Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850561

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated viral infections (HAVI) are a common cause of patient harm in the pediatric population. We implemented a HAVI prevention bundle in 2015, which included 6 core elements: caregiver screening, symptom-based isolation, personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene, staff illness procedures, and monitoring of environmental cleanliness. Enhanced bundle elements were introduced at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, which provided an opportunity to observe the effectiveness of the bundle with optimal adherence to prevention practices, and to measure the impact on respiratory HAVI epidemiology. METHODS: Respiratory HAVIs were confirmed through review of medical records and application of the National Health Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance criteria for upper respiratory infections (URIs) with predetermined incubation periods for unit attribution. Descriptive statistics of the study population were examined, and comparative analyses were performed on demographic and process metrics. Data analysis was conducted using R statistical software. RESULTS: We observed an overall decrease in respiratory HAVI of 68%, with prepandemic rates of 0.19 infections per 1,000 patient significantly decreased to a rate of 0.06 per 1,000 patient days in the pandemic period (P < .01). Rhinovirus made up proportionally more of our respiratory HAVI in the pandemic period (64% vs 53%), with respiratory HAVI secondary only to rhinovirus identified during 8 of 16 months in the pandemic period. Compliance with our HAVI prevention bundle significantly improved during pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancement of our HAVI bundle during the COVID-19 pandemic contributed toward significant reduction in nosocomial transmission of respiratory HAVI. Even with prevention practices optimized, respiratory HAVIs secondary to rhinovirus continued to be reported, likely due to the capacity of rhinovirus to evade bundle elements in hospital, and infection prevention efforts at large in the community, leaving vulnerable patients at continued risk.

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3S): S3-S9, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growth of antimicrobial resistance worldwide has led to increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, although primarily in high-income countries (HIC). We aimed to compare pediatric AMS and IPC resources/activities between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and HIC and to determine the barriers and priorities for AMS and IPC in LMIC as assessed by clinicians in those settings. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to clinicians working in HIC and LMIC healthcare facilities in 2020. RESULTS: Participants were from 135 healthcare settings in 39 LMIC and 27 HIC. Formal AMS and IPC programs were less frequent in LMIC than HIC settings (AMS 42% versus 76% and IPC 58% versus 89%). Only 47% of LMIC facilities conducted audits of antibiotic use for pediatric patients, with less reliable availability of World Health Organization Access list antibiotics (29% of LMIC facilities). Hand hygiene promotion was the most common IPC intervention in both LMIC and HIC settings (82% versus 91%), although LMIC hospitals had more limited access to reliable water supply for handwashing and antiseptic hand rub. The greatest perceived barrier to pediatric AMS and IPC in both LMIC and HIC was lack of education: only 17% of LMIC settings had regular/required education on antimicrobial prescribing and only 25% on IPC. CONCLUSIONS: Marked differences exist in availability of AMS and IPC resources in LMIC as compared with HIC. A collaborative international approach is urgently needed to combat antimicrobial resistance, using targeted strategies that address the imbalance in global AMS and IPC resource availability and activities.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/methods , Pediatrics/standards , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(3): 445-453, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690679

ABSTRACT

Evidence for the effectiveness of masking on SARS-CoV-2 transmission at the individual level has accumulated, but the additional benefit of community-level mandates is less certain. In this observational study of matched cohorts from 394 US counties between March 21 and October 20, 2020, we estimated the association between county-level public masking mandates and daily COVID-19 case incidence. On average, the daily case incidence per 100,000 people in masked counties compared with unmasked counties declined by 23 percent at four weeks, 33 percent at six weeks, and 16 percent across six weeks postintervention. The beneficial effect varied across regions of different population densities and political leanings. The most concentrated effects of masking mandates were seen in urban counties; the benefit of the mandates was potentially stronger within Republican-leaning counties. Although benefits were not equally distributed in all regions, masking mandates conferred benefit in reducing community case incidence during an early period of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
mBio ; : e0378821, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673352

