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2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(9): 651-662, 2022 Sep.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065242

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence shows that a range of persistent or new symptoms can manifest after 4-12 weeks in a subset of patients who have recovered from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this condition has been coined long COVID by COVID-19 survivors among social support groups. Long COVID can affect the whole spectrum of people with COVID-19, from those with very mild acute disease to the most severe forms. Like the acute form, long COVID has multisystemic aspects. Patients can manifest with a very heterogeneous multitude of symptoms, including fatigue, post-exertional malaise, dyspnea, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression, muscle pain, brain fog, anosmia/dysgeusia, headache, and limitation of functional capacity, which impact their quality of life. Because of the extreme clinical heterogeneity, and also due to the lack of a shared, specific definition, it is very difficult to know the real prevalence and incidence of this condition. Risk factors for developing long COVID would be female sex, initial severity, and comorbidities. Globally, with the re-emergence of new waves, the population of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 continues to expand rapidly, necessitating a more thorough understanding of potential sequelae of COVID-19. This review summarizes up to date definitions and epidemiological aspects of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors
3.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056810

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) related pandemic have deeply impacted human health, economy, psychology and sociality. Possible serious cardiac involvement in the infection has been described, raising doubts about complete healing after the disease in many clinical settings. Moreover, there is the suspicion that the vaccines, especially those based on mRNA technology, can induce myopericarditis. Myocarditis or pericarditis related scars can represent the substrate for lifethreatening arrhythmias, triggered by physical activity. A crucial point is how to evaluate an athlete after a Covid-19 infection ensuring a safe return to play without increasing the number of unnecessary disqualifications from sports competitions. The lack of conclusive scientific data significantly increases the difficulty to propose recommendations and guidelines on this topic. At the same time, the psychological and physical negative consequences of unnecessary sports restriction must be taken into account. The present document aims to provide an updated brief review of the current knowledge about the COVID-19 cardiac involvement and how to recognize it and to offer a roadmap for the management of the athletes after a Covid-19 infections, including subsequent impact on exercise recommendations. Our document exclusively refers to cardiovascular implications of the disease, but pulmonary consequences are also considered.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(5): 855-860, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750361

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study sought to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on the prescription of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure (HF) in Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) monitoring registries were analysed. The sacubitril/valsartan monitoring registry is based on 6-month prescriptions. A monthly aggregation on new activations throughout the observational period was computed. From March to December 2020, the initiation of new HF patients on sacubitril/valsartan decreased by nearly 40% with prescriptions dropping to values similar to 2018 when the registry was still operated off-line. A slight increase in prescriptions was observed after the lockdown measures were lifted, but prescriptions remained constantly below the pre-lockdown period. CONCLUSION: A marked and worrisome decline during the COVID-19 pandemic in the activation of a life-saving treatment such as sacubitril/valsartan was observed. This decline was clearly linked to the lockdown measures instated to counteract the COVID-19 pandemic. Upcoming studies should analyse the occurrence of new cases of HF as well as the severity of patients admitted to hospitals and their mortality compared to pre-pandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Valsartan
6.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686843

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is associated with cardiovascular complications, including venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Viral spike proteins, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary means for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently located in the cerebral venous sinus but also splanchnic, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity was soon recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting anti-platelet factor-4 antibodies activating platelets. For this reason, the regulatory agencies of various countries restricted the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to some age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19, including thrombotic complications, clearly outweighs this potential risk. This point-of-view aims at providing a narrative review of epidemiological issues, clinical data, and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping medical practitioners to offer up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic cardiovascular thrombotic events.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 821193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686461

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of some non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer includes an alteration of the endothelial function. COVID-19 is a pulmonary and vascular disease with a negative impact on patients whose damaged endothelium is particularly vulnerable. The peculiar SARS-CoV-2-induced "endothelitis" triggers an intriguing immune-thrombosis that affects both the venous and arterial vascular beds. An increased liability for infection and an increased likelihood of a worse outcome have been observed during the pandemic in patients with active cancer and in cancer survivors. "Overlapping commonalities" between COVID-19 and Cardio-Oncology have been described that include shared phenotypes of cardiovascular toxicities such as left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic syndromes, conduction disturbances, myocarditis, pericarditis and right ventricular failure; shared pathophysiologic mechanisms such as inflammation, release of cytokines, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-pathway, coagulation abnormalities, microthrombosis and endothelial dysfunction. For these features and for the catalyst role of NCDs (mainly CVD and cancer), we should refer to COVID-19 as a "syndemic." Another challenging issue is the persistence of the symptoms, the so-called "long COVID" whose pathogenesis is still uncertain: it may be due to persistent multi-organ viral attacks or to an abnormal immune response. An intensive vaccination campaign is the most successful pharmacological weapon against SARS-CoV-2, but the increasing number of variants has reduced the efficacy of the vaccines in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infections. After a year of vaccinations we have also learned more about efficacy and side-effects of COVID-19 vaccines. An important byproduct of the COVID-19 pandemic has been the rapid expansion of telemedicine platforms across different care settings; this new modality of monitoring cancer patients may be useful even in a post pandemic era. In this paper we analyze the problems that the cardio-oncologists are facing in a pandemic scenario modified by the extensive vaccination campaign and add actionable recommendations derived from the ongoing studies and from the syndemic nature of the infection.

