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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(38):e2209234119, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2017035

ABSTRACT

The spatial and temporal patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases and COVID-19 deaths in the United States are poorly understood. We show that variations in the cumulative reported cases and deaths by county, state, and date exemplify Taylor's law of fluctuation scaling. Specifically, on day 1 of each month from April 2020 through June 2021, each state's variance (across its counties) of cases is nearly proportional to its squared mean of cases. COVID-19 deaths behave similarly. The lower 99% of counts of cases and deaths across all counties are approximately lognormally distributed. Unexpectedly, the largest 1% of counts are approximately Pareto distributed, with a tail index that implies a finite mean and an infinite variance. We explain why the counts across the entire distribution conform to Taylor's law with exponent two using models and mathematics. The finding of infinite variance has practical consequences. Local jurisdictions (counties, states, and countries) that are planning for prevention and care of largely unvaccinated populations should anticipate the rare but extremely high counts of cases and deaths that occur in distributions with infinite variance. Jurisdictions should prepare collaborative responses across boundaries, because extremely high local counts of cases and deaths may vary beyond the resources of any local jurisdiction.

2.
British Journal of Anaesthesia ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014950

ABSTRACT

The response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the approach to patient safety share three important concepts: the challenges of preventing rare events, use of rules, and tolerance for uncertainty. We discuss how each of these ideas can be utilised in perioperative safety to create a high-reliability system.

3.
Journal of Religion & Health ; 27:27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014289

ABSTRACT

In this fifth issue of the Journal of Religion and Health for 2022, four key themes are revisited: (1) mental health, (2) Islam, (3) various clinical issues relating to religiosity and/or spirituality and (4) the ongoing concerns of COVID-19.

4.
Jama Network Open ; 5(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013229

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic and the containment and mitigation measures taken were feared to be associated with increased child abuse. OBJECTIVE To investigate the trend of abusive head trauma (AHT) incidence and severity in infants during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a time-series analysis of a longitudinal, population-based, cohort study, all consecutive cases of AHT in infants younger than 12 months old referred between January 2017 and December 2021 to Necker Hospital for Sick Children, the single regional pediatric neurosurgery center for the Paris metropolitan area, were included. AHT was defined as 1 or more subdural hemorrhage and a positive multidisciplinary evaluation after a social, clinical, biological, and radiological workup. Data were analyzed from January to March 2022. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the monthly incidence of AHT, which was analyzed using Poisson regression modeling. Secondary outcomes included mortality and severe morbidity and were studied with logistic and linear regressions. The monthly incidence of neurosurgical interventions for hydrocephalus was used as a control series. RESULTS Among the 99 included infants with AHT (median [IQR] age, 4 [3-6] months;64 boys [65%]), 86 of 99 (87%) had bridging vein thrombosis, 74 of 99 (75%) had retinal hemorrhages, 23 of 72 (32%) had fractures, 26 of 99 (26%) had status epilepticus, 20 of 99 (20%) had skin injuries, 53 of 99 (54%) underwent neurosurgical interventions, and 13 of 99 (13%) died. Compared with the prepandemic period (2017-2019), AHT incidence was stable in 2020 (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.02;95% CI, 0.59-1.77) and then significantly increased in 2021 (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.92;95% CI, 1.23-2.99). The severity of AHT worsened in 2021 in terms of mortality (odds ratio 9.39;95% CI, 1.88-47.00). Other secondary outcomes and the control series were not significantly modified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this cohort study, a marked increase in AHT incidence and severity occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Paris metropolitan area. These results suggest the need for clinical awareness and preventive actions.

5.
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; 31(2):110-111, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006794
6.
Wang, K.; Goldenberg, A.; Dorison, C. A.; Miller, J. K.; Uusberg, A.; Lerner, J. S.; Gross, J. J.; Agesin, B. B.; Bernardo, M.; Campos, O.; Eudave, L.; Grzech, K.; Ozery, D. H.; Jackson, E. A.; Garcia, E. O. L.; Drexler, S. M.; Jurković, A. P.; Rana, K.; Wilson, J. P.; Antoniadi, M.; Desai, K.; Gialitaki, Z.; Kushnir, E.; Nadif, K.; Bravo, O. N.; Nauman, R.; Oosterlinck, M.; Pantazi, M.; Pilecka, N.; Szabelska, A.; van Steenkiste, I. M. M.; Filip, K.; Bozdoc, A. I.; Marcu, G. M.; Agadullina, E.; Adamkovič, M.; Roczniewska, M.; Reyna, C.; Kassianos, A. P.; Westerlund, M.; Ahlgren, L.; Pöntinen, S.; Adetula, G. A.; Dursun, P.; Arinze, A. I.; Arinze, N. C.; Ogbonnaya, C. E.; Ndukaihe, I. L. G.; Dalgar, I.; Akkas, H.; Macapagal, P. M.; Lewis, S.; Metin-Orta, I.; Foroni, F.; Willis, M.; Santos, A. C.; Mokady, A.; Reggev, N.; Kurfali, M. A.; Vasilev, M. R.; Nock, N. L.; Parzuchowski, M.; Espinoza Barría, M. F.; Vranka, M.; Kohlová, M. B.; Ropovik, I.; Harutyunyan, M.; Wang, C.; Yao, E.; Becker, M.; Manunta, E.; Kaminski, G.; Boudesseul, J.; Marko, D.; Evans, K.; Lewis, D. M. G.; Findor, A.; Landry, A. T.; Aruta, J. J. B.; Ortiz, M. S.; Vally, Z.; Pronizius, E.; Voracek, M.; Lamm, C.; Grinberg, M.; Li, R.; Valentova, J. V.; Mioni, G.; Cellini, N.; Chen, S. C.; Zickfeld, J.; Moon, K.; Azab, H.; Levy, N.; Karababa, A.; Beaudry, J. L.; Boucher, L.; Collins, W. M.; Todsen, A. L.; van Schie, K.; Vintr, J.; Bavolar, J.; Kaliska, L.; Križanić, V.; Samojlenko, L.; Pourafshari, R.; Geiger, S. J.; Beitner, J.; Warmelink, L.; Ross, R. M.; Stephen, I. D.; Hostler, T. J.; Azouaghe, S.; McCarthy, R.; Szala, A.; Grano, C.; Solorzano, C. S.; Anjum, G.; Jimenez-Leal, W.; Bradford, M.; Pérez, L. C.; Cruz Vásquez, J. E.; Galindo-Caballero, O. J.; Vargas-Nieto, J. C.; Kácha, O.; Arvanitis, A.; Xiao, Q.; Cárcamo, R.; Zorjan, S.; Tajchman, Z.; Vilares, I.; Pavlacic, J. M.; Kunst, J. R.; Tamnes, C. K.; von Bastian, C. C.; Atari, M.; Sharifian, M.; Hricova, M.; Kačmár, P.; Schrötter, J.; Rahal, R. M.; Cohen, N.; FatahModares, S.; Zrimsek, M.; Zakharov, I.; Koehn, M. A.; Esteban-Serna, C.; Calin-Jageman, R. J.; Krafnick, A. J.; Štrukelj, E.; Isager, P. M.; Urban, J.; Silva, J. R.; Martončik, M.; Očovaj, S. B.; Šakan, D.; Kuzminska, A. O.; Djordjevic, J. M.; Almeida, I. A. T.; Ferreira, A.; Lazarevic, L. B.; Manley, H.; Ricaurte, D. Z.; Monteiro, R. P.; Etabari, Z.; Musser, E.; Dunleavy, D.; Chou, W.; Godbersen, H.; Ruiz-Fernández, S.; Reeck, C.; Batres, C.; Kirgizova, K.; Muminov, A.; Azevedo, F.; Alvarez, D. S.; Butt, M. M.; Lee, J. M.; Chen, Z.; Verbruggen, F.; Ziano, I.; Tümer, M.; Charyate, A. C. A.; Dubrov, D.; Tejada Rivera, Mdcmc, Aberson, C.; Pálfi, B.; Maldonado, M. A.; Hubena, B.; Sacakli, A.; Ceary, C. D.; Richard, K. L.; Singer, G.; Perillo, J. T.; Ballantyne, T.; Cyrus-Lai, W.; Fedotov, M.; Du, H.; Wielgus, M.; Pit, I. L.; Hruška, M.; Sousa, D.; Aczel, B.; Hajdu, N.; Szaszi, B.; Adamus, S.; Barzykowski, K.; Micheli, L.; Schmidt, N. D.; Zsido, A. N.; Paruzel-Czachura, M.; Muda, R.; Bialek, M.; Kowal, M.; Sorokowska, A.; Misiak, M.; Mola, D.; Ortiz, M. V.; Correa, P. S.; Belaus, A.; Muchembled, F.; Ribeiro, R. R.; Arriaga, P.; Oliveira, R.; Vaughn, L. A.; Szwed, P.; Kossowska, M.; Czarnek, G.; Kielińska, J.; Antazo, B.; Betlehem, R.; Stieger, S.; Nilsonne, G.; Simonovic, N.; Taber, J.; Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, A.; Domurat, A.; Ihaya, K.; Yamada, Y.; Urooj, A.; Gill, T.; Čadek, M.; Bylinina, L.; Messerschmidt, J.; Kurfalı, M.; Adetula, A.; Baklanova, E.; Albayrak-Aydemir, N.; Kappes, H. B.; Gjoneska, B.; House, T.; Jones, M. V.; Berkessel, J. B.; Chopik, W. J.; Çoksan, S.; Seehuus, M.; Khaoudi, A.; Bokkour, A.; El Arabi, K. A.; Djamai, I.; Iyer, A.; Parashar, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Kocalar, H. E.; Bundt, C.; Norton, J. O.; Papadatou-Pastou, M.; De la Rosa-Gomez, A.; Ankushev, V.; Bogatyreva, N.; Grigoryev, D.; Ivanov, A.; Prusova, I.; Romanova, M.; Sarieva, I.; Terskova, M.; Hristova, E.; Kadreva, V. H.; Janak, A.; Schei, V.; Sverdrup, T. E.; Askelund, A. D.; Pineda, L. M. S.; Krupić, D.; Levitan, C. A.; Johannes, N.; Ouherrou, N.; Say, N.; Sinkolova, S.; Janjić, K.; Stojanovska, M.; Stojanovska, D.; Khosla, M.; Thomas, A. G.; Kung, F. Y. H.; Bijlstra, G.; Mosannenzadeh, F.; Balci, B. B.; Reips, U. D.; Baskin, E.; Ishkhanyan, B.; Czamanski-Cohen, J.; Dixson, B. J. W.; Moreau, D.; Sutherland, C. A. M.; Chuan-Peng, H.; Noone, C.; Flowe, H.; Anne, M.; Janssen, S. M. J.; Topor, M.; Majeed, N. M.; Kunisato, Y.; Yu, K.; Daches, S.; Hartanto, A.; Vdovic, M.; Anton-Boicuk, L.; Forbes, P. A. G.; Kamburidis, J.; Marinova, E.; Nedelcheva-Datsova, M.; Rachev, N. R.; Stoyanova, A.; Schmidt, K.; Suchow, J. W.; Koptjevskaja-Tamm, M.; Jernsäther, T.; Olofsson, J. K.; Bialobrzeska, O.; Marszalek, M.; Tatachari, S.; Afhami, R.; Law, W.; Antfolk, J.; Žuro, B.; Van Doren, N.; Soto, J. A.; Searston, R.; Miranda, J.; Damnjanović, K.; Yeung, S. K.; Krupić, D.; Hoyer, K.; Jaeger, B.; Ren, D.; Pfuhl, G.; Klevjer, K.; Corral-Frías, N. S.; Frias-Armenta, M.; Lucas, M. Y.; Torres, A. O.; Toro, M.; Delgado, L. G. J.; Vega, D.; Solas, SÁ, Vilar, R.; Massoni, S.; Frizzo, T.; Bran, A.; Vaidis, D. C.; Vieira, L.; Paris, B.; Capizzi, M.; Coelho, G. L. H.; Greenburgh, A.; Whitt, C. M.; Tullett, A. M.; Du, X.; Volz, L.; Bosma, M. J.; Karaarslan, C.; Sarıoğuz, E.; Allred, T. B.; Korbmacher, M.; Colloff, M. F.; Lima, T. J. S.; Ribeiro, M. F. F.; Verharen, J. P. H.; Karekla, M.; Karashiali, C.; Sunami, N.; Jaremka, L. M.; Storage, D.; Habib, S.; Studzinska, A.; Hanel, P. H. P.; Holford, D. L.; Sirota, M.; Wolfe, K.; Chiu, F.; Theodoropoulou, A.; Ahn, E. R.; Lin, Y.; Westgate, E. C.; Brohmer, H.; Hofer, G.; Dujols, O.; Vezirian, K.; Feldman, G.; Travaglino, G. A.; Ahmed, A.; Li, M.; Bosch, J.; Torunsky, N.; Bai, H.; Manavalan, M.; Song, X.; Walczak, R. B.; Zdybek, P.; Friedemann, M.; Rosa, A. D.; Kozma, L.; Alves, S. G.; Lins, S.; Pinto, I. R.; Correia, R. C.; Babinčák, P.; Banik, G.; Rojas-Berscia, L. M.; Varella, M. A. C.; Uttley, J.; Beshears, J. E.; Thommesen, K. K.; Behzadnia, B.; Geniole, S. N.; Silan, M. A.; Maturan, P. L. G.; Vilsmeier, J. K.; Tran, U. S.; Izquierdo, S. M.; Mensink, M. C.; Sorokowski, P.; Groyecka-Bernard, A.; Radtke, T.; Adoric, V. C.; Carpentier, J.; Özdoğru, A. A.; Joy-Gaba, J. A.; Hedgebeth, M. V.; Ishii, T.; Wichman, A. L.; Röer, J. P.; Ostermann, T.; Davis, W. E.; Suter, L.; Papachristopoulos, K.; Zabel, C.; Onie, S.; Ebersole, C. R.; Chartier, C. R.; Mallik, P. R.; Urry, H. L.; Buchanan, E. M.; Coles, N. A.; Primbs, M. A.; Basnight-Brown, D. M.; H, I. Jzerman, Forscher, P. S.; Moshontz, H..
Nat Hum Behav ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000902
7.
Journal of the American Heart Association ; : e026143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001999

