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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318944

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic represented a challenge for intensive care units (ICU) with overwhelming demand, heterogenous outcomes and clinical practices. To improve care a profound knowledge on severe COVID-19 patients during different time points is crucial. This data is still scarce. We aimed to analyze and compare COVID-19 patient demographics, clinical management, and outcomes between two periods from the first pandemic wave.MethodsWe performed a multicentric ambispective cohort study including severe COVID-19 patients between March and August 2020 from 16 Portuguese ICUs. A peak and a plateau period were defined, corresponding to weeks 10-16 and 17-34 of the first pandemic wave. All patients had SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia diagnosis and complete hospital follow-up.ResultsWe included 541 adult patients with a median age of 65 [57-74] years and mostly male (71.2%). Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 63.9% of cases. Overall, 28-day mortality rate was 23.7% with age and SAPSII (both p<0.001) as independent risk factors.Between peak and plateau periods there were no significant differences in age (65 vs. 66, p=0.6), SAPS II (40 vs. 39, p=0.8), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (139 vs. 136, p=0.6), and antibiotic therapy (57.2% vs. 63.8%, p=0.2) at admission, nor in 28-day mortality (24.4% vs. 22.8%, p=0.7). Adjuvant therapy with corticosteroids had no impact on 28-day mortality (26.9% vs. 22.5% without, p=0.4). The peak period included 53.8% of patients and they had less comorbidities (no comorbidities 29% vs. 36%, p=0.01), presented at admission a higher use of vasopressors (81% vs. 63%, p<0.001), invasive mechanical ventilation (58 vs 49%, p<0.001), prone positioning (60% vs 48%, p=0.009), and hydroxychloroquine (80.2% vs. 13.4%;p<0.001) and lopinavir/ritonavir (60.4% vs. 13.4%;p<0.001) prescription, as compared with the plateau period. In the plateau period, there was a greater use of high flow nasal canula (5% vs 16%, p<0.001) on admission, remdesivir (0.5% vs. 19.9%;p<0.001) and corticosteroid (39% vs. 61%, p<0.001) therapy, and a shorter ICU length-of-stay for survivors (12 days vs. 7, p<0.001).ConclusionThere were significant changes in patient comorbidities, therapies and ICU length-of-stay between peak and plateau periods of the first COVID-19 wave with similar 28-day mortality.

2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221079612, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new form of acute respiratory failure leading to multiorgan failure and ICU admission. Gathered evidence suggests that a 3-fold rise in D-dimer concentrations may be linked to poor prognosis and higher mortality. PURPOSE: To describe D-dimer admission profile in severe ICU COVID19 patients and its predictive role in outcomes and mortality. METHODS: Single-center retrospective cohort study. All adult patients admitted to ICU with COVID19 were divided into 3 groups: (1) Lower-values group (D-dimer levels < 3-fold normal range value [NRV] [500ng/mL]), Intermediate-values group (D-dimer ≥3-fold and <10-fold NRV) and Higher-value group (≥10-fold NRV). RESULTS: 118 patients (mean age 63 years, 73% males) were included (N = 73 Lower-values group, N = 31 Intermediate-values group; N = 11 Higher-values group). Mortality was not different between groups (p = 0.51). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed no differences (p = 0.52) between groups, nor it was verified even when gender, age, ICU length of stay, and SOFA score were considered as covariables. CONCLUSIONS: In severe COVID19 patients, the D-dimer profile does not retain a predictive value regarding patients' survivability and should not be used as a surrogate of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480833

ABSTRACT

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has become a recognizable complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Alveolar damage in the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) appears to be the culprit in facilitating fungal invasion in COVID-19 patients, leading to a COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) phenomenon. From November 2020 to 15 February 2021, 248 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our ICUs, of whom ten patients (4% incidence) were classified as either probable (six) or possible (four) CAPA cases. Seven patients had positive cultural results: Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto (five), A. terreus sensu stricto (one), and A. welwitschiae (one). Five patients had positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and galactomannan (GM), and two patients had both positive cultural and GM criteria. All but two patients received voriconazole. Mortality rate was 30%. Strict interpretation of classic IPA definition would have resulted in eight overlooked CAPA cases. Broader diagnostic criteria are essential in this context, even though differentiation between Aspergillus colonization and invasive disease might be more challenging. Herein, we aim to raise awareness of CAPA in view of its potential detrimental outcome, emphasizing the relevance of a low threshold for screening and early antifungal treatment in ARDS patients.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 177, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at higher risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). No study has evaluated the relationship between VAP and mortality in this population, or compared this relationship between SARS-CoV-2 patients and other populations. The main objective of our study was to determine the relationship between VAP and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. METHODS: Planned ancillary analysis of a multicenter retrospective European cohort. VAP was diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. Univariable and multivariable marginal Cox's regression models, with cause-specific hazard for duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, were used to compare outcomes between study groups. Extubation, and ICU discharge alive were considered as events of interest, and mortality as competing event. FINDINGS: Of 1576 included patients, 568 were SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 482 influenza pneumonia, and 526 no evidence of viral infection at ICU admission. VAP was associated with significantly higher risk for 28-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted HR 1.70 (95% CI 1.16-2.47), p = 0.006), and influenza groups (1.75 (1.03-3.02), p = 0.045), but not in the no viral infection group (1.07 (0.64-1.78), p = 0.79). VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the SARS-CoV-2 group, but not in the influenza or no viral infection groups. VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of ICU stay in the 3 study groups. No significant difference was found in heterogeneity of outcomes related to VAP between the 3 groups, suggesting that the impact of VAP on mortality was not different between study groups. INTERPRETATION: VAP was associated with significantly increased 28-day mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 patients. However, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, did not significantly modify the relationship between VAP and 28-day mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Aged , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies
7.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(2): 169-174, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112129

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate the evidence and recommendations for the prescription of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. RECENT FINDINGS: Corticosteroids have been prescribed with the objective to attenuate the marked and persistent activation of the immune system. However, some causes of community-acquired pneumonia, namely viral, are associated with unexpected low levels of cytokines and depressed cellular immunity. As a result, several recent randomized controlled trials and large prospective observational studies repeatedly showed that corticosteroids had no impact on survival, and in some types of pneumonia like influenza, its use was associated with potential harmful effects like invasive aspergillosis. Apart from this, adverse effects, namely hyperglycemia, superinfections and increased length-of-stay, were frequent findings in the corticosteroid-treated patients. SUMMARY: According to the current evidence, corticosteroids are recommended in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recommendations are against its use in influenza. In all other forms of severe community-acquired pneumonia, with the exclusion of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, the strength of the evidence does not support the safe and widespread use of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy. Further studies are needed to identify subgroups of severe community-acquired pneumonia that can benefit or not from corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Combined Modality Therapy , Community-Acquired Infections , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Safety
8.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 21(10): 560, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823819
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