Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
Vaccines ; 10(5):817, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857399

ABSTRACT

The new Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, first identified in November 2021, is rapidly spreading all around the world. Omicron has become the dominant variant of SARS-CoV-2. There are many ongoing studies evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines. Studies on the neutralizing activity of vaccinated sera against the Omicron variant are currently being carried out in many laboratories. In this study, we have shown the neutralizing activity of sera against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant compared to the reference Wuhan D614G variant in individuals vaccinated with two doses of Sputnik V up to 6 months after vaccination and in individuals who experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection either before or after vaccination. As a control to our study we also measured neutralizing antibody titers in individuals vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2. The decrease in NtAb titers to the Omicron variant was 8.1-fold for the group of Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals. When the samples were stratified for the time period after vaccination, a 7.6-fold or 8.8-fold decrease in NtAb titers was noticed after up to 3 and 3-to-6 months after vaccination. We observed a 6.7- and 5-fold decrease in Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals experiencing asymptomatic or symptomatic infection, respectively. These results highlight the observation that the decrease in NtAb to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant compared to the Wuhan variant occurs for different COVID-19 vaccines in use, with some showing no neutralization at all, confirming the necessity of a third booster vaccination.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834408

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Comparative analysis between different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. We present an emulation trial from observational data to compare effectiveness of Bamlanivimab/Etesevimab (BAM/ETE) and Casirivimab/Imdevimab (CAS/IMD) in outpatients with early mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in a real-world scenario of variants of concern (VoCs) from Alpha to Delta. Methods: Allocation to treatment was subject to mAbs availability, and the measured factors were not used to determine which combination to use. Patients were followed through day 30. Viral load was measured by cycle threshold (CT) on D1 (baseline) and D7.Primary outcome was time to COVID-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause over days 0-30. Weighted pooled logistic regression and marginal structural Cox model by inverse probability weights were used to compare BAM/ETE vs. CAS/IMD. ANCOVA was used to compare mean D7 CT values by intervention. Models were adjusted for calendar month, MASS score and VoCs. We evaluated effect measure modification by VoCs, vaccination, D1 CT levels and enrolment period. Results: COVID19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 15 of 237 patients in the BAM/ETE group (6.3%) and in 4 of 196 patients in the CAS/IMD group (2.0%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk] 72%; p=0.024). Subset analysis carried no evidence that the effect of the intervention was different across stratification factors. There was no evidence in viral load reduction from baseline through day 7 across the two groups (+0.17, 95% -1.41;+1.74, p=0.83). Among patients who experienced primary outcome, none showed a negative RT-PCR test in nasopharyngeal swab (p=0.009) and 82.4% showed still high viral load (p<0.001) on D7. Conclusions: In a pre-Omicron epidemiologic scenario, CAS/IMD reduced risk of clinical progression of COVID-19 compared to BAM/ETE. This effect was not associated with a concomitant difference in virological response.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Observation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 846753, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809398

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the kinetics of the humoral and cell-mediated responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with different immunosuppressive therapies. Methods: Following vaccine completed schedule, health care workers (HCWs, n = 49) and RA patients (n = 35) were enrolled at 5 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T6) after the first dose of BNT162b2-mRNA vaccination. Serological response was assessed by quantifying anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, while cell-mediated response was assessed by a whole-blood test quantifying the interferon (IFN)-γ response to spike peptides. B-cell phenotype and IFN-γ-specific T-cell responses were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: After 6 months, anti-RBD antibodies were still detectable in 91.4% of RA patients, although we observed a significant reduction of the titer in patients under Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-Ig [median: 16.4 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml, interquartile range (IQR): 11.3-44.3, p < 0.0001] or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors (median: 26.5 BAU/ml, IQR: 14.9-108.8, p = 0.0034) compared to controls (median: 152.7 BAU/ml, IQR: 89.3-260.3). All peripheral memory B-cell (MBC) subpopulations, in particular, the switched IgG+ MBCs (CD19+CD27+IgD-IgM-IgG+), were significantly reduced in RA subjects under CTLA-4-Ig compared to those in HCWs (p = 0.0012). In RA patients, a significantly reduced anti-RBD IgG titer was observed at T6 vs. T1, mainly in those treated with CTLA-4-Ig (p = 0.002), interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors (p = 0.015), and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) ± corticosteroids (CCSs) (p = 0.015). In contrast, a weak nonsignificant reduction of the T-cell response was reported at T6 vs. T1. T-cell response was found in 65.7% of the RA patients at T6, with lower significant magnitude in patients under CTLA-4-Ig compared to HCWs (p < 0.0001). The SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ-S-specific T-cell response was mainly detected in the CD4+ T-cell compartment. Conclusions: In this study, in RA patients after 6 months from COVID-19 vaccination, we show the kinetics, waning, and impairment of the humoral and, to a less extent, of the T-cell response. Similarly, a reduction of the specific response was also observed in the controls. Therefore, based on these results, a booster dose of the vaccine is crucial to increase the specific immune response regardless of the immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Abatacept , Antibodies, Viral , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Kinetics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6687, 2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805648

