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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the best strategy to contrast coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).We aimed to determine antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in breastmilk and serum of mothers vaccinated with mRNA vaccine. METHODS: this prospective study included 18 lactating women vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine. Serum and breastmilk were collected before the first dose (T0), at second dose (T1), 3 weeks (T2) and 6 months later (T3). Serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) IgG and IgA were measured by a semi-quantitative ELISA, secretory antibody (s) IgG and IgA in breastmilk by a quantitative analysis. RESULTS: we detected serum anti-S IgG and IgA in all women after vaccination. Specific IgG and IgA were higher at T1, T2 and T3 compared to T0 (p<0.0001). Higher antibody levels were observed at T2, lower values were observed at T3 vs T2 (p=0.007). After six months, all patients had serum IgG but 3 out of 18 (16%) had serum IgA. In breastmilk, sIgA were present at T1 and T2 and decreased after six months at T3 (p=0.002). Breastmilk sIgG levels increased at T1 and T2 and peaked at T3 (p=0.008). CONCLUSION: secretory antibodies were transmitted through breastmilk until 6 months after anti COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Protection of the newborn through breastfeeding need to be addressed.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911151

ABSTRACT

The guidelines on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend an empiric therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) according to its prevalence rate. Considering the MRSA and MSSA VAP prevalence over the last 9 years in our tertiary care hospital, we assessed the clinical value of the MRSA nasal-swab screening in either predicting or ruling out MRSA VAP. We extracted the data of 1461 patients with positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Regarding the MRSA nasal-swab screening, 170 patients were positive for MRSA or MSSA. Overall, MRSA had a high prevalence in our ICU. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant downward trend in MRSA prevalence, while MSSA remained steady over time. Having VAP due to MRSA did not have any impact on LOS and mortality. Finally, the MRSA nasal-swab testing demonstrated a very high negative predictive value for MRSA VAP. Our results suggested the potential value of a patient-centered approach to improve antibiotic stewardship.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 157-160, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of a 3-day course of remdesivir to prevent severe disease in patients with COVID-19 who received solid organ transplant (SOT) is unknown. We wanted to study the efficacy of this therapeutic option in patients with COVID-19 who received SOT in preventing both hospitalizations for outpatients and clinical worsening due to COVID-19 for those already hospitalized for other reasons. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective, observational study conducted in the Fondazione IRCSS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia, Northern Italy. We extracted all the data of patients with COVID-19 receiving SOT who received and did not receive pre-emptive remdesivir between December 23, 2021, and February 26, 2022. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to assess whether receiving pre-emptive remdesivir was associated with lower rates of hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients who received SOT were identified. Among these, seven patients (29, 1%) received pre-emptive remdesivir, whereas 17 (70, 9%) patients did not. Receiving remdesivir significantly reduced the hospitalization rate in outpatients who received SOT and the clinical worsening of the condition of already hospitalized patients who received SOT (hazard ratio 0.05; confidence interval [0.00-0.65], P-value = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In our cohort of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who received SOT, pre-emptive remdesivir was effective in reducing the hospitalization rate due to COVID-19 and in preventing the clinical worsening of the condition of patients who received SOT who were hospitalized for reasons other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334280

ABSTRACT

Background: the hyperinflammation phase of severe SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by complete blood count alterations. In this context, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can be used as prognostic factors. We study NLR and PLR trends at different timepoints and compute optimal cutoffs to predict four outcomes: use of Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP), ICU admission, invasive ventilation and death. Methods: : we retrospectively included all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted from 23 rd January 2020 to 18 th May 2021. Data were extracted using ICD9 codes and our Covid-19 registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests to study the ability of NLR and PLR to distinguish the patients’ outcomes at each timepoint. ROC curves were built for NLR and PLR at each timepoint (minus discharge) in order to identify cutoffs to distinguish severe and non severe disease and their statistical significance was assessed with the Chi-square test. NLR and PLR were compared with DeLong’s test. Results: : we included 2169 patients. NLR and PLR were higher in severe Covid-19 at all the timepoints, with a difference that gets bigger and a trend that is steeper in more severe disease. Both ratios were able to distinguish the outcomes at each timepoint. For NLR, the areas under the curve (AUROC) ranged between 0.59 and 0.81, for PLR, between 0.53 and 0.67. From each ROC curve we computed an optimal cutoff value (e.g. NLR 7 for CPAP for males at admission). NLR performed better than PLR. Conclusion: our results are in line with other studies that computed NLR and PLR trends and values in disease, especially with those that distinguished between different grades of severity. Our study is retrospective and single centre, and is limited by selection bias, but includes more than 2000 patients, thus limiting the confounding factors and outliers. Our cutoffs do not only deal with severity and mortality but allow for a more tailored approach. Future prospect include validating our cutoffs in a prospective cohort and comparing their performance against other Covid19 scores.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(2): e08895, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778151

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 tide had shattered on European countries with three distinct and tough waves, from March and April, 2020; October and November, 2020 and March and April, 2021 respectively. We observed a 50% reduction in the hazard of death during both wave II and III compared with wave I (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.39-0.74 and HR 0.57, 95%CI 0.41-0.80, respectively). Sex and age were independent predictors of death. We compare in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients admitted at our Referral Hospital of Northern Italy during the different waves, discuss the reasons of the observed differences and suggest approaches to the challenges ahead.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329622

ABSTRACT

The guidelines on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend an empiric therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) according to its the prevalence rate. Considering the MRSA and MSSA VAP prevalence over the last 9 years in our tertiary care Hospital, we firstly compared patients with MRSA VAP to those with MSSA VAP in terms of length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality and secondly, we assessed the clinical value of the MRSA nasal-swab screening in either predicting or ruling out MRSA VAP. We extracted the data of 1461 patients with positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Regarding the MRSA nasal-swab screening, 170 patients were positive for MRSA or MSSA. Overall, MRSA had a high prevalence in our ICU. Despite the COVID pandemic, there was a significant downward trend in MRSA prevalence, while MSSA remained steady over time. Having VAP due to MRSA did not have any impact on LOS and mortality. Finally, the MRSA nasal-swab testing demonstrated a very high negative predictive value for MRSA VAP. Our results suggested the potential value of a patient-centered approach to improve antibiotic stewardship.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317967

ABSTRACT

Many countries are managing COVID-19 epidemic by switching between lighter and heavier restrictions. While an open-close and a close-open cycle have comparable socio-economic costs, the former leads to a much heavier burden in terms of deaths and pressure on the healthcare system. An empirical demonstration of the toll ensuing from procrastination was recently observed in Israel, where both cycles were enforced from late August to mid-December 2020, yielding some 1,600 deaths with open-close compared to 440 with close-open.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311193

ABSTRACT

Despite the progress in medical care, combined population-wide interventions (such as physical distancing, testing and contact tracing) are still crucial to manage the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, aggravated by the emergence of new highly transmissible variants. We combine the compartmental SIDARTHE model, predicting the course of COVID-19 infections, with a new data-based model that projects new cases onto casualties and healthcare system costs. Based on the Italian case study, we outline several scenarios: mass vaccination campaigns with different paces, different transmission rates due to new variants, and different enforced countermeasures, including the alternation of opening and closure phases. Our results demonstrate that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have a higher impact on the epidemic evolution than vaccination, which advocates for the need to keep containment measures in place throughout the vaccination campaign. We also show that, if intermittent open-close strategies are adopted, deaths and healthcare system costs can be drastically reduced, without any aggravation of socioeconomic losses, as long as one has the foresight to start with a closing phase rather than an opening one.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311192

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a novel strand of Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing a severe, potentially fatal respiratory syndrome (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and is causing outbreaks in multiple world countries, soon becoming a pandemic. Italy has now become the most hit country outside of Asia: on March 16, 2020, the Italian Civil Protection documented a total of 27980 confirmed cases and 2158 deaths of people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the context of an emerging infectious disease outbreak, it is of paramount importance to predict the trend of the epidemic in order to plan an effective control strategy and to determine its impact. This paper proposes a new epidemic model that discriminates between infected individuals depending on whether they have been diagnosed and on the severity of their symptoms. The distinction between diagnosed and non-diagnosed is important because non-diagnosed individuals are more likely to spread the infection than diagnosed ones, since the latter are typically isolated, and can explain misperceptions of the case fatality rate and of the seriousness of the epidemic phenomenon. Being able to predict the amount of patients that will develop life-threatening symptoms is important since the disease frequently requires hospitalisation (and even Intensive Care Unit admission) and challenges the healthcare system capacity. We show how the basic reproduction number can be redefined in the new framework, thus capturing the potential for epidemic containment. Simulation results are compared with real data on the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, to show the validity of the model and compare different possible predicted scenarios depending on the adopted countermeasures.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308676

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the health care workers (HCWs) at the frontline have been largely exposed to infected patients, running an high risk of being infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study investigates the epidemiological, clinical and lifestyles characteristics that might play roles in the susceptibility of HCWs to COVID-19 in a hit Italian hospital. Methods: Demographic, lifestyle, work-related and comorbidities data of 1447 HCWs which underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively collected. For the 164 HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2, data about safety in the workplace, symptoms and clinical course of COVID-19 were also collected. Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression. Results: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the screened HCWs was 11.33 (9.72-13.21). Working in a COVID-19 ward, being a former smoker (vs being a person who never smoked) and BMI were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas being a current smoker was negatively associated with this variable. Conclusions: Assuming an equal accessibility and proper use of PPE of all the HCWs of our Hospital, the great and more prolonged contact with COVID-19 patients remains the crucial risk factor for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, increased and particular care needs to be focused specifically on the most exposed HCWs groups, which should be safeguarded. Furthermore, in order to limit the risk of asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the HCWs mild symptoms of COVID-19 should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of universal staff testing

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328806

ABSTRACT

Background: the hyperinflammation phase of severe SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by complete blood count alterations. In this context, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can be used as prognostic factors. We study NLR and PLR trends at different timepoints and compute optimal cutoffs to predict four outcomes: use of Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP), ICU admission, invasive ventilation and death. Methods: we retrospectively included all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted from 23 rd January 2020 to 18 th May 2021. Data were extracted using ICD9 codes and our Covid-19 registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests to study the ability of NLR and PLR to distinguish the patients’ outcomes at each timepoint. ROC curves were built for NLR and PLR at each timepoint (minus discharge) in order to identify cutoffs to distinguish severe and non severe disease and their statistical significance was assessed with the Chi-square test. NLR and PLR were compared with DeLong’s test. Results: we included 2169 patients. NLR and PLR were higher in severe Covid-19 at all the timepoints, with a difference that gets bigger and a trend that is steeper in more severe disease. Both ratios were able to distinguish the outcomes at each timepoint. For NLR, the areas under the curve (AUROC) ranged between 0.59 and 0.81, for PLR, between 0.53 and 0.67. From each ROC curve we computed an optimal cutoff value (e.g. NLR 7 for CPAP for males at admission). NLR performed better than PLR. Conclusion: our results are in line with other studies that computed NLR and PLR trends and values in disease, especially with those that distinguished between different grades of severity. Our study is retrospective and single centre, and is limited by selection bias, but includes more than 2000 patients, thus limiting the confounding factors and outliers. Our cutoffs do not only deal with severity and mortality but allow for a more tailored approach. Future prospect include validating our cutoffs in a prospective cohort and comparing their performance against other Covid19 scores.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325523

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. Methods: All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21 st to March 30 th , 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. Results: 426 adult patients (median age 68 (IQR, 56 to 77 years) were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period;292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4 th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Olderage, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 243-246, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654540

