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J Vet Intern Med ; 37(3): 1223-1232, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233210


BACKGROUND: A point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocol for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory systems in horses does not exist. OBJECTIVES: (a) Describe the windows of a POCUS protocol for cardiorespiratory assessment of horses (CRASH); (b) Estimate the number of acoustic windows that can be acquired by a sonographer-in-training; (c) Estimate the time required to complete the protocol for specific groups of horses; (d) Describe the sonographic abnormalities detected in horses presented with cardiovascular, respiratory, or systemic disease. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven healthy horses, 14 horses competing in athletic events, and 120 horses with clinical disease. METHOD: A pocket-sized ultrasound device was used to acquire 7 sonographic cardiorespiratory windows in various clinical scenarios. The duration of the examination was timed, and images were evaluated for diagnostic quality. Abnormalities in horses with clinical disease were determined by an expert sonographer. RESULTS: The CRASH protocol could be performed in healthy and diseased horses in hospital, barn, and competition settings between 5.5 ± 0.9 (athletic horses) and 6.9 ± 1.9 min (horses with clinical disease). Thoracic windows were obtained most consistently, followed by right parasternal long-axis echocardiographic windows. Frequently detected abnormalities were pleural fluid, lung consolidation, B-lines, and moderate-to-severe left-sided heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: The CRASH protocol was feasible using a pocket-sized ultrasound device in various groups of horses, could be completed rapidly in a variety of settings, and frequently identified sonographic abnormalities when evaluated by an expert sonographer. The diagnostic accuracy, observer agreement, and utility of the CRASH protocol merit further evaluation.

Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Horses , Animals , Feasibility Studies , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography/methods , Echocardiography/veterinary
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 371, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242035


Vaccines and therapeutics using in vitro transcribed mRNA hold enormous potential for human and veterinary medicine. Transfection agents are widely considered to be necessary to protect mRNA and enhance transfection, but they add expense and raise concerns regarding quality control and safety. We found that such complex mRNA delivery systems can be avoided when transfecting epithelial cells by aerosolizing the mRNA into micron-sized droplets. In an equine in vivo model, we demonstrated that the translation of mRNA into a functional protein did not depend on the addition of a polyethylenimine (PEI)-derived transfection agent. We were able to safely and effectively transfect the bronchial epithelium of foals using naked mRNA (i.e., mRNA formulated in a sodium citrate buffer without a delivery vehicle). Endoscopic examination of the bronchial tree and histology of mucosal biopsies indicated no gross or microscopic adverse effects of the transfection. Our data suggest that mRNA administered by an atomization device eliminates the need for chemical transfection agents, which can reduce the cost and the safety risks of delivering mRNA to the respiratory tract of animals and humans.

Horses , Nasal Sprays , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , Respiratory Mucosa , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers/adverse effects , Drug Carriers/pharmacokinetics , Drug Delivery Systems/adverse effects , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/veterinary , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/veterinary , Polyethyleneimine/administration & dosage , Polyethyleneimine/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/pharmacokinetics , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Transfection/methods , Transfection/veterinary , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/adverse effects , Vaccines, DNA/pharmacokinetics