ABSTRACT

Vaccine is the main public health measure to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and hospitalization, and a massive scientific effort worldwide resulted in the rapid development of effective vaccines. This work aimed to define the dynamics and persistence of humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Health Care Workers who received a two-dose BNT162b2-mRNA vaccination. Serological response was evaluated by quantifying anti-RBD and neutralizing antibodies while cell-mediated response was performed by a whole blood test quantifying Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) produced in response to Spike peptides. BNT162b2-mRNA vaccine induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune response against Spike in all HCW early after the second dose. After 12 weeks from vaccination, the titer of anti-RBD antibodies as well as their neutralization function decreased while the Spike-specific T-cells persisted at the same level as soon after vaccine boost. Of note, a correlation between cellular and humoral response persevered, suggesting the persistence of a coordinated immune response. The long lasting cell-mediated immune response after 3 months from vaccination highlight its importance in the maintaining of specific immunity able to expand again to fight eventual new antigen encountering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in PLWH are currently limited. Aim of the study was to investigate immunogenicity according to current CD4 T-cell count. METHODS: PLWH on ART attending a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program, were included in a prospective immunogenicity evaluation after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. Participants were stratified by current CD4 T-cell count (poor CD4 recovery, PCDR: <200/mm 3; intermediate CD4 recovery, ICDR: 200-500/mm 3 high CD4 recovery, HCDR: >500/mm 3). RBD-binding IgG, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and IFN-γ release were measured. As control group, HIV-negative healthcare workers (HCWs) were used. FINDINGS: Among 166 PLWH after 1 month from the second dose, detectable RBD-binding IgG were elicited in 86.7% of PCDR, 100% of ICDR, 98.7% of HCDR, and a neutralizing titre ≥1:10 elicited in 70.0%, 88.2% and 93.1%, respectively. Compared to HCDR, all immune response parameters were significantly lower in PCDR. After adjusting for confounders, current CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 significantly predicted a poor magnitude of anti-RDB, nAbs and IFN-γ response. As compared with HCWs, PCDR elicited a consistently reduced immunogenicity for all parameters, ICDR only a reduced RBD-binding antibody response, whereas HCDR elicited a comparable immune response for all parameters. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against SARS-CoV-2 were elicited in most of PLWH, albeit significantly poorer in those with CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 versus those with >500 cell/mm 3 and HIV-negative controls. A decreased RBD-binding antibody response than HCWs was also observed in PLWH with CD4 T-cell 200-500/mm 3, whereas immune response elicited in PLWH with a CD4 T-cell >500/mm 3 was comparable to HIV-negative population.

6.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1762612

ABSTRACT

Except for specific vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, effective prophylactic or post-exposure therapeutic treatments are currently limited for COVID-19. Propolis, a honeybee’s product, has been suggested as a potential candidate for treatment of COVID-19 for its immunomodulatory properties and for its powerful activity against various types of viruses, including common coronaviruses. However, direct evidence regarding the antiviral activities of this product still remains poorly documented. VERO E6 and CALU3 cell lines were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and cultured in the presence of 12.5 or 25 μg/ml of a standardized Hydroalcoholic Extract acronym (sHEP) of Eurasian poplar type propolis and analyzed for viral RNA transcription, for cell damage by optical and electron microscopy, and for virus infectivity by viral titration at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection. The three main components of sHEP, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, galangin, and pinocembrin, were tested for the antiviral power, either alone or in combination. On both cell lines, sHEP showed significant effects mainly on CALU3 up to 48 h, i.e., some protection from cytopathic effects and consistent reduction of infected cell number, fewer viral particles inside cellular vesicles, reduction of viral titration in supernatants, dramatic drop of N gene negative sense RNA synthesis, and lower concentration of E gene RNA in cell extracts. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with sHEP before virus inoculation induced these same effects described previously and was not able to block virus entry. When used in combination, the three main constituents of sHEP showed antiviral activity at the same levels of sHEP. sHEP has a remarkable ability to hinder the replication of SARS-CoV-2, to limit new cycles of infection, and to protect host cells against the cytopathic effect, albeit with rather variable results. However, sHEP do not block the virus entry into the cells. The antiviral activity observed with the three main components of sHEP used in combination highlights that the mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of sHEP is probably the result of a synergistic effect. These data add further emphasis on the possible therapeutic role of this special honeybee’s product as an adjuvant to official treatments of COVID-19 patients for its direct antiviral activity.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317754

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be defined. Elucidating SARS-CoV-2 cellular localization within cells and its cytopathic effects requires definition. We performed a comparative ultrastructural study of SARS-CoV-2 infection of Vero-6 cells and lung from COVID-19 patients. Main findings: SARS-CoV-2 induces rapid ultrastructural changes and death in Vero cells. Ultrastructural changes in SARS-CoV-2 infection differ from those in SARS-CoV-1. Type II pneumocytes in lung tissue showed prominent altered morphological features with numerous vacuoles and swollen mitochondria with presence of abundant lipid droplets. The accumulation of lipid droplets was the most striking finding we observed in cultured cells and in infected pneumocytes. Virus particles were also found associated with lipo-lysosomes suggesting that they can play an important step in virus assembly. Interpretation: The cytopathology of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be different to that caused by SARS-CoV-1. Our findings highlight important open topics which may represent future targets to contrast the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 815870, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are proving to be very effective in preventing severe illness; however, although rare, post-vaccine infections have been reported. The present study focuses on virological and serological features of 94 infections that occurred in Lazio Region (Central Italy) between 27 December 2020, and 30 March 2021, after one or two doses of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: We evaluated clinical features, virological (viral load; viral infectiousness; genomic characterisation), and serological (anti-nucleoprotein Ig; anti-Spike RBD IgG; neutralising antibodies, nAb) characteristics of 94 post-vaccine infections at the time of diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) and serum samples were collected in the framework of the surveillance activities on SARS-CoV-2 variants established in Lazio Region (Central Italy) and analysed at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani" in Rome. RESULTS: The majority (92.6%) of the post-vaccine infections showed pauci/asymptomatic or mild clinical course, with symptoms and hospitalisation rate significantly less frequent in patients infected after full vaccination course as compared to patients who received a single dose vaccine. Although differences were not statistically significant, viral loads and isolation rates were lower in NPSs from patients infected after receiving two vaccine doses as compared to patients with one dose. Most cases (84%) had nAb in serum at the time of infection diagnosis, which is a sub-group of vaccinees, were found similarly able to neutralise Alpha and Gamma variants. Asymptomatic individuals showed higher nAb titres as compared to symptomatic cases (median titre: 1:120 vs. 1:40, respectively). Finally, the proportion of post-vaccine infections attributed either to Alpha and Gamma variants was similar to the proportion observed in the contemporary unvaccinated population in the Lazio region, and mutational analysis did not reveal enrichment of a defined set of Spike protein substitutions depending on the vaccination status. CONCLUSION: Our study conducted using real-life data, emphasised the importance of monitoring vaccine breakthrough infections, through the characterisation of virological, immunological, and clinical features associated with these events, in order to tune prevention measures in the next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Neurology ; 98(5): e541-e554, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immune-specific response after full severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with different disease-modifying drugs by the detection of both serologic and T-cell responses. METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients with MS, having completed the 2-dose schedule of an mRNA-based vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in the past 2-4 weeks, were enrolled from 2 parallel prospective studies conducted in Rome, Italy, at the National Institute for Infectious diseases Spallanzani-IRCSS and San Camillo Forlanini Hospital. Serologic response was evaluated by quantifying the region-binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibodies. Cell-mediated response was analyzed by a whole-blood test quantifying interferon (IFN)-γ response to spike peptides. Cells responding to spike stimulation were identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 186 vaccinated individuals: 78 HCWs and 108 patients with MS. Twenty-eight patients with MS were treated with IFN-ß, 35 with fingolimod, 20 with cladribine, and 25 with ocrelizumab. A lower anti-RBD antibody response rate was found in patients treated with ocrelizumab (40%, p < 0.0001) and fingolimod (85.7%, p = 0.0023) compared to HCWs and patients treated with cladribine or IFN-ß. Anti-RBD antibody median titer was lower in patients treated with ocrelizumab (p < 0.0001), fingolimod (p < 0.0001), and cladribine (p = 0.010) compared to HCWs and IFN-ß-treated patients. Serum neutralizing activity was present in all the HCWs tested and in only a minority of the fingolimod-treated patients (16.6%). T-cell-specific response was detected in the majority of patients with MS (62%), albeit with significantly lower IFN-γ levels compared to HCWs. The lowest frequency of T-cell response was found in fingolimod-treated patients (14.3%). T-cell-specific response correlated with lymphocyte count and anti-RBD antibody titer (ρ = 0.554, p < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.255, p = 0.0078 respectively). IFN-γ T-cell response was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. DISCUSSION: mRNA vaccines induce both humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses against spike peptides in all HCWs and in the majority of patients with MS. These results carry relevant implications for managing vaccinations, suggesting promoting vaccination in all treated patients with MS. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III data that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces both humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses against viral spike proteins in a majority of patients with MS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667350

ABSTRACT

To investigate the dynamic association among binding and functional antibodies in health-care-workers receiving two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19-vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD IgG, anti-Trimeric-S IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) were measured in serum samples collected at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months from full vaccination. Despite the high correlation, results for anti-RBD and anti-Trimeric S IgG were numerically different even after recalculation to BAU/mL following WHO standards indications. Moreover, after a peak response at 2 weeks, anti-RBD IgG levels showed a 4.5 and 13 fold decrease at 3 and 6 months, respectively, while the anti-Trimeric S IgG presented a less pronounced decay of 2.8 and 4.7 fold. Further different dynamics were observed for Nabs titers, resulting comparable at 3 and 6 months from vaccination. We also demonstrated that at NAbs titers ≥40, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the optimal cutoff point decreased with time from vaccination for both anti-RBD and anti-Trimeric S IgG. The mutating relation among the anti-RBD IgG, anti-Trimeric S IgG, and neutralizing antibodies are indicative of antibody maturation upon vaccination. The lack of standardized laboratory procedures is one factor interfering with the definition of a correlate of protection from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 400-408.e4, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650182

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated individuals are considered a consequence of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and functional B cell memory in vivo against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs). While we observed physiological decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, memory B cells persist and increase until 9 months after immunization. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum and anti-Spike IgA in the saliva. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 501, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omics data, driven by rapid advances in laboratory techniques, have been generated very quickly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim is to use omics data to highlight the involvement of specific pathways, as well as that of cell types and organs, in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, and to highlight their links with clinical phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The analysis was based on the domain model, where for domain it is intended a conceptual repository, useful to summarize multiple biological pathways involved at different levels. The relevant domains considered in the analysis were: virus, pathways and phenotypes. An interdisciplinary expert working group was defined for each domain, to carry out an independent literature scoping review. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that dysregulated pathways of innate immune responses, (i.e., complement activation, inflammatory responses, neutrophil activation and degranulation, platelet degranulation) can affect COVID-19 progression and outcomes. These results are consistent with several clinical studies. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-omics approach may help to further investigate unknown aspects of the disease. However, the disease mechanisms are too complex to be explained by a single molecular signature and it is necessary to consider an integrated approach to identify hallmarks of severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294112

