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1.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819121

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518590

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) does not respect borders, and migration confounds global TB control and elimination. Systematic screening of immigrants from TB high burden settings and-to a lesser degree TB infection (TBI)-is recommended in most countries with a low incidence of TB. The aim of the study was to evaluate the views of a diverse group of international health professionals on TB management among migrants. Participants expressed their level of agreement using a six-point Likert scale with different statements in an online survey available in English, French, Mandarin, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian. The survey consisted of eight sections, covering TB and TBI screening and treatment in migrants. A total of 1055 respondents from 80 countries and territories participated between November 2019 and April 2020. The largest professional groups were pulmonologists (16.8%), other clinicians (30.4%), and nurses (11.8%). Participants generally supported infection control and TB surveillance established practices (administrative interventions, personal protection, etc.), while they disagreed on how to diagnose and manage both TB and TBI, particularly on which TBI regimens to use and when patients should be hospitalised. The results of this first knowledge, attitude and practice study on TB screening and treatment in migrants will inform public health policy and educational resources.

4.
Respir Med ; 175: 106204, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023739

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the novel coronavirus pandemic, has already spread around the globe affecting more than 18 million people. As previously observed with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 deeply dysregulate the immune system eliciting respiratory failure and a state of systemic hyperinflammation in severely ill individuals. Immunotherapy is often used to downgrade the detrimental effects of the disease sustained by high-level of cytokines. Those treatments, however, are known to undermine patients' ability to contain tuberculosis (TB) infection. This study aims to describe interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) results in severe COVID-19 patients eligible for immunosuppressive treatment. Aggregate data were gathered from five hospitals in Milan, Italy, from March 1 to May 15, 2020 and retrospectively analyses. Results were summarized using absolute frequencies and percentages and compared using a two-sided Chi-squared test. Overall, 462 COVID-19 patients were eligible for immunosuppressive therapy, among which 335 were tested using IGRA testing. More than one-third of them (122/335; 36.4%) had an indeterminate IGRA result because of insufficient immune response to mitogen control, 19 (5.7%) tested positive and 194 (57.9) negative. The majority of patients with lymphocytopenia (i.e., total lymphocyte count [TLC] below 1000 cells/mm3) had indeterminate IGRAs (81/155; 52.3%). The proportion becomes even higher in patients with severe lymphocytopenia (i.e., TLC<500 cells/mm3) (36/57; 63%). Our results suggest a possible negative impact of COVID-19 related immune dysregulation on TB infection assessment and management. Close monitoring of individuals with or without retesting of individuals with indeterminate IGRAs and further basic science investigations should to be sought to better comprehend their implication on TB epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/methods , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/statistics & numerical data , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2709-2712, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762400

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease has disrupted tuberculosis services globally. Data from 33 centers in 16 countries on 5 continents showed that attendance at tuberculosis centers was lower during the first 4 months of the pandemic in 2020 than for the same period in 2019. Resources are needed to ensure tuberculosis care continuity during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Global Health/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
7.
Eur Respir J ; 56(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382158
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