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N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 777-789, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343497


BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. METHODS: In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. RESULTS: The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).

Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105067, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281502


S. Ray and A. Reddy recently anticipated the implication of circadian rhythm in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease (Covid-19). In addition to its key role in the regulation of biological functions, the circadian rhythm has been suggested as a regulator of viral infections. Specifically, the time of day of infection was found critical for illness progression, as has been reported for influenza, respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. We analyzed circadian rhythm implication in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of isolated human monocytes, key actor cells in Covid-19 disease, from healthy subjects. The circadian gene expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK genes was investigated with q-RTPCR. Monocytes were infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus strain and viral infection was investigated by One-Step qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß and IL-10 levels were also measured in supernatants of infected monocytes. Using Cosinor analysis, we showed that BMAL1 and CLOCK transcripts exhibited circadian rhythm in monocytes with an acrophase and a bathyphase at Circadian Time (CT)6 and CT17. After 48 h, the amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus increased in the monocyte infected at CT6 compared to CT17. The high virus amount at CT6 was associated with significant increased release in IL-6, IL-1ß and IL-10 compared to CT17. Our results suggest that time day of SARS-CoV-2 infection affects viral infection and host immune response. They support consideration of circadian rhythm in SARS-CoV-2 disease progression and we propose circadian rhythm as a novel target for managing viral progression.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Circadian Rhythm , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-6
Am J Transplant ; 21(4): 1586-1596, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883239


It is unknown if solid organ transplant recipients are at higher risk for severe COVID-19. The management of a lung transplantation (LTx) program and the therapeutic strategies to adapt the immunosuppressive regimen and antiviral measures is a major issue in the COVID-19 era, but little is known about worldwide practice. We sent out to 180 LTx centers worldwide in June 2020 a survey with 63 questions, both regarding the management of a LTx program in the COVID-19 era and the therapeutic strategies to treat COVID-19 LTx recipients. We received a total of 78 responses from 15 countries. Among participants, 81% declared a reduction of the activity and 47% restricted LTx for urgent cases only. Sixteen centers observed deaths on waiting listed patients and eight centers performed LTx for COVID-19 disease. In 62% of the centers, COVID-19 was diagnosed in LTx recipients, most of them not severe cases. The most common immunosuppressive management included a decreased dose or pausing of the cell cycle inhibitors. Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were the most proposed antiviral strategies. Most of the centers have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and proposed an active therapeutic strategy to treat LTx recipients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists