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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning of protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2 conferred by 2 doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine begins shortly after inoculation and becomes substantial within four months. With that, the impact of prior infection on incident SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is unclear. Therefore, we examined the long-term protection of naturally acquired immunity (protection conferred by previous infection) compared to vaccine-induced immunity. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of 124,500 persons, compared two groups: (1) SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals who received a two-dose regimen of the BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine, and (2) previously infected individuals who have not been vaccinated. Two multivariate logistic regression models were applied, evaluating four SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes - infection, symptomatic disease (COVID-19), hospitalization and death - between June 1 to August 14, 2021, when the Delta variant was dominant in Israel. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-naïve vaccinees had a 13.06-fold (95% CI, 8.08-21.11) increased risk for breakthrough infection with the Delta variant compared to unvaccinated-previously-infected individuals, when the first event (infection or vaccination) occurred during January and February of 2021. The increased risk was significant for symptomatic disease as well. When allowing the infection to occur at any time between March 2020 to February 2021, evidence of waning naturally acquired immunity was demonstrated, though SARS-CoV-2 naïve vaccinees still had a 5.96-fold (95% CI, 4.85-7.33) increased risk for breakthrough infection and a 7.13-fold (95% CI, 5.51-9.21) increased risk for symptomatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Naturally acquired immunity confers stronger protection against infection and symptomatic disease caused by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine-induced immunity.

2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331623

ABSTRACT

Background: The administration of a fourth BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine was approved in Israel in December 2021 for persons age ≥60 years and compromised individuals vaccinated with a third dose four months or earlier, to control the massive surge of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. We determined the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the fourth BNT162b2 dose against SARS-CoV-2-related infections, hospitalizations, and deaths, during the Omicron surge in long term care facility (LTCF) residents. Methods: A prospective study was undertaken between January 10 and February 21, 2022, using national COVID-19 active surveillance among ≥60 years old LTCF residents in Israel. Cumulative incidences among recipients of the fourth dose were compared to those among three dose recipients. We obtained hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable Cox regression models. Findings: Data of 35,818 residents (mean age 80·4 years [SD=9·3]) were analysed;of whom 24,124 and 11,694 were recipients of fourth and third dose (four months or earlier), respectively. The median follow-up time was 35 days. More than seven days post vaccination with the fourth dose, SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected among 3087 fourth dose vs. 2502 third dose recipients (cumulative incidence: 13·1% vs. 21·8%, respectively). The corresponding incidences of hospitalizations for mild-moderate COVID-19 were 0·7% and 2·6%, and for severe/critical illness 1·1% and 7·3% and for mortality 0·2% and 0·4%. The adjusted VE (95% CI) was 44% (40%, 47%), 74% (67%, 80%) and 77% (69%, 82%) against infection, hospitalizations for mild-moderate and severe-critical illness, respectively, and 73% (50%, 80%) against related deaths. The estimates were slightly higher for >14 days post fourth dose. Interpretation: The fourth BNT162b2 dose afforded high protection against COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths among LTCF residents during a massive Omicron variant surge. However, the effectiveness against infection was only moderate. Funding: External funding was not available for this study.

3.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient evidence regarding the magnitude and durability of protection conferred by a combined effect of naturally acquired immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine-induced immunity. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in previously infected persons to that of previously infected persons who subsequently received a single dose of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study emulating a randomized controlled target trial through a series of nested trials. SETTING: Nationally centralized database of Maccabi Healthcare Services, Israel. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection who did not receive subsequent SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were compared with persons with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection who received a single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine at least 3 months after infection. INTERVENTION: Forty-one randomized controlled trials were emulated, in which 107 413 Maccabi Healthcare Services' members aged 16 years and older were eligible for at least 1 trial. MEASUREMENTS: SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes of infection, symptomatic disease, hospitalization, and death, between 2 March and 13 December 2021. RESULTS: A statistically significant decreased risk (hazard ratio, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.20]) for reinfection was found among persons who were previously infected and then vaccinated versus those who were previously infected but remained unvaccinated. In addition, there was a decreased risk for symptomatic disease (hazard ratio, 0.24 [CI, 0.20 to 0.29]) among previously infected and vaccinated persons compared with those who were not vaccinated after infection. No COVID-19-related mortality cases were found. LIMITATION: Hybrid protection against non-Delta variants could not be inferred. CONCLUSION: Persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 gained additional protection against reinfection and COVID-19 from a subsequent single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Nonetheless, even without a subsequent vaccination, reinfection appeared relatively rare. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308438

ABSTRACT

Background: BNT162b2 vaccines showed high efficacy against COVID-19 in a randomised controlled phase-III trial. A vaccine effectiveness evaluation in real life settings is urgently needed, especially given the global disease surge. Hence, we assessed the short-term effectiveness of the first dose of BNT162b2-vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the BNT162b2 Phase-III results, we hypothesized that the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinees will decline after 12 days following immunization compared to the incidence during the preceding days.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from 2·6 million-member state-mandated health provider in Israel. Study population consisted of all members aged 16 or above years who were vaccinated with BNT162b2-vaccine between December/19/2020 and January/15/2021. We collected information regarding medical history and positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test from days after first dose to January/17/2021. Daily and cumulative infection rates in days 13-24 were compared to days 1-12 after first dose using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear models.Findings: Data of 503,875 individuals (mean age 59·7 years SD=14·7, 47·8% males) were analysed, of whom 351,897 had 13-24 days of follow-up. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0·57% (n=2484) during days 1-12 and 0·27% (n=614) in days 13-24. A 51·4% relative risk reduction (RRR) was calculated in weighted-average daily incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection from 43·41-per-100,000(SE=12·07) in days 1-12 to 21·08-per-100,000(SE=6·16) in days 13-24 following immunization. The decrement in incidence was evident from day 18 after first dose. Similar RRRs were calculated in individuals aged 60 or above (44.5%), younger individuals (50.2%), females (50.0%) and males (52.1%). Findings were similar in sub-populations and patients with various comorbidities.Interpretation: We demonstrated an effectiveness of 51% of BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection 13-24 days after immunization with the first dose. Immunization with the second dose should be continued to attain the anticipated protection.Funding: No external funding was available for this study.Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: We obtained ethical approval from Maccabi Healthcare Services Ethics Committee.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 454-467, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), specifically those treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α biologics, are at high risk for vaccine-preventable infections. Their ability to mount adequate vaccine responses is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess serologic responses to messenger RNA-Coronavirus Disease 2019 vaccine, and safety profile, in patients with IBD stratified according to therapy, compared with healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Prospective, controlled, multicenter Israeli study. Subjects enrolled received 2 BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) doses. Anti-spike antibody levels and functional activity, anti-TNFα levels and adverse events (AEs) were detected longitudinally. RESULTS: Overall, 258 subjects: 185 IBD (67 treated with anti-TNFα, 118 non-anti-TNFα), and 73 HCs. After the first vaccine dose, all HCs were seropositive, whereas ∼7% of patients with IBD, regardless of treatment, remained seronegative. After the second dose, all subjects were seropositive, however anti-spike levels were significantly lower in anti-TNFα treated compared with non-anti-TNFα treated patients, and HCs (both P < .001). Neutralizing and inhibitory functions were both lower in anti-TNFα treated compared with non-anti-TNFα treated patients, and HCs (P < .03; P < .0001, respectively). Anti-TNFα drug levels and vaccine responses did not affect anti-spike levels. Infection rate (∼2%) and AEs were comparable in all groups. IBD activity was unaffected by BNT162b2. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study in patients with IBD stratified according to treatment, all patients mounted serologic response to 2 doses of BNT162b2; however, its magnitude was significantly lower in patients treated with anti-TNFα, regardless of administration timing and drug levels. Vaccine was safe. As vaccine serologic response longevity in this group may be limited, vaccine booster dose should be considered.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition among health care workers (HCWs) of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). METHODS: This prospective study, in the framework of "Senior Shield" program in Israel, included routine, weekly nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing from all LTCF HCWs since July 2020. All residents and 75% of HCWs were immunized between December 2020 and January 2021. The analysis was limited to HCWs adhering to routine testing. Fully vaccinated (14+ days after second dose; n=6960) and unvaccinated HCWs (n=2202) were simultaneously followed until SARS-CoV-2 acquisition, or end of follow-up, April 11, 2021. Hazard ratios (HRs) for vaccination vs. no vaccination were calculated (Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for socio-demographics and residential-area COVID-19 incidence). VE was calculated as [(1- HR)×100]. RT-PCR cycle threshold values (Cts) were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. RESULTS: At >14 days post second dose, 40 vaccinated HCWs acquired SARS-CoV-2 (median follow-up, 66 days; cumulative incidence 0.6%) vs. 84 unvaccinated HCWs (median follow-up 43 days; cumulative incidence, 5.1%); HR=0.11 (95% CI 0.07, 0.17), unadjusted VE=89% (95% CI 83%, 93%). Adjusted VE beyond seven days and >14 days post second dose were similar. The median PCR Cts targeting ORF1ab gene among 20 vaccinated and 40 unvaccinated HCWs was 32.0 vs. 26.7, respectively, p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: VE following two doses of BNT162b2 against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition in LTCF HCWs was high. The lower viral loads among SARS-CoV-2 positive HCWs suggests further reduction in transmission.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 689994, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305656

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to examine the prevalence and risk factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sero-positivity in health care workers (HCWs), a main risk group, and assess the sero-incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection between the first and second waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Israel. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted among 874 HCWs from nine hospitals. Demographics, health information, and blood samples were obtained at baseline (first wave-April-May 2020) and at follow-up (n = 373) (second wave-September-November 2020). Sero-positivity was determined based on the detection of total antibodies to the nucleocapsid antigen of SARS-CoV-2, using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2, Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Results: The sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 1.1% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.6-2.1] at baseline and 8.3% (95% CI 5.9-11.6) at follow-up. The sero-conversion of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody was 6.9% (95% CI 4.7-9.9) during the study period. The increase in SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence paralleled the rise in PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections among the HCWs across the country. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was higher in males vs. females [odds ratio (OR) 2.52 (95% CI 1.05-6.06)] and in nurses vs. physicians [OR 4.26 (95% CI 1.08-16.77)] and was associated with being quarantined due to exposure to COVID-19 patients [OR 3.54 (95% CI 1.58-7.89)] and having a positive PCR result [OR 109.5 (95% CI 23.88-502.12)]. Conclusions: A significant increase in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found among HCWs between the first and second waves of COVID-19 in Israel. Nonetheless, the sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remains low, similar to the general population. Our findings reinforce the rigorous infection control policy, including quarantine, and utilization of personal protective equipment that should be continued together with COVID-19 immunization in HCWs and the general population.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2115985, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258015

