatment initiation, 40 (15%) underwent mechanical ventilation or died [26 (10%)]. At multivariable analysis, sex, day-4 PaO2/FiO2 ratio, platelets and CRP were independently associated with the risk of developing the study outcomes and were used to generate the proposed risk score. The accuracy of the score in AUC was 0.80 and 0.70 in internal validation and test for the composite endpoint and 0.92 and 0.69 for death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our score could assist clinicians in identifying, early after tocilizumab administration, patients who are likely to progress to mechanical ventilation or death, so that they could be selected for eventual rescue therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
20.
Eur Respir J ; 56(5)2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 outbreak spread rapidly in Italy and the lack of intensive care unit (ICU) beds soon became evident, forcing the application of noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) outside the ICU, raising concerns over staff contamination. We aimed to analyse the safety of the hospital staff and the feasibility and outcomes of NRS applied to patients outside the ICU. METHODS: In this observational study, data from 670 consecutive patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 referred to pulmonology units in nine hospitals between March 1 and May 10, 2020 were analysed. Data collected included medication, mode and usage of NRS (i.e. high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), noninvasive ventilation (NIV)), length of stay in hospital, endotracheal intubation (ETI) and deaths. RESULTS: 42 (11.1%) healthcare workers tested positive for infection, but only three of them required hospitalisation. Data are reported for all patients (69.3% male), whose mean±sd age was 68±13 years. The arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio at baseline was 152±79, and the majority (49.3%) of patients were treated with CPAP. The overall unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was 26.9%, with 16%, 30% and 30% for HFNC, CPAP and NIV, respectively, while the total ETI rate was 27%, with 29%, 25% and 28%, respectively; the relative probability of death was not related to the NRS used after adjustment for confounders. ETI and length of stay were not different among the groups. Mortality rate increased with age and comorbidity class progression. CONCLUSIONS: The application of NRS outside the ICU is feasible and associated with favourable outcomes. Nonetheless, it was associated with a risk of staff contamination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Feasibility Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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