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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 892962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952394

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and Methods: Patients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO2, age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO2 < 95% and BMI ≥ 33 Kg/m2 defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77-88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 € when compared with inpatient care. Conclusion: Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.

2.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837236

ABSTRACT

Objective To report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and Methods Patients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. Results A total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO2, age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO2 < 95% and BMI ≥ 33 Kg/m2 defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77–88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 € when compared with inpatient care. Conclusion Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.

3.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298221085450, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (h-CPAP) has been widely used to treat Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure (AHRF). In COVID-19 patients undergoing h-CPAP a simple short peripheral catheter could be insufficient. According to the European Recommendations for Proper Indication and Use of Peripheral venous access consensus, a stable peripheral Vascular Access Device is indicated for intravenous treatment compatible with the peripheral route scheduled for more than 1 week. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance and the potential complications of superficial femoral midline catheters (SFMC) inserted in the Superficial Femoral Vein by direct Seldinger technique with peripheral tip (Arrow®, Teleflex; 20 cm length four FR single lumen and seven FR dual lumen) in AHRF COVID-19 patient. Complications were divided in early (accidental puncture of superficial femoral artery (APSFA); accidental saphenous nerve puncture (ASNP); bleeding) and late (Catheter Related Thrombosis (CRT); Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections (CRBSI); Accidental Removal (AR); persistent withdrawal occlusion (PWO)). METHODS: From 1st October 2020 to 30th June 2021 we conducted a prospective observational study in COVID-19 sub-intensive wards at Luigi Sacco Hospital (Milan). RESULTS: Hundred seventy five SFMC (mean dwell time 11.1 ± 9.8 days) were implanted in COVID-19 patients, 107 (61.1%) during h-CPAP treatment (10.5 ± 8.9 days), the remaining 68 (38.9%) in patients with severe disease. We recorded two minor immediate/early complications (APSFA without sequelae) and no major complications.The long-term follow-up registered four CRBSI (2.3%-2.5/1000 catheters days (CD)), five CRT (2.9%: 2.6/1000 CD), 22 AR (12.6%; 11.4/1000 CD), 38 PWO (36.5%), 34 of which occurred due to fibroblastic sleeve (32.7%). CONCLUSIONS: SFMC proved to be safe, easy and time-saving. It could be implemented, after a careful benefits and risks evaluation, in particular settings such as h-CPAP, delirium, bleeding risk factors and palliative care patients.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324150

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Among the multiple complex pathophysiological mechanisms underlying COVID-19 pneumonia, immunothrombosis has been shown to play a key role. One of the most dangerous consequences of the prothrombotic imbalance is the increased incidence of micro- and macro-thrombotic phenomena, especially deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: We investigated the correlation between radiological and clinical-biochemical characteristics of a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Results: PE was confirmed in 14/61 (23%) patients, five (35.7%) had DVT. The radiographic findings, quantified by Qanadli score, correlated with the clinical score and biochemical markers. The ratio between the right and left ventricle diameter measured at CT scan correlated with the length of hospital stay. Conclusion: In our cohort radiological parameters showed a significant correlation with clinical prognostic indices and scores, thus suggesting that a multidisciplinary approach is advisable in the evaluation of PE in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585433

ABSTRACT

Several studies attest to the long-term consequences of COVID-19 infection on survivors' mental illness, especially in terms of high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 1-3 months after hospitalization. Aims of the present study were (1) to jointly evaluate PTSD and positive mental health among COVID-19 survivors and family members after hospital discharge, and (2) to investigate the relationship between perceived healthcare staff's relational empathy during hospitalization and survivors' post-traumatic stress levels. In this cross-sectional study, 60 survivors (Mage = 60.45; 63.3% men) and 40 family members (Mage = 52.33; 60% women) participated in an online survey 3-7 months after hospital discharge. In addition to providing socio-demographic data, they completed PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and Mental Health Continuum Short Form. Survivors also completed the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure. Percentages of participants meeting a provisional PTSD and mental health diagnosis (flourishing, moderate, languishing) were calculated. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed on survivors' data, with perceived staff's empathy as predictor and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) as outcome. One-fifth of the participants received a provisional PTSD diagnosis, about half were diagnosed with flourishing or moderate mental health, and only 5% were languishing, with no significant between-group differences. Among survivors, a negative association was detected between perceived healthcare staff's empathy and PTSS, explaining 10.5% of the model variance over and above demographic and clinical variables. Findings highlighted the coexistence of PTSD and positive mental health among survivors and family members, suggesting the usefulness of assessing both negative and positive dimensions of mental health, in order to promote psycho-social adaptation once returning to everyday life. In addition, the role of compassionate care in clinical practice emerged as a potential means to mitigate severe traumatic reactions among survivors.

6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 423, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoptic pulmonary findings have been described in severe COVID-19 patients, but evidence regarding the correlation between clinical picture and lung histopathologic patterns is still weak. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort observational study conducted at the referral center for infectious diseases in northern Italy. Full lung autoptic findings and clinical data of patients who died from COVID-19 were analyzed. Lung histopathologic patterns were scored according to the extent of tissue damage. To consider coexisting histopathologic patterns, hierarchical clustering of histopathologic findings was applied. RESULTS: Whole pulmonary examination was available in 75 out of 92 full autopsies. Forty-eight hospitalized patients (64%), 44 from ICU and four from the medical ward, had complete clinical data. The histopathologic patterns had a time-dependent distribution with considerable overlap among patterns. Duration of positive-pressure ventilation (p < 0.0001), mean positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (p = 0.007), worst serum albumin (p = 0.017), interleukin 6 (p = 0.047), and kidney SOFA (p = 0.001) differed among histopathologic clusters. The amount of PEEP for long-lasting ventilatory treatment was associated with the cluster showing the largest areas of early and late proliferative diffuse alveolar damage. No pharmacologic interventions or comorbidities affected the lung histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study draws a comprehensive link between the clinical and pulmonary histopathologic findings in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. These results highlight that the positive end-expiratory pressures and the duration of the ventilatory treatment correlate with lung histopathologic patterns, providing new clues to the knowledge of the pathophysiology of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Autopsy , Humans , Lung/pathology , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29504, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a huge strain on the health care system globally. The metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, was one of the regions most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Risk prediction models developed by combining administrative databases and basic clinical data are needed to stratify individual patient risk for public health purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a stratification tool aimed at improving COVID-19 patient management and health care organization. METHODS: A predictive algorithm was developed and applied to 36,834 patients with COVID-19 in Italy between March 8 and the October 9, 2020, in order to foresee their risk of hospitalization. Exposures considered were age, sex, comorbidities, and symptoms associated with COVID-19 (eg, vomiting, cough, fever, diarrhea, myalgia, asthenia, headache, anosmia, ageusia, and dyspnea). The outcome was hospitalizations and emergency department admissions for COVID-19. Discrimination and calibration of the model were also assessed. RESULTS: The predictive model showed a good fit for predicting COVID-19 hospitalization (C-index 0.79) and a good overall prediction accuracy (Brier score 0.14). The model was well calibrated (intercept -0.0028, slope 0.9970). Based on these results, 118,804 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 25 to December 11, 2020, were stratified into low, medium, and high risk for COVID-19 severity. Among the overall study population, 67,030 (56.42%) were classified as low-risk patients; 43,886 (36.94%), as medium-risk patients; and 7888 (6.64%), as high-risk patients. In all, 89.37% (106,179/118,804) of the overall study population was being assisted at home, 9% (10,695/118,804) was hospitalized, and 1.62% (1930/118,804) died. Among those assisted at home, most people (63,983/106,179, 60.26%) were classified as low risk, whereas only 3.63% (3858/106,179) were classified at high risk. According to ordinal logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of being hospitalized or dead was 5.0 (95% CI 4.6-5.4) among high-risk patients and 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) among medium-risk patients, as compared to low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: A simple monitoring system, based on primary care data sets linked to COVID-19 testing results, hospital admissions data, and death records may assist in the proper planning and allocation of patients and resources during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the technical and clinical success of trans-arterial embolization (TAE) as a treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and to describe its safety; moreover, we describe the characteristics of these patients. METHODS: Thirty-four COVID-19 hospitalized patients presented with GIB. Risk factors, drugs administered for COVID-19 infection, and clinical and biological parameters were evaluated. Furthermore, intraprocedural data and outcomes of embolization were analyzed. RESULTS: GIB was more frequent in male. Overweight, hypertension, diabetes, previous cardiac disease, and anticoagulation preadmission (48.5%) were frequently found in our population. Previous or actual COVID Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a high level of D-dimer were encountered in most cases. Upper GIB was more frequent than lower GIB. Technical and clinical success rates of embolization were 88.2% and 94.1%, respectively. The complication rate was 5.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the most frequent characteristics of COVID-19 patients with GIB. Embolization is feasible, effective, and safe.