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the global outbreak of COVID-19. Evidence suggests that the virus is evolving to allow efficient spread through the human population, including vaccinated individuals. Here, we report a study of viral variants from surveillance of the Delaware Valley, including the city of Philadelphia, and variants infecting vaccinated subjects. We sequenced and analyzed complete viral genomes from 2621 surveillance samples from March 2020 to September 2021 and compared them to genome sequences from 159 vaccine breakthroughs. In the early spring of 2020, all detected variants were of the B.1 and closely related lineages. A mixture of lineages followed, notably including B.1.243 followed by B.1.1.7 (alpha), with other lineages present at lower levels. Later isolations were dominated by B.1.617.2 (delta) and other delta lineages; delta was the exclusive variant present by the last time sampled. To investigate whether any variants appeared preferentially in vaccine breakthroughs, we devised a model based on Bayesian autoregressive moving average logistic multinomial regression to allow rigorous comparison. This revealed that B.1.617.2 (delta) showed 3-fold enrichment in vaccine breakthrough cases (odds ratio of 3; 95% credible interval 0.89-11). Viral point substitutions could also be associated with vaccine breakthroughs, notably the N501Y substitution found in the alpha, beta and gamma variants (odds ratio 2.04; 95% credible interval of1.25-3.18). This study thus overviews viral evolution and vaccine breakthroughs in the Delaware Valley and introduces a rigorous statistical approach to interrogating enrichment of breakthrough variants against a changing background. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is highly effective at reducing viral infection, hospitalization and death. However, vaccine breakthrough infections have been widely observed, raising the question of whether particular viral variants or viral mutations are associated with breakthrough. Here, we report analysis of 2621 surveillance isolates from people diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Delaware Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, allowing rigorous comparison to 159 vaccine breakthrough case specimens. Our best estimate is a 3-fold enrichment for some lineages of delta among breakthroughs, and enrichment of a notable spike substitution, N501Y. We introduce statistical methods that should be widely useful for evaluating vaccine breakthroughs and other viral phenotypes.

5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(11): 1110-1112, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358049
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab300, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307554

ABSTRACT

We report the genome of a B.1.1.7+E484K severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from Southeastern Pennsylvania and compare it with all high-coverage B.1.1.7+E484K genomes (n = 235) available. Analyses showed the existence of at least 4 distinct clades of this variant circulating in the United States and the possibility of at least 59 independent acquisitions of the E484K mutation.

7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284661

ABSTRACT

Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the CDC recommended collection of a lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimen for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing in addition to the routinely recommended upper respiratory tract (URT) testing in mechanically ventilated patients. Significant operational challenges were noted at our institution using this approach. In this report, we describe our experience with routine collection of paired URT and LRT sample testing. Our results revealed a high concordance between the 2 sources, and that all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 were appropriately diagnosed with URT testing alone. There was no added benefit to LRT testing. Based on these findings, our institutional approach was therefore adjusted to sample the URT alone for most patients, with LRT sampling reserved for patients with ongoing clinical suspicion for SARS-CoV-2 after a negative URT test.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116420, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263038

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with recent or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information on MIS-C incidence is limited. Objective: To estimate population-based MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and to estimate MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used enhanced surveillance data to identify persons with MIS-C during April to June 2020, in 7 jurisdictions reporting to both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national surveillance and to Overcoming COVID-19, a multicenter MIS-C study. Denominators for population-based estimates were derived from census estimates; denominators for incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated by applying published age- and month-specific multipliers accounting for underdetection of reported COVID-19 case counts. Jurisdictions included Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (excluding New York City), and Pennsylvania. Data analyses were conducted from August to December 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity, sex, and age group (ie, ≤5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and stratum-specific adjusted estimated MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: In the 7 jurisdictions examined, 248 persons with MIS-C were reported (median [interquartile range] age, 8 [4-13] years; 133 [53.6%] male; 96 persons [38.7%] were Hispanic or Latino; 75 persons [30.2%] were Black). The incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 person-months was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.5-5.8) persons. Compared with White persons, incidence per 1 000 000 person-months was higher among Black persons (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 9.26 [95% CI, 6.15-13.93]), Hispanic or Latino persons (aIRR, 8.92 [95% CI, 6.00-13.26]), and Asian or Pacific Islander (aIRR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.49-5.82]) persons. MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections was 316 (95% CI, 278-357) persons and was higher among Black (aIRR, 5.62 [95% CI, 3.68-8.60]), Hispanic or Latino (aIRR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.85-6.38]), and Asian or Pacific Islander persons (aIRR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.42-5.83]) compared with White persons. For both analyses, incidence was highest among children aged 5 years or younger (4.9 [95% CI, 3.7-6.6] children per 1 000 000 person-months) and children aged 6 to 10 years (6.3 [95% CI, 4.8-8.3] children per 1 000 000 person-months). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, MIS-C was a rare complication associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates for population-based incidence and incidence among persons with infection were higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons. Further study is needed to understand variability by race/ethnicity and age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 523-529, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence and clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 in pediatric patients can help healthcare providers and systems prepare and respond to this emerging pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of patients tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) across a pediatric healthcare network, including clinical features and outcomes of those with positive test results. RESULTS: Of 7256 unique children tested for SARS-CoV-2, 424 (5.8%) tested positive. Patients aged 18-21 years had the highest test positive rate (11.2%), while those aged 1-5 years had the lowest (3.9%). By race, 10.6% (226/2132) of black children tested positive vs 3.3% (117/3592) of white children. By indication for testing, 21.1% (371/1756) of patients with reported exposures or clinical symptoms tested positive vs 3.8% (53/1410) of those undergoing preprocedural or preadmission testing. Of 424 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 182 (42.9%) had no comorbidities, 87 (20.5%) had asthma, and 55 (13.0%) were obese. Overall, 52.1% had cough, 51.2% fever, and 14.6% shortness of breath. Seventy-seven (18.2%) SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were hospitalized, of whom 24 (31.2%) required respiratory support. SARS-CoV-2-targeted antiviral therapy was given to 9 patients, and immunomodulatory therapy to 18 patients. Twelve (2.8%) SARS-CoV-2-positive patients required mechanical ventilation, and 2 patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Two patients died. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of pediatric patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, the rate of infection was low but varied by testing indication. The majority of cases were mild and few children had critical illness.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , New Jersey/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(1): 77-81, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 27, 2020, the city of Philadelphia was given permission by Temple University to convert the Liacouras Center gymnasium to an alternate care site (ACS) to treat low-acuity COVID-19 patients. ACSs, especially those created to specifically care for infectious patients, require a robust infection prevention and control (IPC) program. METHODS: The IPC program was led by a physician and nurse partnership, both of whom had substantial experience developing IPC programs in US and low-resource settings. The IPC program was framed on a previously described conceptual model commonly referred to as the "4S's": Space, Staff, Stuff, and Systems. RESULTS: The gymnasium was transformed into red, yellow, and green infection hazard zones. The IPC team trained 425 staff in critical IPC practices and personal protective equipment standards. Systems to detect staff illness were created and over 3,550 staff health screening surveys completed. DISCUSSION: Use of existing guidance and comprehensive facility and patient management assessments guided the development of the IPC program. Program priorities were to keep staff and patients safe and implement procedures to judiciously use limited resources that affect infection transmission. CONCLUSION: Planning, executing, and evaluating IPC standards and requirements of an ACS during a pandemic requires creative and nimble strategies to adapt, substitute, conserve, reuse, and reallocate IPC space, staff, stuff, and systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital , Health Personnel/education , Hospital Design and Construction , Infection Control/organization & administration , Inservice Training , Mobile Health Units , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Implementation Science , Infection Control Practitioners , Philadelphia , SARS-CoV-2 , Surge Capacity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL