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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1175482, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242162

ABSTRACT

Background: Disseminated tuberculosis is frequently associated with delayed diagnosis and a poorer prognosis. Objectives: To describe case series of disseminated TB and diagnosis delay in a low TB burden country during the COVID-19 period. Methodology: We consecutively included all patients with of disseminated TB reported from 2019 to 2021 in the reference hospital of the Northern Crown of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. We collected socio-demographic information, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Results: We included all 30 patients reported during the study period-5, 9, and 16 in 2019, 2020, and 2021 respectively-20 (66.7%) of whom were male and whose mean age was 41 years. Twenty-five (83.3%) were of non-EU origin. The most frequent system involvement was central nervous system (N = 8; 26.7%) followed by visceral (N = 7; 23.3%), gastro-intestinal (N = 6, 20.0%), musculoskeletal (N = 5; 16.7%), and pulmonary (N = 4; 13.3%). Hypoalbuminemia and anemia were highly prevalent (72 and 77%). The median of diagnostic delay was 6.5 months (IQR 1.8-30), which was higher among women (36.0 vs. 3.5 months; p = 0.002). Central nervous system involvement and pulmonary involvement were associated with diagnostic delay among women. We recorded 24 cured patients, two deaths, three patients with post-treatment sequelae, and one lost-to-follow up. We observed a clustering effect of patients in low-income neighborhoods (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a substantial delay in the diagnosis of disseminated TB in our study region, which might impacted the prognosis with women affected more negatively. Our results suggest that an increase in the occurrence of disseminated TB set in motion by diagnosis delay may have been a secondary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
2.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 28: 100613, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293647

ABSTRACT

Background: A SARS-CoV-2 protein-based heterodimer vaccine, PHH-1V, has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in healthy young adults in a first-in-human, Phase I/IIa study dose-escalation trial. Here, we report the interim results of the Phase IIb HH-2, where the immunogenicity and safety of a heterologous booster with PHH-1V is assessed versus a homologous booster with BNT162b2 at 14, 28 and 98 days after vaccine administration. Methods: The HH-2 study is an ongoing multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, non-inferiority Phase IIb trial, where participants 18 years or older who had received two doses of BNT162b2 were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive a booster dose of vaccine-either heterologous (PHH-1V group) or homologous (BNT162b2 group)-in 10 centres in Spain. Eligible subjects were allocated to treatment stratified by age group (18-64 versus ≥65 years) with approximately 10% of the sample enrolled in the older age group. The primary endpoints were humoral immunogenicity measured by changes in levels of neutralizing antibodies (PBNA) against the ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 strain after the PHH-1V or the BNT162b2 boost, and the safety and tolerability of PHH-1V as a boost. The secondary endpoints were to compare changes in levels of neutralizing antibodies against different variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the T-cell responses towards the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein peptides. The exploratory endpoint was to assess the number of subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infections ≥14 days after PHH-1V booster. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05142553. Findings: From 15 November 2021, 782 adults were randomly assigned to PHH-1V (n = 522) or BNT162b2 (n = 260) boost vaccine groups. The geometric mean titre (GMT) ratio of neutralizing antibodies on days 14, 28 and 98, shown as BNT162b2 active control versus PHH-1V, was, respectively, 1.68 (p < 0.0001), 1.31 (p = 0.0007) and 0.86 (p = 0.40) for the ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 strain; 0.62 (p < 0.0001), 0.65 (p < 0.0001) and 0.56 (p = 0.003) for the Beta variant; 1.01 (p = 0.92), 0.88 (p = 0.11) and 0.52 (p = 0.0003) for the Delta variant; and 0.59 (p ≤ 0.0001), 0.66 (p < 0.0001) and 0.57 (p = 0.0028) for the Omicron BA.1 variant. Additionally, PHH-1V as a booster dose induced a significant increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells expressing IFN-γ on day 14. There were 458 participants who experienced at least one adverse event (89.3%) in the PHH-1V and 238 (94.4%) in the BNT162b2 group. The most frequent adverse events were injection site pain (79.7% and 89.3%), fatigue (27.5% and 42.1%) and headache (31.2 and 40.1%) for the PHH-1V and the BNT162b2 groups, respectively. A total of 52 COVID-19 cases occurred from day 14 post-vaccination (10.14%) for the PHH-1V group and 30 (11.90%) for the BNT162b2 group (p = 0.45), and none of the subjects developed severe COVID-19. Interpretation: Our interim results from the Phase IIb HH-2 trial show that PHH-1V as a heterologous booster vaccine, when compared to BNT162b2, although it does not reach a non-inferior neutralizing antibody response against the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain at days 14 and 28 after vaccination, it does so at day 98. PHH-1V as a heterologous booster elicits a superior neutralizing antibody response against the previous circulating Beta and the currently circulating Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants in all time points assessed, and for the Delta variant on day 98 as well. Moreover, the PHH-1V boost also induces a strong and balanced T-cell response. Concerning the safety profile, subjects in the PHH-1V group report significantly fewer adverse events than those in the BNT162b2 group, most of mild intensity, and both vaccine groups present comparable COVID-19 breakthrough cases, none of them severe. Funding: HIPRA SCIENTIFIC, S.L.U.

3.
iScience ; 26(4): 106457, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276879

ABSTRACT

The elicitation of cross-variant neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 represents a major goal for current COVID-19 vaccine strategies. Additionally, natural infection may also contribute to broaden neutralizing responses. To assess the contribution of vaccines and natural infection, we cross-sectionally analyzed plasma neutralization titers of six groups of individuals, organized according to the number of vaccines they received and their SARS-CoV-2 infection history. Two doses of vaccine had a limited capacity to generate cross-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron variants of concern (VOCs) in uninfected individuals, but efficiently synergized with previous natural immunization in convalescent individuals. In contrast, booster dose had a critical impact on broadening the cross-neutralizing response in uninfected individuals, to level similar to hybrid immunity, while still improving cross-neutralizing responses in convalescent individuals. Omicron breakthrough infection improved cross-neutralization of Omicron subvariants in non-previously infected vaccinated individuals. Therefore, ancestral Spike-based immunization, via infection or vaccination, contributes to broaden SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity.

4.
Mol Oncol ; 17(4): 686-694, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258934

ABSTRACT

Patients with solid tumors have been a risk group since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic due to more significant complications, hospitalizations or deaths. The immunosuppressive state of cancer treatments or the tumor itself could influence the development of post-vaccination antibodies. This study prospectively analyzed 89 patients under chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy, who received two doses of the mRNA-1237 vaccine, and were compared with a group of 26 non-cancer individuals. Information on adverse events and neutralizing antibodies against the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2 (WH1) have been analyzed. Local reactions accounted for 65%, while systemic reactions accounted for 46% of oncologic individuals/cancer patients. Regarding the response to vaccination, 6.7% of cancer patients developed low neutralizing antibody levels. Lower levels of neutralizing antibodies between cancer and non-cancer groups were significant in individuals without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not in previously infected individuals. We also observed that patients receiving chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy have significantly lower levels of neutralizing antibodies than non-cancer individuals. In conclusion, our study confirms the importance of prioritizing cancer patients receiving anticancer treatment in SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 57: 101898, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248893

ABSTRACT

Background: Anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) can provide standardized and controlled antibody content. Data from controlled clinical trials using hIG for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 outpatients have not been reported. We assessed the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin 20% (C19-IG20%) compared to placebo in preventing development of symptomatic COVID-19 in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We did a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in asymptomatic unvaccinated adults (≥18 years of age) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection within 5 days between April 28 and December 27, 2021. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a blinded subcutaneous infusion of 10 mL with 1 g or 2 g of C19-IG20%, or an equivalent volume of saline as placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who remained asymptomatic through day 14 after infusion. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of individuals who required oxygen supplementation, any medically attended visit, hospitalisation, or ICU, and viral load reduction and viral clearance in nasopharyngeal swabs. Safety was assessed as the proportion of patients with adverse events. The trial was terminated early due to a lack of potential benefit in the target population in a planned interim analysis conducted in December 2021. ClinicalTrials.gov registry: NCT04847141. Findings: 461 individuals (mean age 39.6 years [SD 12.8]) were randomized and received the intervention within a mean of 3.1 (SD 1.27) days from a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In the prespecified modified intention-to-treat analysis that included only participants who received a subcutaneous infusion, the primary outcome occurred in 59.9% (91/152) of participants receiving 1 g C19-IG20%, 64.7% (99/153) receiving 2 g, and 63.5% (99/156) receiving placebo (difference in proportions 1 g C19-IG20% vs. placebo, -3.6%; 95% CI -14.6% to 7.3%, p = 0.53; 2 g C19-IG20% vs placebo, 1.1%; -9.6% to 11.9%, p = 0.85). None of the secondary clinical efficacy endpoints or virological endpoints were significantly different between study groups. Adverse event rate was similar between groups, and no severe or life-threatening adverse events related to investigational product infusion were reported. Interpretation: Our findings suggested that administration of subcutaneous human hyperimmune immunoglobulin C19-IG20% to asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection was safe but did not prevent development of symptomatic COVID-19. Funding: Grifols.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2583, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252361