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in PLWH are currently limited. Aim of the study was to investigate immunogenicity according to current CD4 T-cell count and predictive role on immune response to vaccination in PLWH.<br><br>Methods: PLWH attending a single-center SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program in Italy, were included in a prospective evaluation for immunogenicity after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. PLWH were stratified according to current CD4 T-cell count (severe immunodeficiency, SID: <200/mm 3 ;minor immunodeficiency, MID: 200-500/mm 3 ;no immunodeficiency, NID: >500/mm 3 ). RBD-binding IgG, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and cell-mediated (IFN-γ/IL-2) immune response were measured. As control group, not-matched HIV-negative healthcare workers (HCWs) were used.<br><br>Findings: Participants were 166 PLWH (SID=32;MID=56;NID=78) on ART. After 1 month from the booster dose, detectable RBD-binding IgG in 86.7% of SID, in 100% of MID, in 98.7% of NID (SID vs NID, p=0.021) and nAbs (titre ≥1:10) in 70.0%, 88.2% and 93.1%, respectively (SID vs NID, p=0.002), were elicited. Compared to NID, magnitude of anti-RBD, nAbs and IFN-γ production was significantly lower in SID and comparable in MID. After adjusting for confounders, current CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 significantly predicted a poor magnitude of anti-RDB, nAbs and IFN-γ production. As compared with HCWs, SID elicited a consistently reduced immunogenicity for all parameters, MID only a reduced RBD-binding antibody response, NID a comparable response to HIV-negative controls for all parameters.<br><br>Interpretation: Neutralizing and cell-mediated immune response against SARS-CoV-2 were elicited in most of PLWH receiving ART, albeit significantly poorer in those with current CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 versus those with CD4 T-cell >500/mm 3 and HIV-negative controls. A marginal decreased immunogenicity than HCWs was also observed in PLWH with CD4 T-cell 200-500/mm 3 , whereas immune response elicited in PLWH with a CD4 T-cell >500/mm 3 was comparable to HIV-negative population.<br><br>Funding: Italian Ministry of Health;European Commission, European Virus Archive – GLOBAL.<br><br>Declaration of Interest: None to declare. <br><br>Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Scientific Committee of the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) and by the Ethical Committee of the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute, as National Review Board for COVID-19 pandemic in Italy (approval number 323/2021).

14.
Neurology ; 98(5): e541-e554, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immune-specific response after full severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with different disease-modifying drugs by the detection of both serologic and T-cell responses. METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients with MS, having completed the 2-dose schedule of an mRNA-based vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in the past 2-4 weeks, were enrolled from 2 parallel prospective studies conducted in Rome, Italy, at the National Institute for Infectious diseases Spallanzani-IRCSS and San Camillo Forlanini Hospital. Serologic response was evaluated by quantifying the region-binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibodies. Cell-mediated response was analyzed by a whole-blood test quantifying interferon (IFN)-γ response to spike peptides. Cells responding to spike stimulation were identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 186 vaccinated individuals: 78 HCWs and 108 patients with MS. Twenty-eight patients with MS were treated with IFN-ß, 35 with fingolimod, 20 with cladribine, and 25 with ocrelizumab. A lower anti-RBD antibody response rate was found in patients treated with ocrelizumab (40%, p < 0.0001) and fingolimod (85.7%, p = 0.0023) compared to HCWs and patients treated with cladribine or IFN-ß. Anti-RBD antibody median titer was lower in patients treated with ocrelizumab (p < 0.0001), fingolimod (p < 0.0001), and cladribine (p = 0.010) compared to HCWs and IFN-ß-treated patients. Serum neutralizing activity was present in all the HCWs tested and in only a minority of the fingolimod-treated patients (16.6%). T-cell-specific response was detected in the majority of patients with MS (62%), albeit with significantly lower IFN-γ levels compared to HCWs. The lowest frequency of T-cell response was found in fingolimod-treated patients (14.3%). T-cell-specific response correlated with lymphocyte count and anti-RBD antibody titer (ρ = 0.554, p < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.255, p = 0.0078 respectively). IFN-γ T-cell response was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. DISCUSSION: mRNA vaccines induce both humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses against spike peptides in all HCWs and in the majority of patients with MS. These results carry relevant implications for managing vaccinations, suggesting promoting vaccination in all treated patients with MS. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III data that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces both humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses against viral spike proteins in a majority of patients with MS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 1041, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453506

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Eye , Humans
16.
Mol Ther ; 30(1): 311-326, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450246

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made the development of safe and effective vaccines a critical priority. To date, four vaccines have been approved by European and American authorities for preventing COVID-19, but the development of additional vaccine platforms with improved supply and logistics profiles remains a pressing need. Here we report the preclinical evaluation of a novel COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on the electroporation of engineered, synthetic cDNA encoding a viral antigen in the skeletal muscle. We constructed a set of prototype DNA vaccines expressing various forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and assessed their immunogenicity in animal models. Among them, COVID-eVax-a DNA plasmid encoding a secreted monomeric form of SARS-CoV-2 S protein receptor-binding domain (RBD)-induced the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses (including against the current most common variants of concern) and a robust T cell response. Upon challenge with SARS-CoV-2, immunized K18-hACE2 transgenic mice showed reduced weight loss, improved pulmonary function, and lower viral replication in the lungs and brain. COVID-eVax conferred significant protection to ferrets upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In summary, this study identifies COVID-eVax as an ideal COVID-19 vaccine candidate suitable for clinical development. Accordingly, a combined phase I-II trial has recently started.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization/methods , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Ferrets , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Domains , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(12): 2010-2018, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Simple and standardized methods to establish correlates to vaccine-elicited SARS-CoV-2 protection are needed. METHODS: An observational study on antibody response to a mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty) was performed on health care workers (V, n=120). Recovered COVID-19 patients (N, n=94) were used for comparison. Antibody response was evaluated by a quantitative anti-receptor binding domain IgG (anti-RBD) commercial assay and by virus microneutralization test (MNT), in order to establish a threshold of anti-RBD binding antibody units (BAU) able to predict a robust (≥1:80) MNT titer. RESULTS: Significant correlation between BAU and MNT titers was found in both V and N, being stronger in V (rs=0.91 and 0.57 respectively, p<0.001); a higher incremental trend starting from MNT titer 1:80 was observed in the V group. The 99% probability of high MNT titer (≥1:80) was reached at 1,814 and 3,564 BAU/mL, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.99 (CI: 0.99-1.00) and 0.78 (CI: 0.67-0.86) in V and N, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A threshold of 2,000 BAU/mL is highly predictive of strong MNT response in vaccinated individuals and may represent a good surrogate marker of protective response. It remains to be established whether the present results can be extended to BAU titers obtained with other assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
18.
J Mol Biol ; 433(19): 167177, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330982

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) hold promise as therapeutics against COVID-19. Here, we describe protein engineering and modular design principles that have led to the development of synthetic bivalent and tetravalent nAbs against SARS-CoV-2. The best nAb targets the host receptor binding site of the viral S-protein and tetravalent versions block entry with a potency exceeding bivalent nAbs by an order of magnitude. Structural studies show that both the bivalent and tetravalent nAbs can make multivalent interactions with a single S-protein trimer, consistent with the avidity and potency of these molecules. Significantly, we show that the tetravalent nAbs show increased tolerance to potential virus escape mutants and an emerging variant of concern. Bivalent and tetravalent nAbs can be produced at large-scale and are as stable and specific as approved antibody drugs. Our results provide a general framework for enhancing antiviral therapies against COVID-19 and related viral threats, and our strategy can be applied to virtually any antibody drug.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
19.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 1041, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330280

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Eye , Humans
20.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal (NPS)/oropharyngeal swabs is the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral load monitoring. Oral fluid (OF) is an alternate clinical sample, easy and safer to collect and could be useful for COVID-19 diagnosis, monitoring viral load and shedding. METHODS: Optimal assay conditions and analytical sensitivity were established for the commercial Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assay adapted to OF matrix. The assay was used to test 337 OF and NPS specimens collected in parallel from 164 hospitalized patients; 50 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from a subgroup of severe COVID-19 cases were also analysed. RESULTS: Using Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct on OF matrix, 100% analytical detection down to 1 TCID50/mL (corresponding to 4 × 103 copies (cp)/mL) was observed. No crossreaction with other viruses transmitted through the respiratory toute was observed. Parallel testing of 337 OF and NPS samples showed highly concordant results (κ = 0.831; 95 % CI = 0.771-0.891), and high correlation of Ct values (r = 0.921; p < 0.0001). High concordance and elevated correlation was observed also between OF and BAL. Prolonged viral RNA shedding was observed up to 100 days from symptoms onset (DSO), with 32% and 29% positivity observed in OF and NPS samples, respectively, collected between 60 and 100 DSO. CONCLUSIONS: Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assays on OF have high sensitivity and specificity to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and provide an alternative to NPS for diagnosis and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL