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1.
Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies ; 11(6):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146531

ABSTRACT

Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin was originally an evolutionary biologist, writing shortly after Charles Darwin, who pointed to collaboration rather than competition as the underlying driver of (human) evolution, development and survival. This paper questions why ‘Social Darwinism’ has entered the language when ‘Social Kropotkinism’ has not. We position Social Kropotkinism – based on mutual support and community cooperation as opposed to Darwinian survival of the fittest – as having value as a new societal organising principle that can help to ensure social justice and equitable distribution of increasingly scarce resources in the post-pandemic, climate emergency world. We chart the re-emergence of Kropotkin’s ideas of mutualism against the current literature on the evolution of human cooperation, showing how the blossoming of community-level mutual aid during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has exposed and filled many cracks in UK Government provision of welfare and social care, is the inevitable end-result of the empathy and predisposition for cooperation that has underpinned the development of complex societies and civilisation. © 2022 Cole et al.

2.
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2074927

ABSTRACT

The first publication of micro‐ and nanotechnology in medicine was in 1798 with the use of the Cowpox virus by Edward Jenner as an attenuated vaccine against Smallpox. Since then, there has been an explosion of micro‐ and nanotechnologies for medical applications. The breadth of these micro‐ and nanotechnologies is discussed in this piece, presenting the date of their first report and their latest progression (e.g., clinical trials, FDA approval). This includes successes such as the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) vaccines from Pfizer, Moderna, and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) as well as the most popular nanoparticle therapy, liposomal Doxil. However, the enormity of the success of these platforms has not been without challenges. For example, we discuss why the production of Doxil was halted for several years, and the bankruptcy of BIND therapeutics, which relied on a nanoparticle drug carrier. Overall, the field of micro‐ and nanotechnology has advanced beyond these challenges and continues advancing new and novel platforms that have transformed therapies, vaccines, and imaging. In this review, a wide range of biomedical micro‐ and nanotechnology is discussed to serve as a primer to the field and provide an accessible summary of clinically relevant micro‐ and nanotechnology platforms. [ FROM AUTHOR]

3.
2021 AIChE Annual Meeting ; 2021-November, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2010724

ABSTRACT

Traditional chemical engineering homework and in-class problems are often theoretical or simplified and lack societal context. However, a design made without context may only work for the demographics of the person(s) creating the design and unmarries the work of chemical engineers from the tangible impacts the field has on the world. In these contextless problems, students aren't given the opportunity to consider the positive or negative impact of their design on different demographic groups. Working towards de-centering western civilization, being sensitive to oppressions, integrating more cultural context and ethics into teaching, and reflecting on the role of identity in and outside chemical engineering will encourage critical thinking with an equity lens [1]. In light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and anti-Black and anti-Asian racism and violence, institutes of higher learning, which have historically exacerbated systemic inequalities that disproportionately impact minorities and people of color, need to critically rethink and redesign curriculum to be more widely inclusive, accommodating, and thoughtful of social justice. Incorporating context, such as the context in human-centered design or service learning, provides relevancy for students and improves learning, engagement, and increased community engagement [2]-[3]. There are already examples of institutions and faculty incorporating social justice and environmental considerations into their curriculum through human-centered design and service learning and a few who are incorporating context into class examples [4]. However, we have yet to see evidence of incorporating anti-racist and social justice principles in a systematic and curriculum-wide way within a chemical engineering context. Thus, we present an approach to normalize anti-racism and social justice ideals throughout curriculum, rather than presenting them as one-off, disconnected ideas, such that these become virtues students gain and take with them into their professional careers after graduating. Our work is part of a larger effort of the Anti-Racism, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (ARDEI) Committee in the Chemical and Biological Engineering Department at Northwestern University, which is comprised of undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty. The larger goal of the committee is to work together to build and contribute to a Department that is diverse, equitable, and inclusive through actionable ideas that the Department can pursue together to make lasting change in its culture. Collectively we tackled the initiative of incorporating anti-racism and social justice into the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to find a low-cost, low-barrier-to-entry method for faculty to include anti-racism and social justice into the classroom. Specifically, we advocate for the inclusion of these principles into homework problems and course project designs at all course levels. In order to achieve this goal and get faculty support, we decided to create a bank of example problems, spanning freshmen to senior courses, incorporating critical thinking or example problems with the context of anti-racism and social justice. We subsequently shared these example problems with the faculty and invited them to bring example problems from their courses to a workshop where we help them incorporate these principles into the desired problem. We also aimed to incorporate anti-racism and social justice principles into lectures. For example, in the senior design course, topics of environmental and social justice are worked into lectures along with the term-long process design project, where traditionally economic and technical evaluations were emphasized, now environmental and societal impact evaluations are required for decision making in the feasibility study. Though most faculty are not trained in anti-racism work, we hope to alleviate this challenge and lower the barrier by working with them to create these examples. Additionally, we must carefully manage our work to ensure the anti-racism and social justice ontexts and materials included do not lead to unintentional harm. We hope our work will serve as an example that other institutions can follow to incorporate anti-racism and social justice into the chemical engineering curriculum. However, we importantly note that this should not be the only actions taken by an institution to participate in anti-racism and social justice;otherwise the inclusion of anti-racism into courses will be seen as hypocritical if the institution is not also working towards making more equitable, inclusive, safe learning spaces. This work can be seen as one of many important steps in creating these improved learning spaces and ideally lead to more anti-racist and socially just engineers. © 2021 American Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved.

4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880942
7.
2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Making Waves, Combining Strengths, CHI EA 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1238582

ABSTRACT

The COVID19 pandemic has unfolded alongside a concurrent g€infodemic' - defined by the World Health Organization as an overabundance of information, some accurate, some not, that occurs during an epidemic. Key to managing this is not only identifying, countering and debunking misinformation but also providing unbiased and factually correct information and signposting people towards it. However, during COVID19, the g€truth' has not always been clear. It has not always been easy to prepare public health messaging that is consistent, easily understood or practical for everyone to apply. This presents unique challenges, to which social media platforms need to be part of the solution. One such solution can be found on www.reddit.com where, in January 2020, a group of research scientists, students, academics and medics came together to create and moderate forums in which the pandemic can be discussed and questions about it answered. These forums provide case studies of how information can be generated, misinformation corrected and disinformation debunked on subreddits with, combined, more than 3 million subscribers. © 2021 Owner/Author.

8.
Cancer Research ; 81(4 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1186393

ABSTRACT

Background: Several reports have observed that cancer patients who recently underwent chemotherapy or surgeryhad a higher risk of severe events compared with patients without cancer. Limited data is available on outcomes inspecific cancer types, as well as the impact of non-cytotoxic systemic treatment, such as targeted therapy andhormonal therapy on severe outcomes. We aim to identify whether active treatment impacts severe outcomes (rateof hospitalization, ICU admission, intubation, and death) in breast cancer patients. Methods: We conducted amulticenter study in the state of Louisiana, throughout the Ochsner Health System, in both tertiary and non-tertiarycenters. Patients must carry a diagnosis of breast cancer, and have a completed SARS-CoV-2 test between March1st and April 30th, 2020. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare the proportion of patientsexperiencing severe outcomes between treatment groups. Results: As of April 30, 2020, a total of 70 patients withbreast cancer who had a positive SARS-COV-2 test were identified. Median age 64.5, median BMI 30.8, 62.9%(n=44) black, 27.1% (n=19) current/former smokers, HTN (n=52) and DM2 (n=22) were the most commoncomorbidities, and 12.9% (n=9) of patients had stage IV disease. Of these patients, 58.6% (n=41) were on hormonaltreatment, and another 12.9% (n=9) were receiving other forms of systemic therapy (cytotoxic chemotherapy ortargeted therapy). In terms of severe outcomes, 32.9% (n=23) of patients required hospitalization, 8.6% (n=6)required ICU admission with 7.1% (n=5) patients requiring intubation, 11.4% (n=8) of patients died. There was not astatistical difference in rate of severe outcomes (rate of hospitalization, ICU admission, intubation, and death)among breast cancer patients receiving active treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormonal therapy) vs those receiving no active treatment. There was also no difference in terms of severe outcomes by race. Conclusion:With an ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to identify how the treatment and management ofcancer impacts COVID-19 outcomes. This small cohort does not identify active treatment as a risk factor forincreased rate of severe outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Further analyses describing impact of specifichormonal and chemotherapy regimens on risk of hospitalization and death will be completed by time of presentation.

9.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(16): e65, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 crisis has challenged the U.S. health-care system in a variety of ways, including how we teach and train orthopaedic surgery residents and fellows. During the spring of 2020, the cessation of all elective surgical procedures and the diminished number of outpatient visits challenged graduate medical education. While residency programs in less affected areas may not have had to make many dramatic adjustments, some of those located in pandemic hotspots had to redirect trainees from orthopaedic rotations to COVID-19 units. No matter the region, the time that trainees have spent in rotations has been altered, and absences have occurred due to quarantines. This symposium summarizes the impact of restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic on residency and fellowship programs from the perspectives of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), a program director, and a graduating resident. Although new opportunities for virtual curricula, virtual surgical simulation, and virtual interviews have been innovated, residency programs and residents report primarily a negative effect from the pandemic due to decreased surgical volumes and the limitation of patient-care experiences. Ultimately, program directors have an obligation to the program, the trainee, and the general public to graduate only those residents and fellows who are truly prepared to practice independently; they have the responsibility of making the final decision regarding graduation. The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to underscore the need for competency-based medical education. Assessing competency includes evaluation of the knowledge, the operative skills, the nonoperative patient-care skills, and the professional behavior of each and every individual graduating from orthopaedic residency and fellowship training programs. A hybrid model for time and competency-based training, with established national standards not only for accreditation for our training programs but also for board certification of our graduating residents, was enhanced by the COVID-19 pandemic and is highlighted in this symposium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate , Orthopedics/education , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/education , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , United States
10.
Cancer Research ; 81(4):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1141196
12.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 26(18 SUPPL), 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-992062

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a newly diagnosed entity that has been identified for about 6 months. With the US now being theprevalent nation affected, we aimed to identify factors that were relevant to survival and hematologic events inCOVID patients. Our group had primarily been assessing COVID-19-confirmed patients as per PCR at OchsnerMedical Center in Louisiana;we primarily studied patients who were admitted between January 2020 to May 2020.Main events that are currently being studied include factors such as mortality, length of stay, and bleeding orthrombotic events. Secondary endpoints included factors such as influence on blood type and also amount oftransfusions required by these patients. Our overall analysis of 1,773 patients yielded a number of 60 patients whomwe were able to identify as having an active cancer diagnosis. This disproportionate number of patients may berelated to factors such as reluctance to visit the hospital among cancer patients, a phenomenon noted similarly inCardiology, where the number of admissions for cardiac causes had declined suddenly during this pandemictimeline. One half of our population was African American and included an even proportion of males and females.The age range of patients was between 35-93 years. The most common malignancies that were noted to co-occur with COVID-19 in our population seemed to be lung, prostate, and hematologic malignancies. Although finalanalyses regarding mortality are to be completed, the proportion of patients who had died with a diagnosis of cancer was around 50% per collection of our current data. Twenty three out of 60 (38%) patients required bloodtransfusions. In comparison to other reports that had reported bleeding events and thrombotic events, our reportrevealed a much lower rate of bleeding events (5/60) and thrombotic events (5/60). We plan to repeat our analysisto assess for any confounders in identifying these events, as noted, since some earlier literature had reportedbetween one quarter to two thirds of patients having a thrombotic event. Our analysis also looks at other descriptivevariables such as use of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents, absolute counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, platelets, and coagulation markers. Also, our assessment includes a study in assessment of any delays noted inchemotherapy dates for these patients.

13.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 169: 168-189, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970682

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented effort toward the development of an effective and safe vaccine. Aided by extensive research efforts into characterizing and developing countermeasures towards prior coronavirus epidemics, as well as recent developments of diverse vaccine platform technologies, hundreds of vaccine candidates using dozens of delivery vehicles and routes have been proposed and evaluated preclinically. A high demand coupled with massive effort from researchers has led to the advancement of at least 31 candidate vaccines in clinical trials, many using platforms that have never before been approved for use in humans. This review will address the approach and requirements for a successful vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the background of the myriad of vaccine platforms currently in clinical trials for COVID-19 prevention, and a summary of the present results of those trials. It concludes with a perspective on formulation problems which remain to be addressed in COVID-19 vaccine development and antigens or adjuvants which may be worth further investigation.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Compounding/trends , Drug Development/trends , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/chemical synthesis , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(1): 82-88, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of COVID-19 in university-age students, who are returning to campuses. There is little evidence regarding the feasibility of universal, asymptomatic testing to help control outbreaks in this population. This study aimed to pilot mass COVID-19 testing on a university research park, to assess the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up testing to all staff and students. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional feasibility study on a university research park in the East of England. All staff and students (5625) were eligible to participate. All participants were offered four PCR swabs, which they self-administered over two weeks. Outcome measures included uptake, drop-out rate, positivity rates, participant acceptability measures, laboratory processing measures, data collection and management measures. RESULTS: 798 (76%) of 1053 who registered provided at least one swab; 687 (86%) provided all four; 792 (99%) of 798 who submitted at least one swab had all negative results and 6 participants had one inconclusive result. There were no positive results. 458 (57%) of 798 participants responded to a post-testing survey, demonstrating a mean acceptability score of 4.51/5, with five being the most positive. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated self-testing for COVID-19 using PCR is feasible and acceptable to a university population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , United Kingdom , Universities , Young Adult
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