ABSTRACT

Background Published randomized controlled trials are underpowered for binary clinical end points to assess the safety and efficacy of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in adults with COVID-19. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of RASi in adults with COVID-19. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched for randomized controlled trials that randomly assigned patients with COVID-19 to RASi continuation/commencement versus no RASi therapy. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at <=30 days. A total of 14 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and enrolled 1838 participants (aged 59 years, 58% men, mean follow-up 26 days). Of the trials, 11 contributed data. We found no effect of RASi versus control on all-cause mortality (7.2% versus 7.5%;relative risk [RR], 0.95;[95% CI, 0.69-1.30]) either overall or in subgroups defined by COVID-19 severity or trial type. Network meta-analysis identified no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers. RASi users had a nonsignificant reduction in acute myocardial infarction (2.1% versus 3.6%;RR, 0.59;[95% CI, 0.33-1.06]), but increased risk of acute kidney injury (7.0% versus 3.6%;RR, 1.82;[95% CI, 1.05-3.16]), in trials that initiated and continued RASi. There was no increase in need for dialysis or differences in congestive cardiac failure, cerebrovascular events, venous thromboembolism, hospitalization, intensive care admission, inotropes, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusions This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers versus control in patients with COVID-19 found no difference in all-cause mortality, a borderline decrease in myocardial infarction, and an increased risk of acute kidney injury with RASi. Our findings provide strong evidence that RASi can be used safely in patients with COVID-19.

9.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2233): 20210315, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992467

ABSTRACT

The English SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has been affected by the emergence of new viral variants such as B.1.177, Alpha and Delta, and changing restrictions. We used statistical models and the agent-based model Covasim, in June 2021, to estimate B.1.177 to be 20% more transmissible than the wild type, Alpha to be 50-80% more transmissible than B.1.177 and Delta to be 65-90% more transmissible than Alpha. Using these estimates in Covasim (calibrated 1 September 2020 to 20 June 2021), in June 2021, we found that due to the high transmissibility of Delta, resurgence in infections driven by the Delta variant would not be prevented, but would be strongly reduced by delaying the relaxation of restrictions by one month and with continued vaccination. This article is part of the theme issue 'Technical challenges of modelling real-life epidemics and examples of overcoming these'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systems Analysis
10.
Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ; 95(2):249-255, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1976056

ABSTRACT

Novel biologic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Although they are generally safe, they are immunomodulatory and therefore unique considerations apply in regards to infections and vaccine administration. This review aims to provide a clear and practical guide for dermatologists or other healthcare providers to reference when caring for psoriasis or atopic dermatitis patients being treated with biologic therapies using currently available guidelines and clinical data. Vaccinations for approved biologics including TNF alpha, IL-12/23, IL-23, IL-17, and IL-4/13 inhibitors will be discussed, with a special note on current COVID-19 vaccination recommendations.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1280, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967446

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Prior studies have indicated the presence of hepatic inflammation (as signified by elevated liver function test (LFT) values), as conferring an escalated risk toward adverse outcomes in patients admitted with COVID-19. In line with this hypothesis, we study the various thresholds of LFTs and its associated prognostic risks toward COVID- 19 related hospital deaths Method: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients admitted with COVID-19. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified the LFT variables significantly associated with our primary endpoint, in-hospital death. Subsequently, 500 iterations of thresholds were generated for each biomarker to estimate the prognostic relationship between biomarker and endpoint. Multivariate Cox regression and event-analyses were performed for each threshold to identify the minimal cutoffs at which the prognostic relationship was significant. Event curves were drawn for each significant relationship. Results: A total of 858 patients with COVID-19 were included with a median follow-up time of 5 days from admission. From the total, 90 patients passed away during admission (10.5%). The deceased cases were more likely to be older (66.2 vs 55.3y p<0.001);however, there was no difference in gender (male: 66 vs 56.2% p=0.11). Between the cases and controls (no-death), deceased cases had higher incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (7.78 vs 2.99% p=0.042), COPD (18.9 vs 7.80% p=0.001), lung cancer (4.44 vs 0.65% p= 0.009), ICU admissions (81.1 vs 26% p<0.001), and intubation events (84.4 vs 19.5% p<0.001), however there was no difference in alcohol use (21.1 vs 30.6% p=0.083) and alcoholic liver disease (5.56 vs 2.08% p=0.097). Upon univariate Cox analysis, the following LFT parameters were associated with in-hospital death: Bilirubin (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.001). However, alkaline phosphatase (p=0.449) was not associated with the primary endpoint. The iterations of event regression analyses using 500 sequences of LFT thresholds showed the following cutoffs to be significantly associated with in-hospital death (minimally significant values): ALT (281.71 IU/L), AST (120.94 IU/L), bilirubin (2.615 mg/ dL). On the multivariate analysis, while controlling for demographics and cardiopulmonary/ medical comorbidities, the following adjusted hazard ratios were derived for each cutoff: ALT (aHR: 6.43 95%CI 1.85-22.40), AST (aHR: 3.35 95%CI 1.84-6.11), and bilirubin (aHR: 2.77 95%CI 1.15-6.65). Conclusion: The delineated cutoffs for AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels can serve as clinical benchmarks to help determine when a COVID-19 infection poses significant risk. Given this finding, the cutoffs can be used as part of a risk assessment for patients to support early preventative therapies and medical management. (Table Presented)

12.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1279-S-1280, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967445

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: While the relationship between elevated liver enzymes and COVID- 19 related adverse events is well-established, a liver-dependent prognostic model that predicts the risk of death is helpful to accurately stratify admitted patients. In this study, we use a bootstrapping-enhanced method of regression modeling to predict COVID-19 related deaths in admitted patients. Method: This was a single-center, retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed using 30-day mortality as the primary endpoint to establish associated hepatic risk factors. Regression-based prediction models were constructed using a series of modeling iterations with an escalating number of categorical terms. Model performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Model accuracy was internally validated using bootstrapping-enhanced iterations. Results: 858 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 were included. 78 were deceased by 30 days (9.09%). Cox regression (greater than 20 variables) showed the following core variables to be significant: INR (aHR 1.26 95%CI 1.06-1.49), AST (aHR 1.00 95%CI 1.00- 1.00), age (aHR 1.05 95%CI 1.02-1.08), WBC (aHR 1.07 95%CI 1.03-1.11), lung cancer (aHR 3.38 95%CI 1.15-9.90), COPD (aHR 2.26 95%CI 1.21-4.22). Using these core variables and additional categorical terms, the following model iterations were constructed with their respective AUC;model 1 (core only): 0.82 95%CI 0.776-0.82, model 2 (core + demographics): 0.828 95%CI 0.785-0.828, model 3 (prior terms + additional biomarkers): 0.842 95%CI 0.799-0.842, model 4 (prior terms + comorbidities): 0.851 95%CI 0.809-0.851, model 5 (prior terms + life-sustaining therapies): 0.933 95%CI 0.91-0.933, model 6 (prior terms + COVID-19 medications): 0.934 95%CI 0.91-0.934. Model 1 demonstrated the following parameters at 0.91 TPR: 0.54 specificity, 0.17 PPV, 0.98 NPV. Bootstrapped iterations showed the following AUC for the respective models: model 1: 0.82 95%CI 0.765-0.882, model 2 0.828 95%CI 0.764-0.885, model 3 0.842 95%CI 0.779-0.883, model 4: 0.851 95%CI 0.808-0.914, model 5: 0.933 95%CI 0.901-0.957, model 6: 0.934 95%CI 0.901- 0.961. Conclusion: Model 1 displays high prediction performance (AUC >0.8) in both regression-based and bootstrapping-enhanced modeling iterations. Therefore, this model can be adopted for clinical use as a calculator to evaluate the risk of 30-day mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19. (Table Presented)

13.
Global Mental Health ; : 11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927012

ABSTRACT

Objectives. Policy measures to slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), such as curfews and business closures, may have negative effects on mental health. Populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be particularly affected due to high rates of poverty and less comprehensive welfare systems, but the evidence is scarce. We evaluated predictors of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in Uganda, which implemented one of the world's most stringent lockdowns. Methods. We conducted a mobile phone-based cross-sectional survey from December 2020 through April 2021 among individuals aged 18 years or over in Uganda. We measured depression, anxiety, and psychological distress using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-2, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-2, and the PHQ-4. We applied linear regression to assess associations between experiences of COVID-19 (including fear of infection, social isolation, income loss, difficulty accessing medical care, school closings, and interactions with police) and PHQ-4 score, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Results. 29.2% of 4066 total participants reported scores indicating moderate psychological distress, and 12.1% reported scores indicating severe distress. Distress was most common among individuals who were female, had lower levels of education, and lived in households with children. Related to COVID-19, PHQ-4 score was significantly associated with difficulty accessing medical care, worries about COVID-19, worries about interactions with police over lockdown measures, and days spent at home. Conclusions. There is an urgent need to address the significant burden of psychological distress associated with COVID-19 and policy responses in LMICs. Pandemic mitigation strategies must consider mental health consequences.

14.
Palliative Medicine ; 36(1 SUPPL):20-21, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916760

ABSTRACT

Background/aims: One-fifth of conveyances to the emergency department (ED) are due to acute-on-chronic breathlessness. Paramedic breathlessness management may ease distress quicker and/or reduce ED conveyances. We evaluated the feasibility of a full trial of a paramedic delivered intervention to reduce avoidable conveyances (recruitment, randomisation, consent, training and intervention acceptability, adherence, data quality, best primary outcome, sample size estimation). The intervention comprised evidence-based non-drug techniques and a self-management booklet. Methods: This mixed-methods feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN80330546) with embedded qualitative study about trial processes, training and intervention delivery, randomised paramedics to usual care or to intervention + usual care. Retrospective patient consent to use call-out data and prospective patient/carer consent for follow-up was sought. Potential primary outcomes were breathlessness intensity (numerical rating scale) and ED conveyance. Follow-up included an interview for patients/carers and questionnaires at 14 days, 1 and 6 months and paramedic focus groups and survey. Results: Recruitment was during the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to high demands on paramedics and fewer call-outs by eligible patients. We enrolled 29 paramedics;9 withdrew. Randomisation and trial procedures were acceptable. Paramedics recruited 13 patients;8 were followed up. Data quality was good. The intervention did not extend call-out time, was delivered with fidelity and no contamination and was acceptable to patients, carers and paramedics. There were no repeat call-outs < 48 hours. Recruitment stop-go criteria were not met. We had insufficient data for sample size estimation. Conclusions: A full trial in the same circumstances is not feasible. However, valuable information was gained on recruitment, attrition, consent, training and intervention acceptability and adherence, and patient-reported data collection.

17.
Science ; 376(6592):446-446, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848485
18.
Understanding Media Psychology ; : 1-326, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841594

ABSTRACT

Understanding Media Psychology is the perfect introductory textbook to the growing field of media psychology and its importance in society, summarizing key concepts and theories to provide an overview of topics in the field. Media is present in almost every area of life today, and is an area of study that will only increase in importance as the world becomes ever more interconnected. Written by a team of expert authors, this book will help readers to understand the structures, influences, and theories around media psychology. Covering core areas such as positive media psychology, the effects of gaming, violence, advertising, and pornography, the authors critically engage with contemporary discussions around propaganda, fake news, deepfakes, and the ways media have informed the COVID-19 pandemic. Particular care is also given to addressing the interaction between issues of social justice and the media, as well as the effects media has on both the members of marginalized groups and the way those groups are perceived. A final chapter addresses the nature of the field moving forward, and how it will continue to interact with closely related areas of study. Containing a range of pedagogical features throughout to aid teaching and student learning, including vocabulary and key terms, discussion questions, and boxed examples, this is an essential resource for media psychology courses at the undergraduate and introductory master’s level globally. © 2022 Taylor & Francis.

19.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335696

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the MIS-C risk with different SARS-CoV-2 variants. In Southeast England, MIS-C rates per confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in 0-16 years-olds were 56% lower (rate ratio, 0.34;95%CI, 0.23-0.50) during pre-vaccine Delta, 66% lower (0.44;0.28-0.69) during post-vaccine Delta and 95% lower (0.05;0.02-0.10) during the Omicron period.

20.
Science ; 375(6584):946-947, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820579
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