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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3572-e3605, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575760

ABSTRACT

Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have made it possible for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live a near expected life span, without progressing to AIDS or transmitting HIV to sexual partners or infants. There is, therefore, increasing emphasis on maintaining health throughout the life span. To receive optimal medical care and achieve desired outcomes, persons with HIV must be consistently engaged in care and able to access uninterrupted treatment, including ART. Comprehensive evidence-based HIV primary care guidance is, therefore, more important than ever. Creating a patient-centered, stigma-free care environment is essential for care engagement. Barriers to care must be decreased at the societal, health system, clinic, and individual levels. As the population ages and noncommunicable diseases arise, providing comprehensive healthcare for persons with HIV becomes increasingly complex, including management of multiple comorbidities and the associated challenges of polypharmacy, while not neglecting HIV-related health concerns. Clinicians must address issues specific to persons of childbearing potential, including care during preconception and pregnancy, and to children, adolescents, and transgender and gender-diverse individuals. This guidance from an expert panel of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America updates previous 2013 primary care guidelines.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Female , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Primary Health Care
2.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475725

ABSTRACT

We explored experiences with telemedicine among persons with HIV (PWH) during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A convenience sample of adults (>18 years) receiving care in an urban clinic in Atlanta were invited to participate. Patients completed a structured survey that assessed the usefulness, quality, satisfaction, and concerns with telemedicine services (telephone calls) received during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-May 2020). Demographic, plasma HIV-1 RNA, and CD4+ T cell count data were obtained through medical chart abstraction. Bootstrapped t-tests and chi-square tests were used to examine differences in patient experiences by age, sex, and race. Of 406 PWH contacted, 101 completed the survey (median age 55 years, 84% men, 77% Black, 98% virally suppressed, median CD4 count 572 cells/µL). The main HIV care disruptions experienced were delays in follow-up visits (40%), difficulty getting viral load measured (35%), and difficulty accessing antiretroviral therapy (21%). Participant ratings for quality (median score 6.5/7), usefulness (median score 6.0/7), and satisfaction (median score 6.3/7) with telemedicine were high. However, 28% of patients expressed concerns about providers' ability to examine them and about the lack of laboratory tests. More women had concerns about providers' ability to examine them (92% vs. 50%, p = .005) and about the safety of their personal information (69% vs. 23%, p = .002) compared with men. No age or race differences were observed. Although PWH are generally satisfied with telephone-based telemedicine, concerns with its use were notable, particularly among women. Future HIV telemedicine models should address these.

4.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1789-1794, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes among US persons with HIV (PWH) requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a case series of all PWH sequentially admitted with COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 to 23 April 2020 at three hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia. Sociodemographic, clinical and HIV-associated characteristics were collected. RESULTS: Of 530 confirmed COVID-19 cases hospitalized during this period, 20 occurred among PWH (3.8%). The median age was 57 (Q1-Q3, 48-62) years, 65% were men, and 85% were non-Hispanic Black. Presenting median symptom duration was 5 (Q1-Q3, 3-7) days; cough (90%), fever (65%), malaise (60%) and dyspnea (60%) were most common. On admission, 40% of patients required oxygenation support and 65% had an abnormal chest radiograph. Median length of hospitalization was 5 (Q1-Q3, 4-12) days, 30% required intensive care, 15% required intubation, and 15% died. Median CD4 cell count prior to admission was 425 (Q1-Q3, 262-815) cells/µl and 90% of patients had HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies/ml. Half of the patients had at least five comorbidities; hypertension (70%), dyslipidemia (60%) and diabetes (45%) were most prevalent. All three patients who died had CD4 cell count more than 200, HIV suppression and each had a total of five comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The multisite series in the Southern United States provides characteristics and early outcomes of hospitalized PWH with COVID-19. Nearly all patients had controlled HIV and a high comorbidity burden. Additional study of COVID-19 among PWH is needed to determine the role of age, comorbidities and HIV control in mediating COVID-19 presentation and its sequelae.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(1): 9-14, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045878

ABSTRACT

The goal of the Ending the HIV Epidemic Initiative is to reduce new infections in the United States by 90% by 2030. Success will require fundamentally changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and care delivery to engage more persons with HIV and at risk of HIV in treatment. While the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic reduced in-person visits to care facilities and led to concern about interruptions in care, it also accelerated growth of alternative options, bolstered by additional funding support. These included the use of telehealth, medication delivery to the home, and increased flexibility facilitating access to Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program services. While the outcomes of these programs must be studied, many have improved accessibility during the pandemic. As the pandemic wanes, long-term policy changes are needed to preserve these options for those who benefit from them. These new care paradigms may provide a roadmap for progress for those with other chronic health issues as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , HIV , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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