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Immunotherapy ; 13(6): 509-525, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102464


In recent years, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have represented one of the major breakthroughs in advanced non-small cell lung cancer treatment scenario. However, enrollment in registering clinical trials is usually restricted, since frail patients (i.e., elderly, individuals with poor performance status and/or active brain metastases), as well as patients with chronic infections or who take concurrent medications, such as steroids, are routinely excluded. Thus, safety and efficacy of ICIs for these subgroups have not been adequately assessed in clinical trials, although these populations often occur in clinical practice. We reviewed the available data regarding the use of ICIs in these 'special' populations, including a focus on the issues raised by the administration of immunotherapy in lung cancer patients infected with Sars-Cov-2.

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vulnerable Populations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy , Patient Selection
Eur Radiol ; 30(12): 6808-6817, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629489


OBJECTIVES: To correlate a CT-based semi-quantitative score of pulmonary involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia with clinical staging of disease and laboratory findings. We also aimed to investigate whether CT findings may be predictive of patients' outcome. METHODS: From March 6 to March 22, 2020, 130 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 patients were enrolled for this single-center analysis and chest CT examinations were retrospectively evaluated. A semi-quantitative CT score was calculated based on the extent of lobar involvement (0:0%; 1, < 5%; 2:5-25%; 3:26-50%; 4:51-75%; 5, > 75%; range 0-5; global score 0-25). Data were matched with clinical stages and laboratory findings. Survival curves and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the role of CT score as a predictor of patients' outcome. RESULTS: Ground glass opacities were predominant in early-phase (≤ 7 days since symptoms' onset), while crazy-paving pattern, consolidation, and fibrosis characterized late-phase disease (> 7 days). CT score was significantly higher in critical and severe than in mild stage (p < 0.0001), and among late-phase than early-phase patients (p < 0.0001). CT score was significantly correlated with CRP (p < 0.0001, r = 0.6204) and D-dimer (p < 0.0001, r = 0.6625) levels. A CT score of ≥ 18 was associated with an increased mortality risk and was found to be predictive of death both in univariate (HR, 8.33; 95% CI, 3.19-21.73; p < 0.0001) and multivariate analysis (HR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.10-12.77; p = 0.0348). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest the potential role of CT score for predicting the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 patients. CT score is highly correlated with laboratory findings and disease severity and might be beneficial to speed-up diagnostic workflow in symptomatic cases. KEY POINTS: • CT score is positively correlated with age, inflammatory biomarkers, severity of clinical categories, and disease phases. • A CT score ≥ 18 has shown to be highly predictive of patient's mortality in short-term follow-up. • Our multivariate analysis demonstrated that CT parenchymal assessment may more accurately reflect short-term outcome, providing a direct visualization of anatomic injury compared with non-specific inflammatory biomarkers.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index