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1.
Curr Obes Rep ; 11(3): 144-165, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943419

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review primarily examines the evidence for areas of consensus and on-going uncertainty or controversy about diet and physical exercise approaches for in the post-CoVID. We propose an ideal dietary and physical activity approach that the patient with obesity should follow after CoVID-19 infection in order to reduce the clinical conditions associated with post-CoVID syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The CoVID-19 disease pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, has spread all over the globe, infecting hundreds of millions of individuals and causing millions of death. It is also known to be is associated with several medical and psychological complications, especially in patients with obesity and weight-related disorders who in general pose a significant global public health problem, and in specific affected individuals are on a greater risk of developing poorer CoVID-19 clinical outcomes and experience a higher rate of mortality. Little is still known about the best nutritional approach to be adopted in this disease especially in the patients post-CoVID syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, no specific nutritional recommendations exist to manage in the patients post-CoVID syndrome. We report a presentation of nutritional therapeutic approach based on a ketogenic diet protocol followed by a transition to the Mediterranean diet in patients post-infection by CoVID, combined to a physical activity program to address conditions associated with post-CoVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Ketogenic , Diet, Mediterranean , Diet, Ketogenic/adverse effects , Humans , Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Environ Res ; 211: 113038, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906998

ABSTRACT

There are important questions surrounding the potential contribution of outdoor and indoor air quality in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and perpetuation of COVID-19 epidemic waves. Environmental health may be a critical component of COVID-19 prevention. The public health community and health agencies should consider the evolving evidence in their recommendations and statements, and work to issue occupational guidelines. Evidence coming from the current epidemiological and experimental research is expected to add knowledge about virus diffusion, COVID-19 severity in most polluted areas, inter-personal distance requirements and need for wearing face masks in indoor or outdoor environments. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for maintaining particulate matter concentrations at low levels for multiple health-related reasons, which may also include the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Indoor environments represent even a more crucial challenge to cope with, as it is easier for the SARS-COV2 to spread, remain vital and infect other subjects in closed spaces in the presence of already infected asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic people. The potential merits of preventive measures, such as CO2 monitoring associated with natural or controlled mechanical ventilation and air purification, for schools, indoor public places (restaurants, offices, hotels, museums, theatres/cinemas etc.) and transportations need to be carefully considered. Hospital settings and nursing/retirement homes as well as emergency rooms, infectious diseases divisions and ambulances represent higher risk indoor environments and may require additional monitoring and specific decontamination strategies based on mechanical ventilation or air purification.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Stresses ; 1(2):119, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834888

ABSTRACT

Concomitantly, the reduced sources of antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, vitamin A, E, C and carotenoids in obese patients promotes a vulnerability to oxidative damage and consequently increases susceptibility to infections [14]. [...]obesity is associated with a state of metaflammation—chronic low-grade inflammation—a condition that, among other factors, contributes to inducing systemic OS. Characteristic hyperlipidaemia observed in obese patients stimulates monocytes and macrophages and induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 [16,18,19]. [...]in obese COVID-19 patients, the already pre-existing effects prompted by the lipid peroxidation-dependent OS could be further aggravated by SARS-CoV-2 infection [20], affecting the immune control system in response to infection and potentially increasing the severity of the lung disease and contributing to multiorgan failure. The results of the study demonstrated that the antibody titre was significantly higher in young and female participants compared to the male and older population. [...]the humoral response was significantly more efficient in subjects with lower and normal weight compared to overweight and obese subjects. [...]the consequence of OS on immunological functions and the evidence of weakened virus vaccine effectiveness in obese patients raise concerns about COVID-19 vaccine responsiveness in this population.

4.
EXCLI J ; 21: 687-694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818841

ABSTRACT

The mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines were highly effective in the prevention of symptomatic COVID-19, hospitalization, severe disease, and death. However, a minority of vaccinated individuals might become infected and experience significant morbidity. Risk factors of COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough in obesity have not been elucidated. Thus, we aimed to portray the subjects with obesity developing COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough despite vaccination. Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines have been highly effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, hospitalization, severe illness and death. However, a minority of vaccinated individuals may become infected and experience considerable morbidity. The risk factors for COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough in obesity have not been elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to depict individuals with obesity who develop COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough despite vaccination. An online questionnaire was distributed to respondents via a snowball sampling method among subjects with obesity belonging to Italian Associations for people living with obesity aged 18 years and above. Two hundred and thirty-five respondents (44.5±14 years; BMI: 33.3±7.2 kg/m2) were included in the study. COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough was noted in 34 % of respondents. A higher prevalence of grade III obesity was detected in subjects with COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough compared to subjects that did not (27.5 % vs 13.5 %; p=0.014). In addition, a significant lower prevalence of respondents that completed third dose were found in respondents with COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough compared with respondents that did not develop it (33.8 % vs 72.9 %; p<0.001). After stratifying respondents with COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough according to the completed doses of vaccine, we found that, although no differences were detected in terms of clinical manifestations of COVID-19, there was a significant higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in respondents that completed third doses compared to respondents that completed first and second doses. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough was more common in subjects with grade III obesity. The presence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension could counteract the immune potentiating effects of vaccine booster against COVID-19.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785850

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global pandemic. Reports from different parts of the world indicate that a significant proportion of people who have recovered from COVID-19 are suffering from various health problems collectively referred to as "long COVID-19". Common symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain, muscle aches, headaches, and so on. Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory hormone with proven efficacy against various upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D can inhibit hyperinflammatory reactions and accelerate the healing process in the affected areas, especially in lung tissue. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases, with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D found in patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure. Thus, there are promising reasons to promote research into the effects of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 patients. However, no studies to date have found that vitamin D affects post-COVID-19 symptoms or biomarkers. Based on this scenario, this review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the potential role of vitamin D in long COVID-19 and of the current literature on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(7): 1254-1261, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783960

ABSTRACT

The new 2019 coronavirus 19 disease (CoVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious threat to health systems. As a global health problem, this pandemic poses a huge threat to people and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. On the other hand, obesity has also reached epidemic proportions and poses another challenge to the healthcare system. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between obesity and CoVID-19 disease, but the mechanisms underlying the link between the two remain unclear and the role of obesity also remains to be elucidated. In particular obesity-related low-grade inflammation has been hypothesized as the Achille's heel that could predispose subjects with obesity to a more severe CoVID-19 compared to subjects with normal weight. Hence, we summarized recent evidence on the role of low-grade inflammation in clinical aspects of CoVID-19 in subjects with obesity in both childhood and adulthood. Further, we provide molecular insights to explain this link.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics
7.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760790

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, global efforts focused on containing the spread of the virus and avoiding contagion. Currently, it is evident that health professionals should deal with the overall health status of COVID-19 survivors. Indeed, novel findings have identified post-COVID-19 syndrome, which is characterized by malnutrition, loss of fat-free mass, and low-grade inflammation. In addition, the recovery might be complicated by persistent functional impairment (i.e., fatigue and muscle weakness, dysphagia, appetite loss, and taste/smell alterations) as well as psychological distress. Therefore, the appropriate evaluation of nutritional status (assessment of dietary intake, anthropometrics, and body composition) is one of the pillars in the management of these patients. On the other hand, personalized dietary recommendations represent the best strategy to ensure recovery. Therefore, this review aimed to collect available evidence on the role of nutrients and their supplementation in post-COVID-19 syndrome to provide a practical guideline to nutritionists to tailor dietary interventions for patients recovering from COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , COVID-19/complications , Diet , Humans , Nutritional Status
9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(3): 449-465, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641930

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic due to widespread SARS-CoV-19 infection has again highlighted the role of obesity, whose global prevalence increased up to 13%, as a risk factor for both susceptibility to infections and the occurrence of a more severe disease course. To date, this association has not been sufficiently explored. Obesity-related susceptibility to infectious diseases is mostly thought to be due to an impairment of both innate and adaptive immune responses and vitamin D deficiency. Several cofactors can indirectly favour the onset and/or worsening of infectious diseases, such as impairment of respiratory mechanics, skin and subcutaneous tissue homoeostasis, obesity-related comorbidities and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Subjects with obesity have a higher incidence of cutaneous infections, probably due to changes in skin barrier functions and wound healing. Excess weight is also associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infection and its recurrence, as well as with a higher prevalence of both lower and higher respiratory tract infections. Moreover, patients with obesity appear to have an increased risk of surgical site infections when undergoing general, orthopaedic, gynaecological, and bariatric surgery. Data concerning the different infectious diseases related to obesity are rather limited since anthropometric parameters are usually poorly recorded. Furthermore, specific therapeutic protocols in subjects with obesity are lacking, especially regarding antibiotic therapy and further supplements. This review summarizes etiopathogenetic and epidemiological evidence and highlights areas of uncertainty in the field of infectious diseases and obesity, which require further research. It is important to raise public awareness of this additional risk related to obesity and to raise awareness among the scientific community to develop specific clinical protocols for subjects with obesity.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Obesity , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Young Adult
10.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(4): 1759-1766, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smell and taste dysfunctions (STDs) are symptoms associated with COVID-19 syndrome, even if their incidence is still uncertain and variable. AIMS: In this study, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on chemosensory function have been investigated using both a self-reporting questionnaire on smell and flavor perception, and a simplified flavor test. METHODS: A total of 111 subjects (19 hospitalized [HOS] and 37 home-isolated [HI] COVID-19 patients, and 55 healthy controls [CTRL]) were enrolled in the study. They received a self-evaluation questionnaire and a self-administered flavor test kit. The flavor test used consists in the self-administration of four solutions with a pure olfactory stimulus (coffee), a mixed olfactory-trigeminal stimulus (peppermint), and a complex chemical mixture (banana). RESULTS: After SARS-CoV-2 infection, HOS and HI patients reported similar prevalence of STDs, with a significant reduction of both smell and flavor self-estimated perception. The aromas of the flavor test were recognized by HI and HOS COVID-19 patients similarly to CTRL; however, the intensity of the perceived aromas was significantly lower in patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Data reported here suggests that a chemosensory impairment is present after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the modified "flavor test" could be a novel self-administering objective screening test to assess STDs in COVID-19 patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NO: NCT04840966; April 12, 2021, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/complications
11.
Stresses ; 1(2):119-122, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1259581

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has induced a global emergency [...]

12.
Endocrine ; 72(3): 597-603, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230294

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VITD) is a key hormone for bone health and has relevant extra-skeletal effects that might play a role in the prevention and treatment of COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Literature regarding this scenario is voluminous but controversial. Glucocorticoid Induced Osteoporosis Skeletal Endocrinology Group (G.I.O.S.E.G) has been present in the scientific debate about the use of VITD and has regularly interfaced national regulatory agencies to ensure appropriateness of its employment. Given the current pandemic and the questions on COVID-19 and VITD, G.I.O.S.E.G. appointed an expert panel to advise how to consider this issue best. The results of these deliberations are reported in the current recommendation paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins
13.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were: to investigate the capacity of the rare disease healthcare network in Campania to diagnose patients with rare diseases during the outbreak of Covid-19; and to shed light on problematic diagnoses during this period. METHODS: To describe the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of patients with rare diseases, a retrospective analysis of the Campania Region Rare Disease Registry was performed. A tailored questionnaire was sent to rare disease experts to investigate major issues during the emergency period. RESULTS: Prevalence of new diagnoses of rare disease in March and April 2020 was significantly lower than in 2019 (117 versus 317, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 349, P < 0.001, respectively) and 2018 (117 versus 389, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 282, P < 0.001, respectively). Eighty-two among 98 rare disease experts completed the questionnaire. Diagnostic success (95%), access to diagnosis (80%) and follow-up (72%), lack of Personal Protective Equipment (60%), lack of Covid-19 guidelines (50%) and the need for home therapy (78%) were the most important issues raised during Covid-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the effects of the Covid-19 outbreak on the diagnosis of rare disease in a single Italian region and investigates potential issues of diagnosis and management during this period.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167679

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has declared the coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; the outbreak has led to lockdowns in several parts of the world, and sudden changes in people's lifestyles. This study explores the impact of the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period on dietary habits, lifestyle changes, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet among the Italian population, through an online questionnaire, conducted from April to May 2020, involving 1519 participants. The 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) highlighted a medium Mediterranean diet adherence in 73.5% of responders, which principally included the younger population, aged 18-30 years (p < 0.05). In regards to changes in eating habits, 33.5% of responders declared an influence of the pandemic period on nutritional practice. A decrease in alcohol consumption was reported by 81% of responders, while an increase in frozen food consumption was reported by 81.3% of responders. In addition, 58.8% reported positive weight modification (40.8%, +1-3 kg); physical activity reduction was reported for 70.5% of responders. Our study contributes toward amplifying the investigation on the dietary habits and changes of the Italian population during the COVID-19 lockdown, although the pandemic is ongoing. Similar studies should be performed around the world to understand how the emergency has impacted people's habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Mediterranean/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Exercise , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Neuroendocrinology ; 111(11): 1066-1085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health issue which has profound effects on most aspects of societal well-being, including physical and mental health. A plethora of studies globally have suggested the existence of a sex disparity in the severity and outcome of COVID-19 patients, mainly due to mechanisms of virus infection, immune response to the virus, development of systemic inflammation, and consequent systemic complications, particularly thromboembolism. Epidemiological data report a sex difference in the severity of COVID-19, with a more favorable course of the disease in women compared to men regardless of age, although the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be similar in both sexes. Sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, may not only impact virus entry and load, but also shape the clinical manifestations, complications, and ultimately the outcome of the disease. The current review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on sex disparities in susceptibility and outcome of COVID-19 as well as the literature underpinning the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms, which may provide a rationale to a sex disparity. These mechanisms include sex hormone influence on factors that facilitate virus entry and priming, immune and inflammatory response, as well as coagulation and thrombosis diathesis. Based on present evidence, women appear to be relatively protected from COVID-19 because of a more effective immune response and a less pronounced systemic inflammation, with consequent moderate clinical manifestations of the disease, together with a lesser predisposition to thromboembolism. Conversely, men appear to be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 because of a less effective immune response with consequent severe clinical manifestations of the disease, together with a greater predisposition to thromboembolism. In the elderly, generally characterized by the phenomenon of inflammaging, sex disparities in overall mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection are even more palpable as elderly men appear to be more prone to severe COVID-19 because of a greater predisposition to infections, a weaker immune defense, and an enhanced thrombotic state compared to women. The information revealed from the review highlights potential novel therapeutic approaches employing the administration of hormonal or antihormonal therapy in combination with antiviral drugs in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/antagonists & inhibitors , Hormone Antagonists/pharmacology , Hormone Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Obes Rev ; 22(6): e13216, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133024

ABSTRACT

Emerging data suggest an association between obesity and infectious diseases. Although the mechanisms underlying this link are not well established, a number of potential factors may be involved. Indeed, the obesity-related vulnerability to infectious diseases could be due to chronic low-grade inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia, which lead to a weakening of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, obesity results in anatomical-functional changes by the mechanical obstacle of excessive adipose tissue that blunt the respiratory mechanisms and predisposing to respiratory infections. Subjects with obesity are also at risk of skin folds and sweat more profusely due to the thick layers of subcutaneous fat, favoring the proliferation of microorganisms and slowing the repair of wounds down. All these factors make subjects with obesity more prone to develop nosocomial infections, surgical site, skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and mycosis. Furthermore, infections in subjects with obesity have a worse prognosis, frequently prolonging hospitalization time as demonstrated for several flu viruses and recently for COVID-19. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the current clinical evidence on the associations between obesity and infectious diseases highlighting physio pathological insights involved in this link.


Subject(s)
Immunity/immunology , Infections/complications , Infections/immunology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/immunology , Humans
17.
Health Promot Perspect ; 10(3): 169-174, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830181

ABSTRACT

The issue of indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns 64 million students across Europe, but it is still a neglected topic, although it impacts both their health and learning outcomes. Classroommicroclimate is the first key factor determining a healthy or unhealthy school environment, and it is influenced by ventilation, temperature and humidity rate. Classrooms are usually crowded, overheated and poorly ventilated, thus resulting in possible increases of carbon dioxide (CO2), that can cause several problems when its concentrations exceed the value of 0.15 percentage volume of CO2 (1500 ppm) or even at lower levels (1000 ppm). CO2 can also arise from outside the school, being widely produced by the combustion of fossils or road traffic. Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the emission of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) too, which represent other possible external contaminants potentially impairing IAQ. Furtherdangerous exposures for students' health are those related to natural emission of gas Radon, which typically accumulates in poorly ventilated classrooms, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, released by building materials, paints, furnishings, detergents), while chemicals substances (i.e.cyanoacrylate, lead, cadmium, nickel) might be contained in school materials. Finally, particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) originating from road traffic, domestic heating or industrial activities represent additional possible contaminants impacting schools' air quality. Poor IAQ might result in mild adverse events (i.e. headaches, nausea etc.) or cause respiratory problems. More frequently, IAQ affects students' attention and their school performances, as widely documented by many studies. Standardized tests administered to pupils exposed to poor IAQ (to assess reading and mathematical abilities) systematically result in worse outcomes compared to students staying in healthy classroom environments. In this paper, we present recommendations of UNESCO Chair on Health Education and Sustainable Development and Italian Society of Environmental Medicine(SIMA) to ensure an optimal IAQ at school, including some post-COVID-19 issues.

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039338, 2020 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A number of studies have shown that the airborne transmission route could spread some viruses over a distance of 2 meters from an infected person. An epidemic model based only on respiratory droplets and close contact could not fully explain the regional differences in the spread of COVID-19 in Italy. On March 16th 2020, we presented a position paper proposing a research hypothesis concerning the association between higher mortality rates due to COVID-19 observed in Northern Italy and average concentrations of PM10 exceeding a daily limit of 50 µg/m3. METHODS: To monitor the spreading of COVID-19 in Italy from February 24th to March 13th (the date of the Italian lockdown), official daily data for PM10 levels were collected from all Italian provinces between February 9th and February 29th, taking into account the maximum lag period (14 days) between the infection and diagnosis. In addition to the number of exceedances of the daily limit value of PM10, we also considered population data and daily travelling information for each province. RESULTS: Exceedance of the daily limit value of PM10 appears to be a significant predictor of infection in univariate analyses (p<0.001). Less polluted provinces had a median of 0.03 infections over 1000 residents, while the most polluted provinces showed a median of 0.26 cases. Thirty-nine out of 41 Northern Italian provinces resulted in the category with the highest PM10 levels, while 62 out of 66 Southern provinces presented low PM10 concentrations (p<0.001). In Milan, the average growth rate before the lockdown was significantly higher than in Rome (0.34 vs 0.27 per day, with a doubling time of 2.0 days vs 2.6, respectively), thus suggesting a basic reproductive number R0>6.0, comparable with the highest values estimated for China. CONCLUSION: A significant association has been found between the geographical distribution of daily PM10 exceedances and the initial spreading of COVID-19 in the 110 Italian provinces.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Correlation of Data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 318, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID 19-related quarantine led to a sudden and radical lifestyle changes, in particular in eating habits. Objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of quarantine on sleep quality (SQ) and body mass index (BMI), and if change in SQ was related to working modalities. MATERIALS: We enrolled 121 adults (age 44.9 ± 13.3 years and 35.5% males). Anthropometric parameters, working modalities and physical activity were studied. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. At baseline, the enrolled subjects were assessed in outpatient clinic and after 40 days of quarantine/lockdown by phone interview. RESULTS: Overall, 49.6% of the subjects were good sleepers (PSQI < 5) at the baseline and significantly decreased after quarantine (p < 0.001). In detail, sleep onset latency (p < 0.001), sleep efficiency (p = 0.03), sleep disturbances (p < 0.001), and daytime dysfunction (p < 0.001) significantly worsened. There was also a significant increase in BMI values in normal weight (p = 0.023), in subjects grade I (p = 0.027) and II obesity (p = 0.020). In all cohort, physical activity was significantly decreased (p = 0.004). However, analyzing the data according gender difference, males significantly decreased physical activity as well as females in which there was only a trend without reaching statistical significance (53.5% vs 25.6%; p = 0.015 and 50.0% vs 35.9%, p = 0.106; in males and females, respectively). In addition, smart working activity resulted in a significant worsening of SQ, particularly in males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Quarantine was associated to a worsening of SQ, particularly in males doing smart working, and to an increase in BMI values.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep/physiology , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115327, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692299

ABSTRACT

In the previous publication "Can atmospheric pollution be considered a co-factor in extremely high level of SARS-CoV-2 lethality in Northern Italy?" Conticini et al. hypothesized that the surplus of lethality of the novel SARS-CoV-2 in Northern Italy may be at least in part explained by the evidence of highest pollution reported in this area, as both severe COVID-19 and smog exposure are correlated to an innate immune system hyper-activation with subsequent lung inflammation and injury. Since this hypothesis alone does not fully explain why specific subgroups of patients are at major risk, we hypothesized that obesity may be one of the links between COVID-19 severity and high level of air pollution. First, obesity is a predisposing factor for SARS-Cov-2 infection and worse COVID-19 outcomes, and unequivocal evidence demonstrated that fat mass excess is independently associated with several pulmonary diseases and lung inflammation. Moreover, it has been shown that obesity may intensify the detrimental effects of air pollution on the lungs, and this is not surprising if we consider that these conditions share an excessive activation of the immune system and a lung inflammatory infiltrate. Finally, fat mass excess has also been speculated to be itself a consequence of air pollutants exposure, which has been proved to induce metabolic disruption and weight gain in murine models. In conclusion, although many variables must be taken into account in the analysis of the pandemic, our observations suggest that obesity may act as effect modifier of smog-induced lung-injury, and the concomitant presence of these two factors could better explain the higher virulence, faster spread and greater mortality of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern Italy compared to the rest of the country.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy , Mice , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2
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