9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(2): 597-598, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469764
10.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 18(7): 534-548, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362749

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has hit the healthcare system worldwide. The risk of severe infection and mortality increases with advancing age, especially in subjects with comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cancer. Moreover, cardiovascular complications such as myocardial injury, heart failure and thromboembolism are frequently observed in COVID-19 cases, and several biomarkers (troponin, NTproBNP and D-Dimer) have been identified as prognostic indicators of disease severity and worst outcome. Currently, there is no specific therapy against SARS-CoV-2, although many medications are under investigation. The aim of this review will be to explore the intertwined relationship between COVID-19 disease and the cardiovascular system, focusing on elderly population. The available supportive treatments along with the related concerns in elderly patients, due to their comorbidities and polypharmacotherapy, will be explored.

11.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104931, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318940

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and has the highest number of recorded COVID-19 deaths in Europe. This prospective cohort study of the correlates of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was conducted at the Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care units of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. The clinical characteristics of all the COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the early days of the epidemic (21 February -19 March 2020) were recorded upon admission, and the time-dependent probability of death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method (censored as of 20 April 2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the factors independently associated with the risk of death. Forty-eight (20.6 %) of the 233 patients followed up for a median of 40 days (interquartile range 33-47) died during the follow-up. Most were males (69.1 %) and their median age was 61 years (IQR 50-72). The time-dependent probability of death was 19.7 % (95 % CI 14.6-24.9 %) 30 days after hospital admission. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95 % CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95 % CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95 % CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission. Case-fatality rate of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the early days of the Italian epidemic was about 20 %. Our study adds evidence to the notion that older age, obesity and more advanced illness are factors associated to an increased risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ; 38(2): e2021017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure is a common complication of SARS-CoV2 related pneumonia, for which non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is widely used. The frequency of pneumothorax in SARS-CoV2 was reported in 0.95% of hospitalized patients in 6% of mechanically ventilated patients, and in 1% of a post-mortem case series. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the incidence of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum (PNX/PNM) in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia patients treated with Helmet CPAP. Moreover, we examined the correlation between PNX/PNM and Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) values. METHODS: We collected data from patients admitted to "Luigi Sacco" University Hospital of Milan from 2 February to 5 May 2020 with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia requiring CPAP. Patients, who need NIV with bi-level pressure or endotracheal intubation (ETI) for any reason except those who needed ETI after PNX/PNM, were excluded. Population was divided in two groups according to PEEP level used (≤10 cmH2O and >10 cmH20). RESULTS: 154 patients were enrolled. In the overall population, 42 patients (27%) were treated with High-PEEP (>10 cmH2O), and 112 with Low-PEEP (≤10 cmH2O). During hospitalization 3 PNX and 2 PNM occurred (3.2%). Out of these five patients, 2 needed invasive ventilation after PNX and died. All the PNX/PNM occurred in the High-PEEP group (5/37 vs 0/112, p<0,001). CONCLUSION: The incidence of PNX appears to be lower in SARS-CoV2 than SARS and MERS. Considering the association of PNX/PNM with high PEEP we suggest using the lower PEEP as possible to prevent these complications.

14.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(8): 2173-2180, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction, mainly assessed by biomarker alterations, has been described in COVID-19 infection. However, there are still areas of uncertainty regarding its effective role in disease evolution. Aim of this study was to evaluate early echocardiographic parameters in COVID pneumonia and their association with severity disease and prognosis. METHODS: An echocardiographic examination was performed within 72 h from admission in 64 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia in our medium-intensity care unit, from March 30th to May 15th 2020. Six patients were excluded for inadequate acoustic window. RESULTS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients were finally enrolled, with a median age of 58 years. Twenty-two (38%) were classifiable as severe COVID-19 disease. Eight out of 58 patients experienced adverse evolution (six died, two were admitted to ICU and received mechanical ventilation), all of them in the severe pneumonia group. Severe pneumonia patients showed higher troponin, IL-6 and D-Dimer values. No significant new onset alterations of left and right ventricular systolic function parameters were observed. Patients with severe pneumonia showed higher mean estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (30.7 ± 5.2 mmHg vs 26.2 ± 4.3 mmHg, p = 0.006), even if in the normality range values. No differences in echocardiographic parameters were retrieved in patients with adverse events with respect to those with favorable clinical course. CONCLUSION: A mild sPAP increase in severe pneumonia patients with respect to those with milder disease was the only significant finding at early echocardiographic examination, without other signs of new onset major cardiac dysfunction. Future studies are needed to deepen the knowledge regarding minor cardiac functional perturbation in the evolution of a complex systemic disorder, in which the respiratory involvement appears as the main character, at least in non-ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14370, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231125

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Among the multiple complex pathophysiological mechanisms underlying COVID-19 pneumonia, immunothrombosis has been shown to play a key role. One of the most dangerous consequences of the prothrombotic imbalance is the increased incidence of micro- and macrothrombotic phenomena, especially deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: We investigated the correlation between radiological and clinical-biochemical characteristics in a cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: PE was confirmed in 14/61 (23%) patients, five (35.7%) had DVT. The radiographic findings, quantified by Qanadli score calculated on CT angiography, correlated with the clinical score and biochemical markers. The ratio between the right and left ventricle diameter measured at CT angiography correlated with the length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: In our cohort radiological parameters showed a significant correlation with clinical prognostic indices and scores, thus suggesting that a multidisciplinary approach is advisable in the evaluation of PE in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
16.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(4): 3364-3383, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206379

ABSTRACT

Emerging studies address how COVID-19 infection can impact the human cardiovascular system. This relates particularly to the development of myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Prospective treatment approach is advised for these patients. To study the interplay between local changes (reduced contractility), global variables (peripheral resistances, heart rate) and the cardiac function, we considered a lumped parameters computational model of the cardiovascular system and a three-dimensional multiphysics model of cardiac electromechanics. Our mathematical model allows to simulate the systemic and pulmonary circulations, the four cardiac valves and the four heart chambers, through equations describing the underlying physical processes. By the assessment of conventionally relevant parameters of cardiac function obtained through our numerical simulations, we propose a computational model to effectively reveal the interactions between the cardiac and pulmonary functions in virtual subjects with normal and impaired cardiac function at baseline affected by mild or severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart , Hemodynamics , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 1005-1015, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202836

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 2020 outbreak, a large body of data has been provided on general management and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Yet, relatively little is known on characteristics and outcome of patients managed in Internal Medicine Units (IMU). To address this gap, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine has conducted a nationwide cohort multicentre study on death outcome in adult COVID-19 patients admitted and managed in IMU. This study assessed 3044 COVID-19 patients at 41 referral hospitals across Italy from February 3rd to May 8th 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, organ dysfunction, treatment, and outcomes including death were assessed. During the study period, 697 patients (22.9%) were transferred to intensive care units, and 351 died in IMU (death rate 14.9%). At admission, factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were age (OR 2.46, p = 0.000), productive cough (OR 2.04, p = 0.000), pre-existing chronic heart failure (OR 1.58, p = 0.017) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.17, p = 0.048), the number of comorbidities (OR 1.34, p = 0.000) and polypharmacy (OR 1.20, p = 0.000). Of note, up to 40% of elderly patients did not report fever at admission. Decreasing PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was strongly inversely associated with survival. The use of conventional oxygen supplementation increased with the number of pre-existing comorbidities, but it did not associate with better survival in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100. The latter, significantly benefited by the early use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Our study identified PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission and comorbidity as the main alert signs to inform clinical decisions and resource allocation in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to IMU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Internal Medicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1421-1427, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196443

ABSTRACT

As it has been shown that lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have in vitro activity against coronaviruses, they were used to treat COVID-19 during the first wave of the epidemic in Lombardy, Italy. To compare the rate of clinical improvement between those who started LPV/ritonavir (LPV/r)+HCQ within 5 days of symptom onset (early treatment, ET) and those who started later (delayed treatment, DT). This was a retrospective intent-to-treat analysis of the hospitalized patients who started LPV/r + HCQ between 21 February and 20 March 2020. The association between the timing of treatment and the probability of 30-day mortality was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic models. The study involved 172 patients: 43 (25%) in the ET and 129 (75%) in the DT group. The rate of clinical improvement increased over time to 73.3% on day 30, without any significant difference between the two groups (Gray's test P = .213). After adjusting for potentially relevant clinical variables, there was no significant association between the timing of the start of treatment and the probability of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ET vs DT = 1.45, 95% confidence interval 0.50-4.19). Eight percent of the patients discontinued the treatment becausebecause of severe gastrointestinal disorders attributable to LPV/r. The timing of the start of LPV/r + HCQ treatment does not seem to affect the clinical course of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Together with the severe adverse events attributable to LPV/r, this raises concerns about the benefit of using this combination to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Vasc Access ; : 1129729821997252, 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous Access Devices (VADs) are the most used devices in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: Identify VADs implanted, catheter related thrombosis (CRT), catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), and accidental remove of VADs in both COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 free patients. Successive analysis was conducted comparing COVID-19 positive patients with COVID-19 free with inverse probability propensity score weights using simple regression to account for these two confounders (peripheral tip as central/peripheral and hospitalization as no/yes). METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study collected data from seven hospitals in Lombardy during the pandemic period from February 21st to May 31st 2020. RESULTS: A total of 2206 VADs were evaluated, 1107 (50.2%) of which were inserted in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 cohort the first choice was Long Peripheral Cannula in 388 patients (35.1%) followed by Midline Catheter in 385 (34.8%). The number of "central tip" VADs inserted in COVID-free inpatients and COVID-19 positive were similar (307 vs 334). We recorded 42 (1.9%) CRT; 32 (79.2%) were observed in COVID-19 patients. A total of 19 CRBSI were diagnosed; 15 (78.95%) were observed in COVID-19. Accidental removals were the more represented complication with 123 cases, 85 (69.1%) of them were in COVID-19. COVID-19 significantly predicted occurrence of CRT (OR = 2.00(1.85-5.03); p < 0.001), CRSB (OR = 3.82(1.82-8.97); p < 0.001), and Accidental Removal (OR = 2.39(1.80-3.20); p < 0.001) in our propensity score weighted models. CONCLUSIONS: CRT, CRBSI, and accidental removal are significantly more frequent in COVID-19 patients. Accidental removals are the principal complication, for this reason, the use of subcutaneously anchored securement is recommended for a shorter period than usual.

20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 989-996, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095732

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe acute respiratory failure. Early identification of high-risk COVID-19 patients is crucial. We aimed to derive and validate a simple score for the prediction of severe outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was carried out by the Italian Society of Internal Medicine. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables were collected at hospital admission at five hospitals. Three algorithm selection models were used to construct a predictive risk score: backward Selection, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), and Random Forest. Severe outcome was defined as the composite of need for non-invasive ventilation, need for orotracheal intubation, or death. A total of 610 patients were included in the analysis, 313 had a severe outcome. The subset for the derivation analysis included 335 patients, the subset for the validation analysis 275 patients. The LASSO selection identified 6 variables (age, history of coronary heart disease, CRP, AST, D-dimer, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio) and resulted in the best performing score with an area under the curve of 0.79 in the derivation cohort and 0.80 in the validation cohort. Using a cut-off of 7 out of 13 points, sensitivity was 0.93, specificity 0.34, positive predictive value 0.59, and negative predictive value 0.82. The proposed score can identify patients at low risk for severe outcome who can be safely managed in a low-intensity setting after hospital admission for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
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