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1.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764406

ABSTRACT

The interaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mediates cell invasion. While this interaction mechanism is conserved, the RBD is affected by amino acid mutations in variants such as Delta and Omicron, resulting in enhanced transmissibility and altered ligand binding. Tanshinones are currently investigated as multi-target antiviral agents, but the studies were limited to the original SARS-CoV-2. This study aims at investigating the interaction of tanshinones with the Delta RBD. Chloroquine, methylene blue and pyronaridine, antimalarials previously identified as SARS-CoV-2 RBD binders, were studied for reference. Docking indicated the best scores for tanshinones, while bio-layer interferometry and molecular dynamics highlighted methylene blue as the best Delta RBD binder, although with decreased affinity with respect to the original strain.

2.
Molbank ; 2022(1):M1351, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1732115

ABSTRACT

The 1,2,3-triazole ring system can be easily obtained by copper-catalyzed click reaction of azides with alkynes. 1,2,3-Triazole exhibits a myriad of biological activities, including antimalarial, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. We herein reported the synthesis of quinoline-based [1,2,3]-triazole hybrid via Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction of 4-azido-7-chloroquinoline with alkyne derivative of 2-bromobenzaldehyde. The compound was fully characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), ultraviolet (UV), and high-resolution mass spectroscopies (HRMS). This compound was screened in vitro against two different normal cell lines. Preliminary studies attempted to evaluate its interaction with Delta RBD of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 by bio-layer interferometry. Finally, the drug-likeness of the compound was also investigated by predicting its pharmacokinetic properties.

3.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438690

ABSTRACT

Host cell invasion by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by the interaction of the viral spike protein (S) with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In this work, computational and experimental techniques were combined to screen antimalarial compounds from different chemical classes, with the aim of identifying small molecules interfering with the RBD-ACE2 interaction and, consequently, with cell invasion. Docking studies showed that the compounds interfere with the same region of the RBD, but different interaction patterns were noted for ACE2. Virtual screening indicated pyronaridine as the most promising RBD and ACE2 ligand, and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the stability of the predicted complex with the RBD. Bio-layer interferometry showed that artemisone and methylene blue have a strong binding affinity for RBD (KD = 0.363 and 0.226 µM). Pyronaridine also binds RBD and ACE2 in vitro (KD = 56.8 and 51.3 µM). Overall, these three compounds inhibit the binding of RBD to ACE2 in the µM range, supporting the in silico data.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153591, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease caused more than 100,000,000 people get infected and over 2,200,000 people being killed worldwide. However, the current developed vaccines or drugs may be not effective in preventing the pandemic of COVID-19 due to the mutations of coronavirus and the severe side effects of the newly developed vaccines. Chinese herbal medicines and their active components play important antiviral activities. Corilagin exhibited antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, whether it blocks the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and hACE2 has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: To characterize an active compound, corilagin derived from Phyllanthus urinaria as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors for its possible preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products. METHODS: Computational docking coupled with bio-layer interferometry, BLI were adopted to screen more than 1800 natural compounds for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD inhibitors. Corilagin was confirmed to have a strong binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2-RBD or human ACE2 (hACE2) protein by the BLI, ELISA and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of viral infection of corilagin was assessed by in vitro pseudovirus system. Finally, the toxicity of corilagin was examined by using MTT assay and maximal tolerated dose (MTD) studies in C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS: Corilagin preferentially binds to a pocket that contains residues Cys 336 to Phe 374 of spike-RBD with a relatively low binding energy of -9.4 kcal/mol. BLI assay further confirmed that corilagin exhibits a relatively strong binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2-RBD and hACE2 protein. In addition, corilagin dose-dependently blocks SARS-CoV-2-RBD binding and abolishes the infectious property of RBD-pseudotyped lentivirus in hACE2 overexpressing HEK293 cells, which mimicked the entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human host cells. Finally, in vivo studies revealed that up to 300 mg/kg/day of corilagin was safe in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest that corilagin could be a safe and potential antiviral agent against the COVID-19 acting through the blockade of the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD to hACE2 receptors. CONCLUSION: Corilagin could be considered as a safe and environmental friendly anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent for its potential preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/toxicity , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/toxicity , Lentivirus Infections/drug therapy , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
5.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225565

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of host cell invasion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 SARS-CoV-2 is connected with the interaction of spike protein (S) with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through receptor-binding domain (RBD). Small molecules targeting this assembly are being investigated as drug candidates to contrast SARS-CoV-2. In this context, chloroquine, an antimalarial agent proposed as a repurposed drug to treat coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), was hypothesized to bind RBD among its other mechanisms. Similarly, artemisinin and its derivatives are being studied as potential antiviral agents. In this work, we investigated the interaction of artemisinin, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine with RBD by means of computational tools and in vitro. Docking studies showed that the compounds interfere with the same region of the protein and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrated the stability of the predicted complexes. Bio-layer interferometry showed that chloroquine dose-dependently binds RBD (KD = 35.9 µM) more efficiently than artemisinins.

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