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Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713633


BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome needing intensive care admission and may lead to death. As a virus that transmits by respiratory droplets and aerosols, determining the duration of viable virus shedding from the respiratory tract is critical for patient prognosis, and informs infection control measures both within healthcare settings and the public domain. METHODS: We prospectively examined upper and lower airway respiratory secretions for both viral RNA and infectious virions in mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the University Hospital of Wales. Samples were taken from the oral cavity (saliva), oropharynx (sub-glottic aspirate), or lower respiratory tract (non-directed bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)) and analyzed by both qPCR and plaque assay. RESULTS: 117 samples were obtained from 25 patients. qPCR showed extremely high rates of positivity across all sample types, however live virus was far more common in saliva (68%) than in BAL/NBAL (32%). Average titres of live virus were higher in subglottic aspirates (4.5x10 7) than in saliva (2.2x10 6) or BAL/NBAL (8.5x10 6) and reached >10 8 PFU/ml in some samples. The longest duration of shedding was 98 days, while most patients (14/25) shed live virus for 20 days or longer. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive care unit patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 can shed high titres of virus both in the upper and lower respiratory tract and tend to be prolonged shedders. This information is important for decision making around cohorting patients, de-escalation of PPE, and undertaking potential aerosol generating procedures.

N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275997


BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 number, NCT02908308.).

Fever/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Body Temperature , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coma/etiology , Coma/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome