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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008517

ABSTRACT

Observations of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from mother to foetus have recently been described in the literature. However, the consequences of such transmission, whether foetal or neonatal, are poorly understood. From a case of in utero foetal death at 24 +2 weeks of gestation that occurred seven days after the diagnosis of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the mother, we isolated the incriminating virus by immunochemistry and molecular techniques in several foetal tissues, with a variant analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Moreover, the foetal demise could be explained by the presence of placental histological lesions, such as histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblastic necrosis, in addition to foetal tissue damage. We observed mild foetal growth retardation and visceral damage to the liver, causing hepatocellular damage and haemosiderosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of foetal demise secondary to maternal-foetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with a congenital infection and a pathological description of placental and foetal tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in both specimens by three independent techniques (immunochemistry, RT-qPCR and RT-dPCR). Furthermore, the incriminating variant has been identified.

2.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(6): 660-676, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876076

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Perinatal death is an increasingly important problem as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, but the mechanism of death has been unclear. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the role of the placenta in causing stillbirth and neonatal death following maternal infection with COVID-19 and confirmed placental positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective clinicopathologic analysis by a multinational group of 44 perinatal specialists from 12 countries of placental and autopsy pathology findings from 64 stillborns and 4 neonatal deaths having placentas testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following delivery to mothers with COVID-19. RESULTS.­: Of the 3 findings constituting SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, all 68 placentas had increased fibrin deposition and villous trophoblast necrosis and 66 had chronic histiocytic intervillositis. Sixty-three placentas had massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Severe destructive placental disease from SARS-CoV-2 placentitis averaged 77.7% tissue involvement. Other findings included multiple intervillous thrombi (37%; 25 of 68) and chronic villitis (32%; 22 of 68). The majority (19; 63%) of the 30 autopsies revealed no significant fetal abnormalities except for intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia. Among all 68 cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected from a body specimen in 16 of 28 cases tested, most frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs. Four autopsied stillborns had SARS-CoV-2 identified in internal organs. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pathology abnormalities composing SARS-CoV-2 placentitis cause widespread and severe placental destruction resulting in placental malperfusion and insufficiency. In these cases, intrauterine and perinatal death likely results directly from placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 involvement of the fetus had a role in causing these deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434381

ABSTRACT

Observations of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from mother to foetus have recently been described in the literature. However, the consequences of such transmission, whether foetal or neonatal, are poorly understood. From a case of in utero foetal death at 24 +2 weeks of gestation that occurred seven days after the diagnosis of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the mother, we isolated the incriminating virus by immunochemistry and molecular techniques in several foetal tissues, with a variant analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Moreover, the foetal demise could be explained by the presence of placental histological lesions, such as histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblastic necrosis, in addition to foetal tissue damage. We observed mild foetal growth retardation and visceral damage to the liver, causing hepatocellular damage and haemosiderosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of foetal demise secondary to maternal-foetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with a congenital infection and a pathological description of placental and foetal tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in both specimens by three independent techniques (immunochemistry, RT-qPCR and RT-dPCR). Furthermore, the incriminating variant has been identified.

4.
Placenta ; 112: 97-104, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333705

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women with covid-19 are more likely to experience preterm birth. The virus seems to be associated with a wide range of placental lesions, none of them specific. METHOD: We collected cases of Covid-19 maternal infection during pregnancy associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, for which we received the placenta. We studied clinical data and described pathological findings of placenta and post-mortem examination of fetuses. We performed an immunohistochemical study and RT-PCR of SARS-Cov-2 on placenta samples. RESULTS: We report 5 cases of poor fetal outcome, 3 fetal deaths and 2 extreme premature neonates, one with growth restriction, without clinical and biological sign of SARS-Cov-2 infection. All placenta presented massive perivillous fibrin deposition and large intervillous thrombi associated with strong SARS-Cov-2 expression in trophoblast and SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in amniotic fluid or on placenta samples. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis was present in 4/5 cases. Placental ultrasound was abnormal and the sFLT1-PIGF ratio was increased in one case. Timing between mothers' infection and the poor fetal outcome was ≤10 days in 4 cases. The massive placental damage are directly induced by the virus whose receptors are expressed on trophoblast, leading to trophoblast necrosis and massive inflammation in villous chamber, in a similar way it occurs in diffuse alveolar damage in adults infected by SARS-Cov-2. DISCUSSION: SARS-Cov-2 can be associated to a rare set of placental lesions which can lead to fetal demise, preterm birth, or growth restriction. Stronger surveillance of mothers infected by SARS-Cov-2 is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Stillbirth , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , France , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/pathology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
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