ABSTRACT

Data on convalescent plasma (CP) treatment in COVID-19 outpatients are scarce. We aimed to assess whether CP administered during the first week of symptoms reduced the disease progression or risk of hospitalization of outpatients. Two multicenter, double-blind randomized trials (NCT04621123, NCT04589949) were merged with data pooling starting when <20% of recruitment target was achieved. A Bayesian-adaptive individual patient data meta-analysis was implemented. Outpatients aged ≥50 years and symptomatic for ≤7days were included. The intervention consisted of 200-300mL of CP with a predefined minimum level of antibodies. Primary endpoints were a 5-point disease severity scale and a composite of hospitalization or death by 28 days. Amongst the 797 patients included, 390 received CP and 392 placebo; they had a median age of 58 years, 1 comorbidity, 5 days symptoms and 93% had negative IgG antibody-test. Seventy-four patients were hospitalized, 6 required mechanical ventilation and 3 died. The odds ratio (OR) of CP for improved disease severity scale was 0.936 (credible interval (CI) 0.667-1.311); OR for hospitalization or death was 0.919 (CI 0.592-1.416). CP effect on hospital admission or death was largest in patients with ≤5 days of symptoms (OR 0.658, 95%CI 0.394-1.085). CP did not decrease the time to full symptom resolution. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04621123 and NCT04589949. REGISTRATION: NCT04621123 and NCT04589949 on https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
7.
iScience ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2227954

ABSTRACT

Current COVID-19 vaccines have been associated with a decline in infection rates, prevention of severe disease and a decrease in mortality rates. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants are continuously evolving, and development of new accessible COVID-19 vaccines is essential to mitigate the pandemic. Here, we present data on preclinical studies in mice of a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based recombinant protein vaccine (PHH-1V) consisting of an RBD fusion heterodimer comprising the B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variants formulated in SQBA adjuvant, an oil-in-water emulsion. A prime-boost immunisation with PHH-1V in BALB/c and K18-hACE2 mice induced a CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response and RBD-binding antibodies with neutralising activity against several variants, and also showed a good tolerability profile. Significantly, RBD fusion heterodimer vaccination conferred 100% efficacy, preventing mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-hACE2 mice, but also reducing Beta, Delta and Omicron infection in lower respiratory airways. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of this recombinant vaccine strategy. Graphical

8.
Mol Aspects Med ; : 101113, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234687

ABSTRACT

Sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins are cell surface immune receptors known as Siglecs that play a paramount role as modulators of immunity. In recent years, research has underscored how the underlaying biology of this family of receptors influences the outcome of viral infections. While Siglecs are needed to promote effective antiviral immune responses, they can also pave the way to viral dissemination within tissues. Here, we review how recent preclinical findings focusing on the interplay between Siglecs and viruses may translate into promising broad-spectrum therapeutic interventions or key biomarkers to monitor the course of viral infections.

9.
iScience ; 26(3): 106126, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220841

ABSTRACT

Current COVID-19 vaccines have been associated with a decline in infection rates, prevention of severe disease, and a decrease in mortality rates. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants are continuously evolving, and development of new accessible COVID-19 vaccines is essential to mitigate the pandemic. Here, we present data on preclinical studies in mice of a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based recombinant protein vaccine (PHH-1V) consisting of an RBD fusion heterodimer comprising the B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variants formulated in SQBA adjuvant, an oil-in-water emulsion. A prime-boost immunisation with PHH-1V in BALB/c and K18-hACE2 mice induced a CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response and RBD-binding antibodies with neutralizing activity against several variants, and also showed a good tolerability profile. Significantly, RBD fusion heterodimer vaccination conferred 100% efficacy, preventing mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-hACE2 mice, but also reducing Beta, Delta and Omicron infection in lower respiratory airways. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of this recombinant vaccine strategy.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1009028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198764

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia are important risk factors for poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to analyze the factors associated with the composite outcome of the necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in subjects with severe COVID-19 infection treated with dexamethasone comparing patients with DM vs. patients without DM. Research design and methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was performed, including hospitalized subjects with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years old with severe COVID-19 disease requiring daily intravenous 6 mg dexamethasone treatment for 10 days. Exclusion criteria were: <18 years old, non-severe illness and/or patients in charge of ICU. Variables related to clinical and analytical parameters, glycemic control, acquired-hospital superinfections, mortality, IMV requirement, ICU admission and length of stay were included. Results: Two hundred and nine individuals with COVID-19 disease treated with dexamethasone were included. One hundred twenty-five out of these subjects (59.8%) were patients with DM. Overall, from the 209 subjects, 66 (31.6%) required IMV or were admitted to the ICU, with significant differences between patients with DM (n=50) vs. patients without DM (n=16) (76% vs. 24%, p=0.002). Among the group of subjects with DM (n=125), those who required IMV or were admitted to the ICU showed higher serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, D-dimer, ferritin and pro-calcitonin and significantly lower serum concentrations of albumin compared to those who did not require IMV or were not admitted to the ICU. Besides, between these two groups of patients with DM, we observed no differences in glycemic parameters, including median capillary blood glucose values, glycosylated hemoglobin, coefficient of variability and hypoglycemic episodes. In the multinomial analysis, factors independently associated with the composite outcome of IMV or admission to the ICU in the insulin-treated group were the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2 score (OR 1.55 [1.17-2.17], p=0.005) and the presence of hospital-acquired superinfections (OR 35.21 [5.11-386.99], p=0.001). Conclusions: In our study, parameters related to glycemic control were not associated with IMV requirement nor admission to the ICU in patients with DM and severe COVID-19 disease receiving daily 6 mg of dexamethasone for 10 days. However, hospital-acquired superinfections and disease severity at admission were independent factors associated with this composite outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Superinfection , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21818, 2022 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186017

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants is important to detect potential risks of increased transmission or disease severity. We investigated the identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants from real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) routine diagnostics data. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of positive samples were collected from April 2021 to January 2022 in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (n = 15,254). Viral lineage identification from whole genome sequencing (WGS) was available for 4618 (30.3%) of these samples. Pairwise differences in the Ct values between gene targets (ΔCt) were analyzed for variants of concern or interest circulating in our area. A specific delay in the Ct of the N-gene compared to the RdRp-gene (ΔCtNR) was observed for Alpha, Delta, Eta and Omicron. Temporal differences in ΔCtNR correlated with the dynamics of viral replacement of Alpha by Delta and of Delta by Omicron according to WGS results. Using ΔCtNR, prediction of new variants of concern at early stages of circulation was achieved with high sensitivity and specificity (91.1% and 97.8% for Delta; 98.5% and 90.8% for Omicron). Thus, tracking population-wide trends in ΔCt values obtained from routine diagnostics testing in combination with WGS could be useful for real-time management and response to local epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2126150