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is ongoing debate regarding the role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in asthma exacerbation, and its long-term impact on the lung function of individuals with asthma. In contrast, the potential impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on asthma is entirely unexplored. CASE STUDY: This study examined a challenging case of severe asthma exacerbation in a 28-year-old female following two doses of the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) at IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia, Italy. The patient, a fourth-year resident at the hospital, was vaccinated in early 2021. She was an occasional smoker with a 10-year history of asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis. She tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on several molecular swabs and serology tests. RESULTS: After receiving the second dose of vaccine, the patient started to experience worsening of respiratory symptoms. Following several episodes and a severe asthma attack, the patient required treatment with mepolizumab, a biologic drug (interleukin-5) antagonist monoclonal antibody. CONCLUSION: This single case study is insufficient to draw conclusions about the association between asthma exacerbation and the COVID-19 vaccine. While the cause-effect link between vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and worsening of asthmatic disease might only be suggested at present, this case is a valuable prompt for further investigation. This is particularly true from the perspective of mass vaccination of adolescents and children currently underway across the globe.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
iScience ; 25(2): 103743, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611783

ABSTRACT

Information concerning the longevity of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection may have considerable implications for durability of immunity induced by vaccines. Here, we monitored the SARS-CoV-2 specific immune response in COVID-19 patients followed up to 15 months after symptoms onset. Following a peak at day 15-28 postinfection, the IgG antibody response and plasma neutralizing titers gradually decreased over time but stabilized after 6 months. Compared to G614, plasma neutralizing titers were more than 8-fold lower against variants Beta, Gamma, and Delta. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cells persisted in the majority of patients up to 15 months although a significant decrease in specific T cells, but not B cells, was observed between 6 and 15 months. Antiviral specific immunity, especially memory B cells in COVID-19 convalescent patients, is long-lasting, but some variants of concern may at least partially escape the neutralizing activity of plasma antibodies.

15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): e112, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510459

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Fomites , Humans , Risk
17.
J Pers Med ; 11(8)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335139

ABSTRACT

Despite low rates of bacterial co-infections, most COVID-19 patients receive antibiotic therapy. We hypothesized that patients with positive pneumococcal urinary antigens (PUAs) would benefit from antibiotic therapy in terms of clinical outcomes (death, ICU admission, and length of stay). The San Matteo COVID-19 Registry (SMACORE) prospectively enrolls patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia at IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia. We retrospectively extracted the data of patients tested for PUA from October to December 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Of 469 patients, 42 tested positive for PUA (8.95%), while 427 (91.05%) tested negative. A positive PUA result had no significant impact on death (HR 0.53 CI [0.22-1.28] p-value 0.16) or ICU admission (HR 0.8; CI [0.25-2.54] p-value 0.70) in the Cox regression model, nor on length of stay in linear regression (estimate 1.71; SE 2.37; p-value 0.47). After adjusting for age, we found no significant correlation between urinary antigen positivity and variations in the WHO ordinal scale and laboratory markers at admission and after 14 days. We found that a positive PUA result was not frequent and had no impact on clinical outcomes or clinical improvement. Our results did not support the routine use of PUA tests to select COVID-19 patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy.

20.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 993-998, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189264

ABSTRACT

Despite progress in clinical care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1, population-wide interventions are still crucial to manage the pandemic, which has been aggravated by the emergence of new, highly transmissible variants. In this study, we combined the SIDARTHE model2, which predicts the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a new data-based model that projects new cases onto casualties and healthcare system costs. Based on the Italian case study, we outline several scenarios: mass vaccination campaigns with different paces, different transmission rates due to new variants and different enforced countermeasures, including the alternation of opening and closure phases. Our results demonstrate that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have a higher effect on the epidemic evolution than vaccination alone, advocating for the need to keep NPIs in place during the first phase of the vaccination campaign. Our model predicts that, from April 2021 to January 2022, in a scenario with no vaccine rollout and weak NPIs ([Formula: see text] = 1.27), as many as 298,000 deaths associated with COVID-19 could occur. However, fast vaccination rollouts could reduce mortality to as few as 51,000 deaths. Implementation of restrictive NPIs ([Formula: see text] = 0.9) could reduce COVID-19 deaths to 30,000 without vaccinating the population and to 18,000 with a fast rollout of vaccines. We also show that, if intermittent open-close strategies are adopted, implementing a closing phase first could reduce deaths (from 47,000 to 27,000 with slow vaccine rollout) and healthcare system costs, without substantive aggravation of socioeconomic losses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
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