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1.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(9): 524-537, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931709

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 and its corresponding public health burden has prompted industries to rapidly implement traditional and novel control strategies to mitigate the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, generating a surge of interest and application of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) sources as disinfection systems. With this increased attention the need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these types of devices is paramount. A field study of the early implementation of UVGI devices was conducted at the Space Needle located in Seattle, Washington. Six devices were evaluated, including four low-pressure (LP) mercury-vapor lamp devices for air and surface sanitation not designed for human exposure and two krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimer lamp devices to be operated on and around humans. Emission spectra and ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at different locations from the UV devices were measured and germicidal effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 was estimated. The human safety of KrCl* excimer devices was also evaluated based on measured irradiance and estimated exposure durations. Our results show all LP devices emitted UV radiation primarily at 254 nm as expected. Both KrCl* excimers emitted far UVC irradiation at 222 nm as advertised but also emitted at longer, more hazardous wavelengths (228 to 262 nm). All LP devices emitted strong UVC irradiance, which was estimated to achieve three log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 sec of exposure at reasonable working distances. KrCl* excimers, however, emitted much lower irradiance than needed for effective disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 (>90% inactivation) within the typical exposure times. UV fluence from KrCl* excimer devices for employees was below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) under the reported device usage and work shifts. However, photosensitive individuals, human susceptibility, or exposure to multiple UV sources throughout a worker's day, were not accounted for in this study. Caution should be used when determining the acceptability of UV exposure to workers in this occupational setting and future work should focus on UVGI sources in public settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Public Health , Ultraviolet Rays
2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 841-848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Appropriate face covering use at public venues can help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the absence of widespread vaccination and provide protection when viral variants become more infectious. The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with a statewide face mask mandate by examining trends in face covering use in publicly accessible spaces in King County, Washington. METHODS: From November 27, 2020, through May 11, 2021, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional observational study of face covering use across publicly accessible venues (eg, grocery and convenience stores, airport, transit center, post office). Trained observers recorded perceived sex, estimated age group, and face covering use. We calculated estimates of overall face covering use and prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: We observed 9865 people in 53 unique venues during 229 observation intervals during 6 observation periods. Correct face covering use was 87.2% overall and lowest at semi-outdoor venues such as transit hubs (78.1%) and the pick-up curb of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (69.0%). Correct face covering use was lowest among men (PR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.27-1.58) and among people aged 2-11 years (PR = 2.74; 95% CI, 2.37-3.17) and 12-17 years (PR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.72). Compliance declined among adults aged ≥60 years and among younger age groups before vaccine eligibility. CONCLUSIONS: Overall compliance with the statewide face mask mandate in King County was high. Layered mitigation strategies, including but not limited to the use of face coverings, and methods to assess adherence to them are crucial to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
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