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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(5): 191-198, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-directed therapies are used in children with life-threatening COVID-19 in US hospitals. We described characteristics of children hospitalized in the intensive care unit or step-down unit (ICU/SDU) who received COVID-19-directed therapies and the specific therapies administered. METHODS: Between March 15, 2020 and December 27, 2020, children <18 years of age in the ICU/SDU with acute COVID-19 at 48 pediatric hospitals in the United States were identified. Demographics, laboratory values, and clinical course were compared in children who did and did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies. Trends in COVID-19-directed therapies over time were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 424 children in the ICU/SDU, 235 (55%) received COVID-19-directed therapies. Children who received COVID-19-directed therapies were older than those who did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies (13.3 [5.6-16.2] vs 9.8 [0.65-15.9] years), more had underlying medical conditions (188 [80%] vs 104 [55%]; difference = 25% [95% CI: 16% to 34%]), more received respiratory support (206 [88%] vs 71 [38%]; difference = 50% [95% CI: 34% to 56%]), and more died (8 [3.4%] vs 0). Of the 235 children receiving COVID-19-directed therapies, 172 (73%) received systemic steroids and 150 (64%) received remdesivir, with rising remdesivir use over the study period (14% in March/April to 57% November/December). CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of pediatric data evaluating treatments for COVID-19 in critically ill children, more than half of children requiring intensive or high acuity care received COVID-19-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units , United States
2.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(1): 52-56, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387932

ABSTRACT

This is a retrospective chart review of 20 patients treated with a consensus-driven treatment algorithm in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients across a wide clinical spectrum. Their treatments and clinical status are described as well as their favorable return to functional baseline by 30 days post presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Pediatr ; 229: 33-40, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the similarities and differences in the evaluation and treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at hospitals in the US. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 16 to July 16, 2020, of US children's hospitals regarding protocols for management of patients with MIS-C. Elements included characteristics of the hospital, clinical definition of MIS-C, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. We summarized key findings and compared results from centers in which >5 patients had been treated vs those in which ≤5 patients had been treated. RESULTS: In all, 40 centers of varying size and experience with MIS-C participated in this protocol survey. Overall, 21 of 40 centers required only 1 day of fever for MIS-C to be considered. In the evaluation of patients, there was often a tiered approach. Intravenous immunoglobulin was the most widely recommended medication to treat MIS-C (98% of centers). Corticosteroids were listed in 93% of protocols primarily for moderate or severe cases. Aspirin was commonly recommended for mild cases, whereas heparin or low molecular weight heparin were to be used primarily in severe cases. In severe cases, anakinra and vasopressors frequently were recommended; 39 of 40 centers recommended follow-up with cardiology. There were similar findings between centers in which >5 patients vs ≤5 patients had been managed. Supplemental materials containing hospital protocols are provided. CONCLUSIONS: There are many similarities yet key differences between hospital protocols for MIS-C. These findings can help healthcare providers learn from others regarding options for managing MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101112, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) consensus criteria were designed for maximal sensitivity and therefore capture patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed unsupervised clustering on data from 1,526 patients (684 labeled MIS-C by clinicians) <21 years old hospitalized with COVID-19-related illness admitted between 15 March 2020 and 31 December 2020. We compared prevalence of assigned MIS-C labels and clinical features among clusters, followed by recursive feature elimination to identify characteristics of potentially misclassified MIS-C-labeled patients. FINDINGS: Of 94 clinical features tested, 46 were retained for clustering. Cluster 1 patients (N = 498; 92% labeled MIS-C) were mostly previously healthy (71%), with mean age 7·2 ± 0·4 years, predominant cardiovascular (77%) and/or mucocutaneous (82%) involvement, high inflammatory biomarkers, and mostly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative (60%). Cluster 2 patients (N = 445; 27% labeled MIS-C) frequently had pre-existing conditions (79%, with 39% respiratory), were similarly 7·4 ± 2·1 years old, and commonly had chest radiograph infiltrates (79%) and positive PCR testing (90%). Cluster 3 patients (N = 583; 19% labeled MIS-C) were younger (2·8 ± 2·0 y), PCR positive (86%), with less inflammation. Radiographic findings of pulmonary infiltrates and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR accurately distinguished cluster 2 MIS-C labeled patients from cluster 1 patients. INTERPRETATION: Using a data driven, unsupervised approach, we identified features that cluster patients into a group with high likelihood of having MIS-C. Other features identified a cluster of patients more likely to have acute severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease, and patients in this cluster labeled by clinicians as MIS-C may be misclassified. These data driven phenotypes may help refine the diagnosis of MIS-C.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 23-34, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Propensity Score , Public Health Surveillance , Shock/etiology , Shock/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116420, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263038

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with recent or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information on MIS-C incidence is limited. Objective: To estimate population-based MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and to estimate MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used enhanced surveillance data to identify persons with MIS-C during April to June 2020, in 7 jurisdictions reporting to both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national surveillance and to Overcoming COVID-19, a multicenter MIS-C study. Denominators for population-based estimates were derived from census estimates; denominators for incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated by applying published age- and month-specific multipliers accounting for underdetection of reported COVID-19 case counts. Jurisdictions included Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (excluding New York City), and Pennsylvania. Data analyses were conducted from August to December 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity, sex, and age group (ie, ≤5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and stratum-specific adjusted estimated MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: In the 7 jurisdictions examined, 248 persons with MIS-C were reported (median [interquartile range] age, 8 [4-13] years; 133 [53.6%] male; 96 persons [38.7%] were Hispanic or Latino; 75 persons [30.2%] were Black). The incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 person-months was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.5-5.8) persons. Compared with White persons, incidence per 1 000 000 person-months was higher among Black persons (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 9.26 [95% CI, 6.15-13.93]), Hispanic or Latino persons (aIRR, 8.92 [95% CI, 6.00-13.26]), and Asian or Pacific Islander (aIRR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.49-5.82]) persons. MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections was 316 (95% CI, 278-357) persons and was higher among Black (aIRR, 5.62 [95% CI, 3.68-8.60]), Hispanic or Latino (aIRR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.85-6.38]), and Asian or Pacific Islander persons (aIRR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.42-5.83]) compared with White persons. For both analyses, incidence was highest among children aged 5 years or younger (4.9 [95% CI, 3.7-6.6] children per 1 000 000 person-months) and children aged 6 to 10 years (6.3 [95% CI, 4.8-8.3] children per 1 000 000 person-months). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, MIS-C was a rare complication associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates for population-based incidence and incidence among persons with infection were higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons. Further study is needed to understand variability by race/ethnicity and age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(4): 334-346, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the epidemiology and clinical course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and its temporal association with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is important, given the clinical and public health implications of the syndrome. METHODS: We conducted targeted surveillance for MIS-C from March 15 to May 20, 2020, in pediatric health centers across the United States. The case definition included six criteria: serious illness leading to hospitalization, an age of less than 21 years, fever that lasted for at least 24 hours, laboratory evidence of inflammation, multisystem organ involvement, and evidence of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), antibody testing, or exposure to persons with Covid-19 in the past month. Clinicians abstracted the data onto standardized forms. RESULTS: We report on 186 patients with MIS-C in 26 states. The median age was 8.3 years, 115 patients (62%) were male, 135 (73%) had previously been healthy, 131 (70%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR or antibody testing, and 164 (88%) were hospitalized after April 16, 2020. Organ-system involvement included the gastrointestinal system in 171 patients (92%), cardiovascular in 149 (80%), hematologic in 142 (76%), mucocutaneous in 137 (74%), and respiratory in 131 (70%). The median duration of hospitalization was 7 days (interquartile range, 4 to 10); 148 patients (80%) received intensive care, 37 (20%) received mechanical ventilation, 90 (48%) received vasoactive support, and 4 (2%) died. Coronary-artery aneurysms (z scores ≥2.5) were documented in 15 patients (8%), and Kawasaki's disease-like features were documented in 74 (40%). Most patients (171 [92%]) had elevations in at least four biomarkers indicating inflammation. The use of immunomodulating therapies was common: intravenous immune globulin was used in 144 (77%), glucocorticoids in 91 (49%), and interleukin-6 or 1RA inhibitors in 38 (20%). CONCLUSIONS: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 led to serious and life-threatening illness in previously healthy children and adolescents. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Inflammation , Length of Stay , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United States
9.
JAMA ; 325(11): 1074-1087, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168763

ABSTRACT

Importance: Refinement of criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may inform efforts to improve health outcomes. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children and adolescents with MIS-C vs those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Setting, Design, and Participants: Case series of 1116 patients aged younger than 21 years hospitalized between March 15 and October 31, 2020, at 66 US hospitals in 31 states. Final date of follow-up was January 5, 2021. Patients with MIS-C had fever, inflammation, multisystem involvement, and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antibody test results or recent exposure with no alternate diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 had positive RT-PCR test results and severe organ system involvement. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presenting symptoms, organ system complications, laboratory biomarkers, interventions, and clinical outcomes. Multivariable regression was used to compute adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of factors associated with MIS-C vs COVID-19. Results: Of 1116 patients (median age, 9.7 years; 45% female), 539 (48%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and 577 (52%) with COVID-19. Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to be 6 to 12 years old (40.8% vs 19.4%; absolute risk difference [RD], 21.4% [95% CI, 16.1%-26.7%]; aRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.33-1.72] vs 0-5 years) and non-Hispanic Black (32.3% vs 21.5%; RD, 10.8% [95% CI, 5.6%-16.0%]; aRR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.17-1.76] vs White). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to have cardiorespiratory involvement (56.0% vs 8.8%; RD, 47.2% [95% CI, 42.4%-52.0%]; aRR, 2.99 [95% CI, 2.55-3.50] vs respiratory involvement), cardiovascular without respiratory involvement (10.6% vs 2.9%; RD, 7.7% [95% CI, 4.7%-10.6%]; aRR, 2.49 [95% CI, 2.05-3.02] vs respiratory involvement), and mucocutaneous without cardiorespiratory involvement (7.1% vs 2.3%; RD, 4.8% [95% CI, 2.3%-7.3%]; aRR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.84-2.85] vs respiratory involvement). Patients with MIS-C had higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (median, 6.4 vs 2.7, P < .001), higher C-reactive protein level (median, 152 mg/L vs 33 mg/L; P < .001), and lower platelet count (<150 ×103 cells/µL [212/523 {41%} vs 84/486 {17%}, P < .001]). A total of 398 patients (73.8%) with MIS-C and 253 (43.8%) with COVID-19 were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 10 (1.9%) with MIS-C and 8 (1.4%) with COVID-19 died during hospitalization. Among patients with MIS-C with reduced left ventricular systolic function (172/503, 34.2%) and coronary artery aneurysm (57/424, 13.4%), an estimated 91.0% (95% CI, 86.0%-94.7%) and 79.1% (95% CI, 67.1%-89.1%), respectively, normalized within 30 days. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series of patients with MIS-C and with COVID-19 identified patterns of clinical presentation and organ system involvement. These patterns may help differentiate between MIS-C and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Patient Acuity , Regression Analysis , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United States , Young Adult
10.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(5): 536-547, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118065

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the nervous system in adult patients. The spectrum of neurologic involvement in children and adolescents is unclear. Objective: To understand the range and severity of neurologic involvement among children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. Setting, Design, and Participants: Case series of patients (age <21 years) hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and December 15, 2020, with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test result (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or antibody) at 61 US hospitals in the Overcoming COVID-19 public health registry, including 616 (36%) meeting criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with neurologic involvement had acute neurologic signs, symptoms, or diseases on presentation or during hospitalization. Life-threatening involvement was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and/or neuroradiologic features. Exposures: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type and severity of neurologic involvement, laboratory and imaging data, and outcomes (death or survival with new neurologic deficits) at hospital discharge. Results: Of 1695 patients (909 [54%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 9.1 [2.4-15.3] years), 365 (22%) from 52 sites had documented neurologic involvement. Patients with neurologic involvement were more likely to have underlying neurologic disorders (81 of 365 [22%]) compared with those without (113 of 1330 [8%]), but a similar number were previously healthy (195 [53%] vs 723 [54%]) and met criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (126 [35%] vs 490 [37%]). Among those with neurologic involvement, 322 (88%) had transient symptoms and survived, and 43 (12%) developed life-threatening conditions clinically adjudicated to be associated with COVID-19, including severe encephalopathy (n = 15; 5 with splenial lesions), stroke (n = 12), central nervous system infection/demyelination (n = 8), Guillain-Barré syndrome/variants (n = 4), and acute fulminant cerebral edema (n = 4). Compared with those without life-threatening conditions (n = 322), those with life-threatening neurologic conditions had higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (median, 12.2 vs 4.4) and higher reported frequency of D-dimer greater than 3 µg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units (21 [49%] vs 72 [22%]). Of 43 patients who developed COVID-19-related life-threatening neurologic involvement, 17 survivors (40%) had new neurologic deficits at hospital discharge, and 11 patients (26%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, many children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children had neurologic involvement, mostly transient symptoms. A range of life-threatening and fatal neurologic conditions associated with COVID-19 infrequently occurred. Effects on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
11.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(1): 79-87, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the risk factors, predictors, and clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with severe disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients admitted between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, to a large health network in New Jersey with positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rapid testing, or serum immunoglobulin G testing; we included demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients ≤21 years old were admitted with positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serum immunoglobulin testing. Sixty-seven patients (82.7%) were admitted for management of acute COVID-19 infection, whereas 14 (17.3%) were admitted for management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Of the 81 hospitalized patients, 28 (34.6%) required intensive care. A majority of patients (42 [51.9%]) admitted for both acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C were Hispanic. Underlying chronic health conditions were not present in most patients. Obesity (mean BMI of 41.1) was noted in the patients with MIS-C requiring ICU care, although not statistically significant. Absolute lymphopenia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were statistically significant in the patients with MIS-C treated in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the growing literature of potential risk factors for severe disease in pediatric patients due to COVID-19 infection and MIS-C. Patients of Hispanic ethnicity represented the majority of patients with both acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C, despite only representing 10% to 20% of the population our hospitals serve. Infants and patients with chronic health conditions were not at increased risk for severe disease. Absolute lymphopenia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were associated with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , New Jersey , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
12.
J Pediatr ; 230: 23-31.e10, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographic and clinical features of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) syndromes and identify admission variables predictive of disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective study of pediatric patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infections and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at 8 sites in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. RESULTS: We identified 281 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections and divided them into 3 groups based on clinical features. Overall, 143 (51%) had respiratory disease, 69 (25%) had MIS-C, and 69 (25%) had other manifestations including gastrointestinal illness or fever. Patients with MIS-C were more likely to identify as non-Hispanic black compared with patients with respiratory disease (35% vs 18%, P = .02). Seven patients (2%) died and 114 (41%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. In multivariable analyses, obesity (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.26-9.10, P = .02) and hypoxia on admission (OR 4.01; 95% CI 1.14-14.15; P = .03) were predictive of severe respiratory disease. Lower absolute lymphocyte count (OR 8.33 per unit decrease in 109 cells/L, 95% CI 2.32-33.33, P = .001) and greater C-reactive protein (OR 1.06 per unit increase in mg/dL, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, P = .017) were predictive of severe MIS-C. Race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status were not predictive of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: We identified variables at the time of hospitalization that may help predict the development of severe SARS-CoV-2 disease manifestations in children and youth. These variables may have implications for future prognostic tools that inform hospital admission and clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Multivariate Analysis , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
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