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1.
11th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, ForItAAL 2020 ; 884 LNEE:355-362, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013903

ABSTRACT

Post-Covid-19 syndrome occurs in at least half survivors, that claim to suffer from a mild to severe deconditioning syndrome, fatigue, muscle wasting and pain, dizziness, very low tolerance to minimal efforts, depression and anxiety, when they not will suffer from post-critical neurological syndrome and peripheral neuropathies. Telemedicine and telerehabilitation could be decisive solutions to safely take care and follow these patients in the recovery phase, as well as to alleviate the burden of healthcare structures, in order to reach the majority of people and in the presence of the need for social distancing. The study aims at verifying the feasibility and level of users’ satisfaction of a tele-health service that provide therapeutic education protocols for people recovering from Covid-19. An average of 350 accesses per day have been registered on the platform since 31 March to 30 June 2020. 50 people answered the users’ satisfaction questionnaire and declared no side effects and a good effectiveness (median 7.5/10) to manage fatigue and anxiety. Most subjects (66%) were people hospitalized for Covid-9 and discharged home (32,6%,) or exclusively treated at home (27,6%), instead, 11,6% of subjects were still convalescent in hospital. In conclusion, tele-health was appreciated, safe and possibly useful to integrate rehabilitative management of subjects recovering from Covid-19. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
International Journal of Health Governance ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1883094

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between public governance and COVID-19 vaccinations during early 2021 to assess the preparedness of countries to timely policy responses to cope with pandemic crises. Design/methodology/approach: This global study elaborates descriptive statistics, correlations, regression analyses and Independent Samples T-Test on 112 countries, comparing those with high/low level of governance, to determine whether statistical evidence supports the hypothesis that good governance can improve the timely administration of vaccines. Findings: Bivariate correlation reveals that doses of vaccines administered × 100 inhabitants have a high positive association with the General Index of Governance (r = 0.58, p-value <0.01). The result is confirmed by partial correlation (controlling density of population per km2): r = 0.584, p-value <0.001. The coefficient of regression in the models also indicates that an increase in the General Index of Governance improves the expected administration of doses of COVID-19 vaccines (p-value <0.001). Research limitations/implications: Although this study has provided interesting results that are, of course, tentative, it has several limitations. First, a limitation is the lack of data in several countries. Second, not all the possible confounding factors that affect the vaccination against COVID-19 are investigated, such as country-specific health investments and expenditures, and these aspects should be examined in the future development of this research. A third limit is related to the measurement of governance through the World Governance Indicators, which are based only on perceptions and can be biased by different socio-economic factors. Practical implications: The identification of factors determining the timely vaccinations may help to design best practices of health policy for improving the resilience of countries to face pandemic crises. Social implications: The improvement of preparedness of countries through good governance can foster a rapid rollout of vaccinations to cope with pandemic threats and the negative effects of their socio-economic impact. Originality/value: This study presents a global analysis of the role of public governance for timely vaccinations to face pandemic crises in society.

3.
Contributions to Economics ; : 351-369, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1669727

ABSTRACT

This chapter analyzes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases alongside environmental and demographic data in a case study of Italy, the first European country to experience a rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths in 2020. Sample is based on Italian province capitals considering data of: air pollution given by total days exceeding the limits set for PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) or for ozone;diffusion of COVID-19 is measured with daily infected individuals;climate is measured with average temperature and wind speed;and finally interpersonal contacts are measured by population density of cities under study. This study finds that geo-environmental and demographic factors may have accelerated the spread of COVID-19 in polluted cities. In particular, results reveal that cities with little wind and frequently high levels of air pollution had higher numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in society. This chapter suggests the critical role of appropriate environmental policies for polluted cities to constrain risk factors for future epidemics of viral agents similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the strain of novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Emer. Care J. ; 17(3):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1458931

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability is a common complication of the systemic inflammation related to coronavirus disease 2019 creating debate within the critical care community on the therapeutic utility of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH). We collected data on consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Emergency Department of Castel San Giovanni Hospital, between February 29th and April 7th, 2020. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, hospital stay <7 days, patients on dialysis and patients who had been transferred to other centers for which we could not collect data. Of the 257 patients included in the study, 49 (19.1%) died during hospitalization. We considered a wide set of variables as independent variables (age, sex, comorbidities and in-hospital treatments). We used a multivariate logistic regression model and, being heparin the only one therapy affecting survival rate, we compared prophylactic LMWH (p-LMWH) and Therapeutic LMWH (T-LMWH) groups. Kaplan Meier curve showed a higher survival probability in the T-LMWH and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant according to the log-rank or Mantel- Haenszel test (p< 0.0001). In a stratified analysis by ventilation type, the subgroup of patients who benefited from therapeutic LMWH was that in non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Using a multivariate analysis and adjusting for the drugs intake, T-LMWH was the only therapy impacting on survival (HR 0.293, p <0.001). No fatal bleeding was observed. Therapeutic dose of LMWH in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia was 70 associated with a decrease risk of intra-hospital mortality.

5.
Environ Res ; 201: 111529, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275305

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this study is to analyze the relation between commercial trade and pandemic severity in society, in order to support new hypotheses which can explain transmission dynamics of COVID-19, as well as promote policy responses to cope with future epidemics similar to COVID-19. This study considers the role of trade in the dynamics of pandemic diffusion, within and between countries, which has not been investigated yet in this emerging field of research. We focus on three large countries in Europe: Italy, France, and Spain. The analysis is performed at regional level (involving in total 52 European regions). Results suggest that the association between trade and pandemic severity seems to be supported by empirical evidence, making it possible to introduce new hypotheses for explaining transmission dynamics of COVID-19 within and between countries. In particular, international trade data is supposed to be used as a comprehensive indicator accounting for population density, economic dynamism, and human mobility. The statistical analyses, also in a multivariate context, strongly support this hypothesis and suggest that crisis management has to focus in the very first place on infections occurring outside the national boundaries, in order to cope with pandemic threat of new waves of COVID-19 and future similar epidemics/pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , France , Humans , Internationality , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
6.
Environ Res ; 201: 111514, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272408

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), generating high numbers of COVID-19 related infected individuals and deaths, is still circulating in 2021 with new variants of the coronavirus, such that the state of emergency remains in manifold countries. Currently, there is still a lack of a full understanding of the factors determining the COVID-19 diffusion that clarify the causes of the variability of infections across different provinces and regions within countries. The main goal of this study is to explain new and main determinants underlying the diffusion of COVID-19 in society. This study focuses on international trade because this factor, in a globalized world, can synthetize different drivers of virus spread, such as mobility patterns, economic potentialities, and social interactions of an investigated areas. A case study research is performed on 107 provinces of Italy, one of the first countries to experience a rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths. Statistical analyses from March 2020 to February 2021 suggest that total import and export of provinces has a high association with confirmed cases over time (average r > 0.78, p-value <.001). Overall, then, this study suggests total import and export as complex indicator of COVID-19 transmission dynamics that outclasses other common parameters used to justify the COVID-19 spread, given by economic, demographic, environmental, and climate factors. In addition, this study proposes, for the first time, a time-dependent correlation analysis between trade data and COVID-19 infection cases to explain the relation between confirmed cases and social interactions that are a main source of the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent negative impact in society. These novel findings have main theoretical and practical implications directed to include a new parameter in modelling of the diffusion of COVID-19 pandemic to support effective policy responses of crisis management directed to constrain the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and similar infectious diseases in society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Commerce , Demography , Humans , Internationality , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 12(22):1-12, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-945916

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generating a high number of cases and deaths, with negative effects on public health and economic systems. One of the current questions in the contemporary environmental and sustainability debate is how high air pollution and reduced use of renewable energy can affect the diffusion of COVID-19. This study endeavors to explain the relation between days of air pollution, wind resources and energy, and the diffusion of COVID-19 to provide insights into sustainable policy to prevent future epidemics. The statistical analysis here focuses on a case study of Italy, one of the first countries to experience a rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths. The results reveal two main findings: (1) cities with high wind speed and high wind energy production have a lower number of cases of COVID-19 in the context of a more sustainable environment;(2) cities located in hinterland zones with high air pollution, low wind speed and less wind energy production have a greater number of cases and total deaths. The results presented here suggest that the pandemic caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and future epidemics similar to COVID-19 cannot be solved only with research in medicine but the solution also needs advanced capabilities and technologies for supporting sustainable development based on the reduction of air pollution and increase of production in renewable energy to improve air quality and as a consequence public health. © 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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