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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 679-690, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence concerning the range of filtering respirators suitable for patient care and guide the selection and use of different respirator types. DESIGN: Comparative analysis of international standards for respirators and rapid review of their performance and impact in healthcare. DATA SOURCES: Websites of international standards organisations, Medline and Embase, hand-searching of references and citations. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of healthcare workers (including students) using disposable or reusable respirators with a range of designs. We examined respirator performance, clinician adherence and performance, comfort and impact, and perceptions of use. RESULTS: We included standards from eight authorities across Europe, North and South America, Asia and Australasia and 39 research studies. There were four main findings. First, international standards for respirators apply across workplace settings and are broadly comparable across jurisdictions. Second, effective and safe respirator use depends on proper fitting and fit testing. Third, all respirator types carry a burden to the user of discomfort and interference with communication which may limit their safe use over long periods; studies suggest that they have little impact on specific clinical skills in the short term but there is limited evidence on the impact of prolonged wearing. Finally, some clinical activities, particularly chest compressions, reduce the performance of filtering facepiece respirators. CONCLUSION: A wide range of respirator types and models is available for use in patient care during respiratory pandemics. Careful consideration of performance and impact of respirators is needed to maximise protection of healthcare workers and minimise disruption to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disposable Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Reuse/statistics & numerical data , Ventilators, Mechanical/statistics & numerical data , Disposable Equipment/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Ventilators, Mechanical/standards
2.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-983

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic and with current knowledge about the virus rapidly evolving, systematic reviews are needed to assess those most at ris

4.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(10): 1915-1924, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657128

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate the prevalence of both cardiometabolic and other co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19, and to estimate the increased risk of severity of disease and mortality in people with co-morbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Scopus and the World Health Organization website were searched for global research on COVID-19 conducted from January 2019 up to 23 April 2020. Study inclusion was restricted to English language publications, original articles that reported the prevalence of co-morbidities in individuals with COVID-19, and case series including more than 10 patients. Eighteen studies were selected for inclusion. Data were analysed using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 14 558 individuals were identified. The pooled prevalence for co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19 disease was 22.9% (95% CI: 15.8 to 29.9) for hypertension, 11.5% (9.7 to 13.4) for diabetes, and 9.7% (6.8 to 12.6) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease and cancer, the pooled prevalences were all less than 4%. With the exception of cerebrovascular disease, all the other co-morbidities presented a significantly increased risk for having severe COVID-19. In addition, the risk of mortality was significantly increased in individuals with CVD, COPD, CKD, cerebrovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with COVID-19, the presence of co-morbidities (both cardiometabolic and other) is associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. These findings have important implications for public health with regard to risk stratification and future planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Mortality , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 965-967, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611900

ABSTRACT

Routine care for chronic disease is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to evaluate the global impact of COVID-19 on routine care for chronic diseases. An online survey was posted 31 March to 23 April 2020 targeted at healthcare professionals. 202 from 47 countries responded. Most reported change in routine care to virtual communication. Diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypertension were the most impacted conditions due to reduction in access to care. 80% reported the mental health of their patients worsened during COVID-19. It is important routine care continues in spite of the pandemic, to avoid a rise in non-COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chronic Disease/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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