ABSTRACT

Rodents are widely used for the development of COVID-19-like animal models, the virological outcome being determined through several laboratory methods reported in the literature. Our objective was to assess the agreement between methods performed on different sample types from 342 rodents experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 (289 golden Syrian hamsters and 53 K18-hACE2 mice). Our results showed moderate agreement between methods detecting active viral replication, and that increasing viral loads determined by either RT-qPCR or infectious viral titration corresponded to increasing immunohistochemical scores. The percentage of agreement between methods decreased over experimental time points, and we observed poor agreement between RT-qPCR results and viral titration from oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-qPCR and viral titration on tissue homogenates are the most reliable techniques to determine the presence and replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the early and peak phases of infection, and immunohistochemistry is valuable to evaluate viral distribution patterns in the infected tissues.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 226(11): 1913-1923, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We analyzed humoral and cellular immune responses induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PWH) who had CD4+ T-cell counts <200/µL (HIV<200 group). METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 58 PWH in the HIV<200 group, 36 with CD4+ T-cell counts >500/µL (HIV>500 group), and 33 HIV-1-negative controls (control group). Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S immunoglobulin [Ig] G) and the receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD IgG) were quantified before and 4 weeks after the first and the second doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (at week 8). Viral neutralization activity and T-cell responses were also determined. RESULTS: At week 8, anti-S/anti-RBD IgG responses increased in all groups (P < .001). Median (interquartile range) anti-S and anti-RBD IgG levels at week 8 were 153.6 (26.4-654.9) and 171.9 (61.8-425.8) binding antibody units (BAU)/mL, respectively, in the HIV<200 group, compared with 245.6 (145-824) and 555.8 (166.4-1751) BAU/mL in the HIV>500 group and 274.7 (193.7-680.4) and 281.6 (181-831.8) BAU/mL in controls (P < .05). Neutralizing capacity and specific T-cell immune responses were absent or reduced in 33% of those in the HIV<200 group, compared with 3.7% in the HIV>500 group (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of PWH with CD4+ T-cell counts <200/µL show low anti-S/anti-RBD IgG levels, reduced in vitro neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2, and no vaccine-induced T cells after receiving coronavirus disease 2019 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Seropositivity , Immune Reconstitution , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Cellular , T-Lymphocytes
14.
Pathogens ; 11(11)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic vaccination has proven to be the most effective strategy to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study involving 30 predominantly antibody deficiency disorders (ADD)-afflicted adult patients on immunoglobulin replacement therapy vaccinated with three doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine, and 10 healthy controls. Anti-RBD IgG antibodies were determined in plasma samples collected just before the first dose of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine and on weeks 4, 8, 24, and 28 following the first vaccination. Patients were categorized based on the levels of anti-RBD antibodies determined on w8 as non-, low-, and responders. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to see if any variables correlated with humoral response levels. Any adverse effects of the mRNA-based vaccine were also noted. RESULTS: The COVID-19 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. The humoral response elicited at w8 after vaccination depended on the type of ADD, the type of immunoglobulin deficiency, the presence of granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, recent use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the switched memory B cells counts. The third vaccine dose boosted humoral response in previous responders to second dose but seldom in non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response of patients with predominant ADD depends mostly on the type of immunodeficiency and on the frequency of B and T cell populations.

15.
iScience ; 25(11): 105455, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086329

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination campaigns reduced COVID-19 incidence and severity. Here, we evaluated the immune responses developed in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected patients with predominantly antibody-deficiencies (PAD) after three mRNA-1273 vaccine doses. PAD patients were classified based on their immunodeficiency: unclassified primary antibody-deficiency (unPAD, n = 9), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, n = 12), combined immunodeficiency (CID, n = 1), and thymoma with immunodeficiency (TID, n = 1). unPAD patients and healthy controls (HCs, n = 10) developed similar vaccine-induced humoral responses after two doses. However, CVID patients showed reduced binding and neutralizing titers compared to HCs. Of interest, these PAD groups showed lower levels of Spike-specific IFN-γ-producing cells. CVID individuals also presented diminished CD8+T cells. CID and TID patients developed cellular but not humoral responses. Although the third vaccine dose boosted humoral responses in most PAD patients, it had limited effect on expanding cellular immunity. Vaccine-induced immune responses in PAD individuals are heterogeneous, and should be immunomonitored to define a personalized therapeutic strategies.

16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053047

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in humans, is able to infect several domestic, captive and wildlife animal species. Since reverse zoonotic transmission to pets has been demonstrated, it is crucial to determine their role in the epidemiology of the disease to prevent further spillover events and major spread of SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, we determined the presence of virus and the seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2, as well as the levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against several variants of concern (VOCs) in pets (cats, dogs and ferrets) and stray cats from North-Eastern of Spain. We confirmed that cats and dogs can be infected by different VOCs of SARS-CoV-2 and, together with ferrets, are able to develop nAbs against the ancestral (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.315), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (BA.1) variants, with lower titres against the latest in dogs and cats, but not in ferrets. Although the prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection measured as direct viral RNA detection was low (0.3%), presence of nAbs in pets living in COVID-19-positive households was relatively high (close to 25% in cats, 10% in dogs and 40% in ferrets). It is essential to continue monitoring SARS-CoV-2 infections in these animals due to their frequent contact with human populations, and we cannot discard the probability of a higher animal susceptibility to new potential SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

17.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033138

ABSTRACT

A wide range of animal species are susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Natural and/or experimental infections have been reported in pet, zoo, farmed and wild animals. Interestingly, some SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as B.1.1.7/Alpha, B.1.351/Beta, and B.1.1.529/Omicron, were demonstrated to infect some animal species not susceptible to classical viral variants. The present study aimed to elucidate if goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) are susceptible to the B.1.351/Beta variant. First, an in silico approach was used to predict the affinity between the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351/Beta variant and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 from goats. Moreover, we performed an experimental inoculation with this variant in domestic goat and showed evidence of infection. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in nasal swabs and tissues by RT-qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry, and seroneutralisation was confirmed via ELISA and live virus neutralisation assays. However, the viral amount and tissue distribution suggest a low susceptibility of goats to the B.1.351/Beta variant. Therefore, although monitoring livestock is advisable, it is unlikely that goats play a role as SARS-CoV-2 reservoir species, and they are not useful surrogates to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Goats , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14772, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016839

ABSTRACT

Limited data exists on SARS-CoV-2 sustained-response to vaccine in patients with rheumatic diseases. This study aims to evaluate neutralizing antibodies (nAB) induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine after 3 to 6 months from administration in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients, as a surrogate of sustained-immunological response. This cross-sectional study compared nAB titre of 39 SLE patients and 37 Healthy individuals with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, who had all received a complete regimen of a mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine within the last 3 to 6 months. We included four lines of SLE treatment including Not-treated, Hydroxychloroquine, immunosuppressive drugs and biological therapy. Glucocorticoids were allowed in all groups. Healthy and Not-treated individuals showed the highest levels of nAB. Treated patients presented lower nAB titres compared to Healthy: a 73% decrease for First-Line patients, 56% for Second-Line treatment and 72% for Third-Line. A multivariate analysis pointed to Glucocorticoids as the most associated factor with declining nAB levels (75% decrease) in treated SLE. Furthermore, a significant reduction in nAB titres was observed for Rituximab-users compared to Healthy subjects (89% decrease). Medium-term response of SLE patients to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines is negatively impacted in Glucocorticoids and Rituximab users. These findings might help to inform recommendations in vaccination protocols for SLE patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 721, 2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus is critical for efficient monitoring and control strategies. The ProHEpic-19 cohort provides a fine-grained description of the kinetics of antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection with an exceptional resolution over 17 months. METHODS: We established a cohort of 769 healthcare workers including healthy and infected with SARS-CoV-2 in northern Barcelona to determine the kinetics of the IgM against the nucleocapsid (N) and the IgG against the N and spike (S) of SARS-CoV-2 in infected healthcare workers. The study period was from 5 May 2020 to 11 November 2021.We used non-linear mixed models to investigate the kinetics of IgG and IgM measured at nine time points over 17 months from the date of diagnosis. The model included factors of time, gender, and disease severity (asymptomatic, mild-moderate, severe-critical) to assess their effects and their interactions. FINDINGS: 474 of the 769 participants (61.6%) became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Significant effects of gender and disease severity were found for the levels of all three antibodies. Median IgM(N) levels were already below the positivity threshold in patients with asymptomatic and mild-moderate disease at day 270 after the diagnosis, while IgG(N and S) levels remained positive at least until days 450 and 270, respectively. Kinetic modelling showed a general rise in both IgM(N) and IgG(N) levels up to day 30, followed by a decay with a rate depending on disease severity. IgG(S) levels remained relatively constant from day 15 over time. INTERPRETATION: IgM(N) and IgG(N, S) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed a heterogeneous kinetics over the 17 months. Only the IgG(S) showed a stable increase, and the levels and the kinetics of antibodies varied according to disease severity. The kinetics of IgM and IgG observed over a year also varied by clinical spectrum can be very useful for public health policies around vaccination criteria in adult population. FUNDING: Regional Ministry of Health of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Call COVID19-PoC SLT16_04; NCT04885478).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
20.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(12)2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994892

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect individuals with haematologic malignancies against severe COVID-19, while eliciting limited vaccine responses. We characterized the humoral responses following 3 mo after mRNA-based vaccines in individuals at different plasma-cell disease stages: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma on first-line therapy (MM), compared with a healthy population. Plasma samples from uninfected MM patients showed lower SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels and neutralization capacity compared with MGUS, SMM, and healthy individuals. Importantly, COVID-19 recovered MM individuals presented significantly higher plasma neutralization capacity compared with their uninfected counterparts, highlighting that hybrid immunity elicit stronger immunity even in this immunocompromised population. No differences in the vaccine-induced humoral responses were observed between uninfected MGUS, SMM and healthy individuals. In conclusion, MGUS and SMM patients could be SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated following the vaccine recommendations for the general population, whereas a tailored monitoring of the vaccine-induced immune responses should be considered in uninfected MM patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Paraproteinemias , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/pathology , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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