ABSTRACT

Importance: The BNT162b2 vaccine showed high efficacy against COVID-19 in a phase III randomized clinical trial. A vaccine effectiveness evaluation in a real-world setting is needed. Objective: To assess the short-term effectiveness of the first dose of the BNT162b2-vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection 13 to 24 days after immunization in a real-world setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study used data from a 2.6 million-member state-mandated health care system in Israel. Participants included all individuals aged 16 years and older who received 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine between December 19, 2020, and January 15, 2021. Data were analyzed in March 2021. Exposure: Receipt of 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Information was collected regarding medical history and positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test and COVID-19 symptoms from 1 day after first vaccine to January 17, 2021. Daily and cumulative infection rates in days 13 to 24 were compared with days 1 to 12 after the first dose using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear models. Results: Data for 503 875 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [14.7] years; 263 228 [52.4%] women) were analyzed, of whom 351 897 had follow-up data for days 13 to 24. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 2484 individuals (0.57%) during days 1 through 12 and 614 individuals (0.27%) in days 13 through 24. The weighted mean (SE) daily incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in days 1 through 12 was 43.41 (12.07) infections per 100 000 population and 21.08 (6.16) infections per 100 000 population in days 13 through 24, a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 51.4% (95% CI, 16.3%-71.8%). The decrease in incidence was evident from day 18 after the first dose. Similar RRRs were calculated in individuals aged 60 years or older (44.5%; 95% CI, 4.1%-67.9%), those younger than 60 years (50.2%; 95% CI, 14.1%-71.2%), women (50.0%; 95% CI, 13.5%-71.0%), and men (52.1%; 95% CI, 17.3%-72.2%). Findings were similar in subpopulations (eg, ultraorthodox Jewish: RRR, 53.5% [95% CI, 19.2%-73.2%]) and patients with various comorbidities (eg, cardiovascular diseases: RRR, 47.2% [95% CI, 7.8%-69.8%]). Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 was 54.4% (95% CI, 21.4%-73.6%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this comparative effectiveness study of a single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, results were comparable to that of the phase III randomized clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Aged , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Female , Humans , Immunization , Incidence , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 7: 100130, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities affect the COVID-19 burden and vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to explore inequalities in the incidence and mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine uptake in various sociodemographic and population group strata in Israel. METHODS: We analysed nationwide publicly available, aggregated data on PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 deaths between March 2020 and February 2021, as well as the first three months of COVID-19 immunisation according to sociodemographics, including population group and residential socioeconomic status (SES). We computed incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19. Comparisons between towns with predominantly Arab, ultra-Orthodox Jewish (the minorities), general Jewish populations, and according to SES, were conducted using generalised linear models with negative binomial distribution. FINDINGS: Overall, 774,030 individuals had SARS-CoV-2 infection (cumulative incidence 84•5 per 1,000 persons) and 5687 COVID-19 patients had died (mortality rate 62•8 per 100,000 persons). The highest mortality rate was found amongst the elderly. Most (>75%) individuals aged 60 years or above have been vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in towns with predominantly Arab and ultra-Orthodox Jewish populations than in the general Jewish population, and in low SES communities. COVID-19 mortality rate was highest amongst Arabs. Conversely, vaccine uptake was lower amongst Arab and ultra-Orthodox Jewish populations and low SES communities. INTERPRETATION: Ethnic and religious minorities and low SES communities experience substantial COVID-19 burden, and have lower vaccine uptake, even in a society with universal accessibility to healthcare. Quantifying these inequalities is fundamental towards reducing these gaps, which imposes a designated apportion of resources to adequately control the pandemic. FUNDING: No external funding was available for this study.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 472-478, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines were shown to be highly efficacious in preventing the disease in randomized controlled trials; nonetheless, evidence on the real-world effectiveness of this vaccine is limited. Study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: This historical cohort study included members of a large health provider in Israel that were vaccinated with at least 1 dose of BNT162b2. The primary outcome was incidence rate of a SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), between 7 and 27 days after second dose (protection-period), as compared to days 1-7 after the first dose, where no protection by the vaccine is assumed (reference-period). RESULTS: Data of 1 178 597 individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 were analyzed (mean age 47.7 years [SD = 18.1], 48.4% males) of whom 872 454 (74.0%) reached the protection period. Overall, 4514 infections occurred during the reference period compared to 728 during the protection period, yielding a weighted mean daily incidence of 54.8 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-115.0 per 100 000) and 5.4 per 100 000 (95% CI: 3.5-8.4 per 100 000), respectively. The vaccine effectiveness in preventing infection was 90% (95% CI: 79%-95%) and 94% (95% CI: 88%-97%) against COVID-19. Among immunosuppressed patients, vaccine effectiveness against infection was 71% (95% CI: 37%-87%). The adjusted hazard ratios for hospitalization in those infected were 0.82 (95% CI: .36-1.88), 0.45 (95% CI: .23-.90), and 0.56 (95% CI: .36-.89) in the age groups 16-44, 45-64. and ≥75 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine is comparable to the one reported in the phase III clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136492

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is mostly person-to-person transmitted through respiratory droplets. The implications of the strategies implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission on other infectious diseases are unclear. We aimed to appraise trends in the incidence of salmonellosis, shigellosis and campylobacteriosis in Israel during COVID-19 pandemic. Positive stool samples for Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter are reported on a monthly basis to the Israel Center for Disease Control from sentinel laboratories, within the framework of a surveillance network of bacterial culture-proven enteric diseases. Age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 of shigellosis, salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis were calculated. Mean rates before and after the local onset of COVID-19 pandemic in Israel were compared and Relative Risk Reduction (RRR) was calculated. Joinpoint was used to evaluate secular trends. The mean age-adjusted incidence rate of shigellosis in March-July 2020 was lower than the rate observed in March-July 2018-2019 (RRR = 86.6%), but also decreased for salmonellosis (RRR = 33.0%) and campylobacteriosis (RRR = 30.0%). Using Joinpoint we have shown that the decrease observed for shigellosis was significantly sharper (Annual Percent Change (APC) = -77.7) between February 2020 and May 2020 than for salmonellosis (APC = -14.0) between July 2019 and April 2020 and for campylobacteriosis (APC = -1.1) between January 2018 and July 2020. The preventive measures applied to reduce transmission of COVID-19, including social distancing and hand washing, were ecologically associated with a decreased risk of bacterial enteric diseases in Israel. The association was strongest for shigellosis, a disease that is mostly person-to-person transmitted, as compared to salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis which are mostly foodborne transmitted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysentery, Bacillary , Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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