8.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 969-980, 2021 Dec.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542227

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is also associated with cardiovascular complications, such as venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The viral spike protein, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary measure for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently the cerebral venous and splanchnic districts, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity has been rapidly recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies activating platelets. This prompted the regulatory agencies of various countries to restrict the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to specific age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19 disease, including thrombosis, clearly outweighs this potential extremely low risk.This paper aims at providing a comprehensive review of epidemiological issues, clinical data and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping cardiologists to offer an up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512352

ABSTRACT

Mandatory working from home is one of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for a large number of workers. Transition to working from home may significantly impact lifestyle, psychosocial status, and the overall health of workers. This review summarizes available data about the effects of lockdown measures, particularly working from home, on cardiovascular risk factors including sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet pattern, psychological distress, smoking, alcohol misuse, and cardiometabolic parameters. Finally, we suggest countermeasures that can attenuate the negative health impact of working from home. Indeed, timely and tailored interventions implemented by companies in cooperation with the health care system could allow workers to benefit more from some of the advantages associated with working from home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Life Style , SARS-CoV-2
10.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 854-860, 2021 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441022

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicenter studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared to enalapril, and good tolerability, safety and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favorable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodeling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remains suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroads in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Biphenyl Compounds , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles , Treatment Outcome , Valsartan
11.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 800-825, 2021 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441021

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease have confirmed the particular vulnerability of this population. Indeed, not only a higher risk of contracting the infection has been reported, but also an increased occurrence of a more severe course and unfavorable outcome. Beyond the direct consequences of COVID-19, the pandemic has an enormous impact on global health systems. Screening programs and non-urgent tests have been postponed; clinical trials have suffered a setback. Similarly, in the area of cardiology care, a significant decline in ST-elevation myocardial infarction accesses and an increase in cases of late presenting heart attacks with increased mortality and complication rates have been reported. Health care systems must therefore get ready to tackle the "rebound effect" that will likely show a relative increase in the short and medium term incidence of diseases such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and cardio- and cerebrovascular complications. Scientific societies are taking action to provide general guidance and recommendations aimed at mitigating the unfavorable outcomes of this pandemic emergency. Cardio-oncology, as an emerging discipline, is more flexible in modulating care pathways and represents a beacon of innovation in the development of multi-specialty patient management. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, cardio-oncology has rapidly modified its clinical care pathways and implemented flexible monitoring protocols that include targeted use of cardiac imaging, increased use of biomarkers, and telemedicine systems. The goal of these strategic adjustments is to minimize the risk of infection for providers and patients while maintaining standards of care for the treatment of oncologic and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this position paper is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of cardio-oncologic patients with the-state-of-the-art knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in order to optimize medical strategies during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Neoplasms , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C176-C183, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377967

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared with enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicentre studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared with enalapril, and good tolerability, safety, and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favourable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodelling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remain suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroad in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.

13.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C154-C163, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic,new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.

14.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C128-C153, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377965

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease have confirmed the particular vulnerability of these populations. Indeed, not only a higher risk of contracting the infection has been reported but also an increased occurrence of a more severe course and unfavourable outcome. Beyond the direct consequences of COVID-19 infection, the pandemic has an enormous impact on global health systems. Screening programmes and non-urgent tests have been postponed; clinical trials have suffered a setback. Similarly, in the area of cardiology care, a significant decline in STEMI accesses and an increase in cases of late presenting heart attacks with increased mortality and complication rates have been reported. Health care systems must therefore get ready to tackle the 'rebound effect' that will likely show a relative increase in the short- and medium-term incidence of diseases such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and cardio- and cerebrovascular complications. Scientific societies are taking action to provide general guidance and recommendations aimed at mitigating the unfavourable outcomes of this pandemic emergency. Cardio-oncology, as an emerging discipline, is more flexible in modulating care pathways and represents a beacon of innovation in the development of multi-specialty patient management. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, cardio-oncology has rapidly modified its clinical care pathways and implemented flexible monitoring protocols that include targeted use of cardiac imaging, increased use of biomarkers, and telemedicine systems. The goal of these strategic adjustments is to minimize the risk of infection for providers and patients while maintaining standards of care for the treatment of oncologic and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this document is to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the management of cardio-oncologic patients with the-state-of-the-art knowledge about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in order to optimize medical strategies during and after the pandemic.

15.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(8): 610-619, 2021 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic, new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Italy , National Health Programs/organization & administration
16.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G233-G238, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732037

ABSTRACT

Infections by SARS CoV2 - COVID-19 became in a short time a worldwide health emergency. The present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic induced in a short time, an unprecedented impact on public health and on the pre-existing care pathways. In order to appropriately address this epidemiological emergency, urgent solutions were needed, such as remodelling or stopping hospitalization and deferrable clinical activities to avoid spreading the SARS-CoV-2 infection. After the first emergency lockdown phase, care pathways must guarantee healthcare to patients and preserve the safety of the healthcare personnel and of all the other subjects that refer to the cardiological surgeries. Rigorous prescriptive appropriateness of the requested exams with consequent reduction of unnecessary examinations is an essential requirement to preserve prioritized diagnostic and care pathways to patients in need, minimizing the risks connected to the SARS-CoV-2 contagion in hospitals. Telemedicine services represent a valid answer to cardiovascular disease patients’ need for care and assistance, including those in quarantine and voluntary isolation. These services successfully contribute to fight the spread of the virus guaranteeing at the same time therapy and support through remote services that must therefore be considered a resource to be implemented and enhanced. This document has to be used by the healthcare personnel working in hospitals and in district offices, if applicable, and aims at managing patients, in complete safety and considered not suspect/not probable (‘not at risk’) of SARS-CoV-2 infection, eligible for diagnostic activity and subsequent therapy in outpatient surgeries. In particular, this document provides indications for patient evaluation to prevent COVID-19 exposure, gives general indications on managing appointments and waiting rooms, on how to strictly adhere to environmental safety measures, on the proper use of Individual Protective Equipment (IPE). It also provides specific indications for outpatient service procedures, like electrocardiogram, cardiologic examination, cardiologic checkup, Dynamic Holter Electrocardiogram, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Echo Stress, Transoesophageal Echocardiography, Bike Ergometer stress test, Ergospirometry, Outpatient Checkup of implantable electronic cardiac devices.

17.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G211-G216, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732033

ABSTRACT

The aim of this document is the management and organization of patients in need of urgent access to electrophysiology (EP) and pacing procedures during the COVID-19 emergency. Specifically, non-deferrable procedures or irreplaceable with a drug therapy prior to the resolution of the COVID-19 virus emergency [pacemaker (PM) implant/replacement/urgent defibrillator (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, ICD) or arrhythmic storm or other indication of non-deferrable ablation]. The pacing and electrophysiological procedures urgent as they may be, less and less frequently represent situations of emergency, therefore for almost all cases, it is possible to perform a swab test to determine the positivity to COVID-19 of the patient. In cases where this is not possible, due to situations of emergency, the recommendations and procedures we have indicated are advisable, if not mandatory, in order to avoid the spreading of the virus to healthcare personnel and other patients.

19.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(8): 565-569, 2020 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680055

ABSTRACT

In Italy, the epidemic explosion stage of COVID-19 seems to have been overcome; however, the virus has not been eradicated and the re-emergence of some outbreaks of infection substantiates the danger that the disease may persist. It is therefore necessary to keep the level of surveillance high, to maintain social distancing measures and to act in the control of disease risk factors of a serious or complicated course. Among the risk factors of severe COVID-19 in addition to age, male gender, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, a major role seems to be played by other cardiovascular risk factors conditioned by an unhealthy lifestyle such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and smoking. The new phase requires the maintenance of measures that avoid crowding and close interpersonal contact especially during exercise, in addition to controlled access to hospitals. This will require the reorganization of the traditional methods of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation activities, such as gyms and collective educational sessions, and the dilution of outpatient checks. The risk that this scenario may worsen the already suboptimal control of cardiovascular risk factors is therefore real. We do not currently know how long this new phase will last, therefore it is necessary to give impetus to new tele-health initiatives to stimulate the adoption of a healthy lifestyle in primary prevention and tele-monitoring and tele-rehabilitation programs in secondary prevention.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Cardiologists , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physician's Role , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
20.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(8): 575-583, 2020 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680054

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, is complex and can present with a multi-organ localization. One of its worst complications is an interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory failure also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which requires non-invasive or invasive ventilation. A severe coagulopathy with poor prognosis is found in 5-10% of cases. SARS-CoV-2 is manifesting as a multi-dimensional disease and, recently, unique co-existing pathophysiological and clinical aspects are being defined: (i) an increased immune and inflammatory response with the activation of a cytokine storm and consequent coagulopathy, which promote both venous thromboembolic events and in situ thrombosis localized in small arterioles and pulmonary alveolar capillaries; (ii) a high intrapulmonary shunt, which often accounts for the severity of respiratory failure, due to reduced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with pulmonary neo-angiogenetic phenomena. Furthermore, the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the autoptic findings of in situ micro-thrombosis at the pulmonary vascular level, suggest that in this disease coagulopathy, unlike septic disseminated intravascular coagulation, is driven towards a hyper-thrombogenic state, giving rise to a debate (with ongoing studies) about the preventive use of anticoagulant doses of heparin to reduce mortality. The aim of this position paper from the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) is to highlight the main implications that COVID-19 infection has on the pulmonary circulation from a pathophysiological, clinical and management point of view.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Societies, Medical , Survival Analysis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
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