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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 976968, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119058

ABSTRACT

Various chemical adjuvants are available to augment immune responses to non-replicative, subunit vaccines. Optimized adjuvant selection can ensure that vaccine-induced immune responses protect against the diversity of pathogen-associated infection routes, mechanisms of infectious spread, and pathways of immune evasion. In this study, we compare the immune response of mice to a subunit vaccine of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein, stabilized in its prefusion conformation by a proprietary molecular clamp (MERS SClamp) alone or formulated with one of six adjuvants: either (i) aluminium hydroxide, (ii) SWE, a squalene-in-water emulsion, (iii) SQ, a squalene-in-water emulsion containing QS21 saponin, (iv) SMQ, a squalene-in-water emulsion containing QS21 and a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist 3D-6-acyl Phosphorylated HexaAcyl Disaccharide (3D6AP); (v) LQ, neutral liposomes containing cholesterol, 1.2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and QS21, (vi) or LMQ, neutral liposomes containing cholesterol, DOPC, QS21, and 3D6AP. All adjuvanted formulations induced elevated antibody titers which where greatest for QS21-containing formulations. These had elevated neutralization capacity and induced higher frequencies of IFNƔ and IL-2-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Additionally, LMQ-containing formulations skewed the antibody response towards IgG2b/c isotypes, allowing for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This study highlights the utility of side-by-side adjuvant comparisons in vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Saponins , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Aluminum Hydroxide , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Disaccharides , Emulsions , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-2 , Liposomes , Mice , Phosphorylcholine , Saponins/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Squalene , Vaccines, Subunit , Water
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 918629, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782116

ABSTRACT

The leptospirosis burden on humans, especially in high-risk occupational groups and livestock, leads to public health and economic problems. Leptospirosis subunit vaccines have been under development and require further improvement to provide complete protection. Adjuvants can be used to enhance the amplitude, quality, and durability of immune responses. Previously, we demonstrated that LMQ adjuvant (neutral liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and Quillaja saponaria derived QS21 saponin) promoted protective efficacy of LigAc vaccine against Leptospira challenge. To promote immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the subunit vaccines, three alternative adjuvants based on neutral liposomes or squalene-in-water emulsion were evaluated in this study. LQ and LQuil adjuvants combined the neutral liposomes with the QS21 saponin or Quillaja saponaria derived QuilA® saponin, respectively. SQuil adjuvant combined a squalene-in-water emulsion with the QuilA® saponin. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of LigAc (20 µg) formulated with the candidate adjuvants were conducted in golden Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were vaccinated three times at a 2-week interval, followed by a homologous challenge of L. interrogans serovar Pomona. The results showed that LigAc combined with LQ, LQuil, or SQuil adjuvants conferred substantial antibody responses and protective efficacy (survival rate, pathological change, and Leptospira renal colonization) comparable to LMQ adjuvant. The LigAc+LQ formulation conferred 62.5% survival but was not significantly different from LigAc+LMQ, LigAc+LQuil, and LigAc+SQuil formulations (50% survival). This study highlights the potential of saponin-containing adjuvants LMQ, LQ, LQuil, and SQuil for both human and animal leptospirosis vaccines.


Subject(s)
Leptospira , Leptospirosis , Saponins , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial , Cricetinae , Emulsions , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Liposomes , Squalene , Staphylococcal Protein A , Vaccines, Subunit
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493582

ABSTRACT

Global containment of COVID-19 still requires accessible and affordable vaccines for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Recently approved vaccines provide needed interventions, albeit at prices that may limit their global access. Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins are suited for large-volume microbial manufacturing to yield billions of doses annually, minimizing their manufacturing cost. These types of vaccines are well-established, proven interventions with multiple safe and efficacious commercial examples. Many vaccine candidates of this type for SARS-CoV-2 rely on sequences containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates viral entry to cells via ACE2. Here we report an engineered sequence variant of RBD that exhibits high-yield manufacturability, high-affinity binding to ACE2, and enhanced immunogenicity after a single dose in mice compared to the Wuhan-Hu-1 variant used in current vaccines. Antibodies raised against the engineered protein exhibited heterotypic binding to the RBD from two recently reported SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (501Y.V1/V2). Presentation of the engineered RBD on a designed virus-like particle (VLP) also reduced weight loss in hamsters upon viral challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Protein Engineering/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Saccharomycetales/metabolism , Vaccines, Subunit
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063131

ABSTRACT

Adequate global vaccine coverage during an influenza pandemic is essential to mitigate morbidity, mortality, and economic impact. Vaccine development and production needs to be sufficient to meet a vast global demand, requiring international cooperation and local vaccine production capacity, especially in resource-constrained countries. The use of adjuvants is one approach to augment the number of available vaccine doses and to overcome potential vaccine shortages. Appropriately selected adjuvant technologies can decrease the amount of vaccine antigen required per dose, may broaden or lengthen the conferred protection against disease, and may even allow protective single-dose vaccination. Here we describe a technology transfer collaboration between Switzerland and Indonesia that led to the establishment of a vaccine formulation platform in Surabaya which involved the transfer of equipment and expertise to enable research and development of adjuvanted vaccine formulations and delivery systems. This new Indonesian capability aims to facilitate local and regional access to know-how relating to adjuvanted vaccine formulations, thus promoting their application to local vaccine developers. In this review, we aim to share the "lessons learned" from this project to both support and inspire future scientific collaborations of a similar nature.

5.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688647

ABSTRACT

Global containment of COVID-19 still requires accessible and affordable vaccines for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). 1 Recently approved vaccines provide needed interventions, albeit at prices that may limit their global access. 2 Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins are suited for large-volume microbial manufacturing to yield billions of doses annually, minimizing their manufacturing costs. 3 These types of vaccines are well-established, proven interventions with multiple safe and efficacious commercial examples. 4-6 Many vaccine candidates of this type for SARS-CoV-2 rely on sequences containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates viral entry to cells via ACE2. 7,8 Here we report an engineered sequence variant of RBD that exhibits high-yield manufacturability, high-affinity binding to ACE2, and enhanced immunogenicity after a single dose in mice compared to the Wuhan-Hu-1 variant used in current vaccines. Antibodies raised against the engineered protein exhibited heterotypic binding to the RBD from two recently reported SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (501Y.V1/V2). Presentation of the engineered RBD on a designed virus-like particle (VLP) also reduced weight loss in hamsters upon viral challenge.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562114

ABSTRACT

Capsid-like particle (CLP) displays can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens, but a better understanding of how CLP vaccines are best formulated and delivered is needed. This study compared the humoral immune responses in mice elicited against two different vaccine antigens (a bacterial protein and a viral peptide) delivered on an AP205 CLP platform using six different adjuvant formulations. In comparison to antibody responses obtained after immunization with the unadjuvanted CLP vaccine, three of the adjuvant systems (neutral liposomes/monophosphoryl lipid A/quillaja saponaria 21, squalene-in-water emulsion, and monophosphoryl lipid A) caused significantly increased antibody levels, whereas formulation with the three other adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide, cationic liposomes, and cationic microparticles) resulted in similar or even decreased antibody responses. When delivering the soluble bacterial protein in a squalene-in-water emulsion, 4-log lower IgG levels were obtained compared to when the protein was delivered on CLPs without the adjuvant. The AP205 CLP platform promoted induction of both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, which could be skewed towards a higher production of IgG1 (aluminum hydroxide). Compared to other routes, intramuscular administration elicited the highest IgG levels. These results indicate that the effect of the external adjuvant does not always synergize with the adjuvant effect of the CLP display, which underscores the need for empirical testing of different extrinsic adjuvants.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882903

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis vaccines with higher potency and reduced adverse effects are needed for human use. The carboxyl terminal domain of leptospiral immunoglobulin like protein A (LigAc) is currently the most promising candidate antigen for leptospirosis subunit vaccine. However, LigAc-based vaccines were unable to confer sterilizing immunity against Leptospira infection in animal models. Several factors including antigen properties, adjuvant, delivery system, and administration route need optimization to maximize vaccine efficacy. Our previous report demonstrated protective effects of the recombinant LigAc (rLigAc) formulated with liposome-based adjuvant, called LMQ (neutral liposome combined with monophosphoryl lipid A and Quillaja saponaria fraction 21) in hamsters. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two commonly used administration routes, intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC), on immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rLigAc-LMQ administrated three times at 2-week interval. Two IM vaccinations triggered significantly higher levels of total anti-rLigAc IgG than two SC injections. However, comparable IgG titers and IgG2/IgG1 ratio was observed for both routes after the third immunization. The route of vaccine administration did not influence the survival rate (60%) and renal colonization against lethal Leptospira challenge. Importantly, the kidneys of IM group showed no pathological lesions while the SC group showed mild damage. In conclusion, IM vaccination with rLigAc-LMQ not only elicited faster antibody production but also protected from kidney damage following leptospiral infection better than SC immunization. However, both tested routes did not influence protective efficacy in terms of survival rate and the level of renal colonization.

8.
NPJ Vaccines, v. 5, 38, mai. 2020
Article in English | SES-SP, SESSP-IBPROD, SES-SP | ID: bud-3044

ABSTRACT

Until universal influenza vaccines become available, pandemic preparedness should include developing classical vaccines against potential pandemic influenza subtypes. We here show that addition of SWE adjuvant, a squalene-in-water emulsion, to H7N9 split influenza vaccine clearly enhanced functional antibody responses in ferrets. These were cross-reactive against H7N9 strains from different lineages and newly emerged H7N9 variants. Both vaccine formulations protected in almost all cases against severe pneumonia induced by intratracheal infection of ferrets with H7N9 influenza; however, the SWE adjuvant enhanced protection against virus replication and disease. Correlation analysis and curve fitting showed that both VN- and NI-titers were better predictors for protection than HI-titers. Moreover, we show that novel algorithms can assist in better interpretation of large data sets generated in preclinical studies. Cluster analysis showed that the adjuvanted vaccine results in robust immunity and protection, whereas the response to the non-adjuvanted vaccine is heterogeneous, such that the protection balance may be more easily tipped toward severe disease. Finally, cluster analysis indicated that the dose-sparing capacity of the adjuvant is at least a factor six, which greatly increases vaccine availability in a pandemic situation.

9.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5(1): 38, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411401

ABSTRACT

Until universal influenza vaccines become available, pandemic preparedness should include developing classical vaccines against potential pandemic influenza subtypes. We here show that addition of SWE adjuvant, a squalene-in-water emulsion, to H7N9 split influenza vaccine clearly enhanced functional antibody responses in ferrets. These were cross-reactive against H7N9 strains from different lineages and newly emerged H7N9 variants. Both vaccine formulations protected in almost all cases against severe pneumonia induced by intratracheal infection of ferrets with H7N9 influenza; however, the SWE adjuvant enhanced protection against virus replication and disease. Correlation analysis and curve fitting showed that both VN- and NI-titers were better predictors for protection than HI-titers. Moreover, we show that novel algorithms can assist in better interpretation of large data sets generated in preclinical studies. Cluster analysis showed that the adjuvanted vaccine results in robust immunity and protection, whereas the response to the non-adjuvanted vaccine is heterogeneous, such that the protection balance may be more easily tipped toward severe disease. Finally, cluster analysis indicated that the dose-sparing capacity of the adjuvant is at least a factor six, which greatly increases vaccine availability in a pandemic situation.

10.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156809

ABSTRACT

Recent global advocacy efforts have highlighted the importance of development of a vaccine against group A Streptococcus (GAS). Combo5 is a non-M protein-based vaccine that provides protection against GAS skin infection in mice and reduces the severity of pharyngitis in nonhuman primates. However, Combo5 with the addition of aluminum hydroxide (alum) as an adjuvant failed to protect against invasive GAS infection of mice. Here, we show that formulation of Combo5 with adjuvants containing saponin QS21 significantly improves protective efficacy, even though all 7 adjuvants tested generated high antigen-specific IgG antibody titers, including alum. Detailed characterization of Combo5 formulated with SMQ adjuvant, a squalene-in-water emulsion containing a TLR4 agonist and QS21, showed significant differences from the results obtained with alum in IgG subclasses generated following immunization, with an absence of GAS opsonizing antibodies. SMQ, but not alum, generated strong interleukin-6 (IL-6), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) responses. This work highlights the importance of adjuvant selection for non-M protein-based GAS vaccines to optimize immune responses and protective efficacy.IMPORTANCE Availability of a group A Streptococcus vaccine remains an unmet public health need. Here, we tested different adjuvant formulations to improve the protective efficacy of non-M protein vaccine Combo5 in an invasive disease model. We show that novel adjuvants can dramatically shape the type of immune response developed following immunization with Combo5 and significantly improve protection. In addition, protection afforded by Combo5 is not mediated by opsonizing antibodies, believed to be the main correlate of protection against GAS infections. Overall, this report highlights the importance of adjuvant selection in raising protective immune responses against GAS invasive infection. Adjuvants that can provide a more balanced Th1/Th2-type response may be required to optimize protection of GAS vaccines, particularly those based on non-M protein antigens.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Cellular , Streptococcal Infections/immunology , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcal Vaccines/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Male , Mice , Opsonin Proteins/immunology , Streptococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage
11.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 91, 2019 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703726

ABSTRACT

New vaccine formulations that include novel strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and innovative adjuvants designed to induce cellular immunity could improve vaccine efficacy against this pathogen. The aim of this experimental study was to assess the efficacy of three experimental bacterin formulations based on M. hyopneumoniae field strain F7.2C which were able to induce cellular immunity. The formulations included a cationic liposome formulation with the Mincle receptor ligand trehalose 6,6-dibehenate (Lipo_DDA:TDB), a squalene-in-water emulsion with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands targeting TLR1/2, TLR7/8 and TLR9 (SWE_TLR), and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) micro-particle formulation with the same TLR ligands (PLGA_TLR). Four groups of 12 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were primo- (day (D) 0; 39 days of age) and booster vaccinated (D14) intramuscularly with either one of the three experimental bacterin formulations or PBS. The pigs were endotracheally inoculated with a highly and low virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain on D28 and D29, respectively, and euthanized on D56. The main efficacy parameters were: respiratory disease score (RDS; daily), macroscopic lung lesion score (D56) and log copies M. hyopneumoniae DNA determined with qPCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (D42, D56). All formulations were able to reduce clinical symptoms, lung lesions and the M. hyopneumoniae DNA load in the lung, with formulation SWE_TLR being the most effective (RDSD28-D56 -61.90%, macroscopic lung lesions -88.38%, M. hyopneumoniae DNA load in BAL fluid (D42) -67.28%). Further experiments raised under field conditions are needed to confirm these results and to assess the effect of the vaccines on performance parameters.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Vaccines/pharmacology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/drug effects , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Animals , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/adverse effects , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/microbiology , Swine
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443566

ABSTRACT

Subunit vaccines conferring complete protection against leptospirosis are not currently available. The interactions of factor H binding proteins (FHBPs) on pathogenic leptospires and host factor H are crucial for immune evasion by inhibition of complement-mediated killing. The inhibition of these interactions may be a potential strategy to clear leptospires in the host. This study aimed to evaluate a multisubunit vaccine composed of four known leptospiral FHBPs: LigA domain 7-13 (LigAc), LenA, LcpA, and Lsa23, for its protective efficacy in hamsters. The mono and multisubunit vaccines formulated with LMQ adjuvant, a combination of neutral liposome, monophosphoryl lipid A, and Quillaja saponaria fraction 21, induced high and comparable specific antibody (IgG) production against individual antigens. Hamsters immunized with the multisubunit vaccine showed 60% survival following the challenge by 20 LD50 of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. No significant difference in survival rate and pathological findings of target organs was observed after vaccinations with multisubunit or mono-LigAc vaccines. However, the multisubunit vaccine significantly reduced leptospiral burden in surviving hamsters in comparison with the monosubunit vaccines. Therefore, the multisubunit vaccine conferred partial protection and reduced renal colonization against virulence Leptospira infection in hamsters. Our multisubunit formulation could represent a promising vaccine against leptospirosis.

13.
J Control Release ; 308: 14-28, 2019 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265882

ABSTRACT

DNA vaccination is an attractive technology, based on its well-established manufacturing process, safety profile, adaptability to rapidly combat pandemic pathogens, and stability at ambient temperature; however an optimal delivery method of DNA remains to be determined. As pigs are a relevant model for humans, we comparatively evaluated the efficiency of vaccine DNA delivery in vivo to pigs using dissolvable microneedle patches, intradermal inoculation with needle (ID), surface electroporation (EP), with DNA associated or not to cationic poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (NPs). We used a luciferase encoding plasmid (pLuc) as a reporter and vaccine plasmids encoding antigens from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a clinically-significant swine arterivirus. Patches were successful at inducing luciferase expression in skin although at lower level than EP. EP induced the cutaneaous recruitment of granulocytes, of MHC2posCD172Apos myeloid cells and type 1 conventional dendritic cells, in association with local production of IL-1ß, IL-8 and IL-17; these local responses were more limited with ID and undetectable with patches. The addition of NP to EP especially promoted the recruitment of the MHC2posCD172Apos CD163int and CD163neg myeloid subsets. Notably we obtained the strongest and broadest IFNγ T-cell response against a panel of PRRSV antigens with DNA + NPs delivered by EP, whereas patches and ID were ineffective. The anti-PRRSV IgG responses were the highest with EP administration independently of NPs, mild with ID, and undetectable with patches. These results contrast with the immunogenicity and efficacy previously induced in mice with patches. This study concludes that successful DNA vaccine administration in skin can be achieved in pigs with electroporation and patches, but only the former induces local inflammation, humoral and cellular immunity, with the highest potency when NPs were used. This finding shows the importance of evaluating the delivery and immunogenicity of DNA vaccines beyond the mouse model in a preclinical model relevant to human such as pig and reveals that EP with DNA combined to NP induces strong immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Electroporation/methods , Nanoparticles , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , Female , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Needles , Plasmids , Species Specificity , Swine , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/toxicity
14.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207934

ABSTRACT

The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) induces reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory illnesses in growing pigs and is considered as one of the main pathogenic agents responsible for economic losses in the porcine industry worldwide. Modified live PRRSV vaccines (MLVs) are very effective vaccine types against homologous strains but they present only partial protection against heterologous viral variants. With the goal to induce broad and cross-protective immunity, we generated DNA vaccines encoding B and T antigens derived from a European subtype 1 strain that include T-cell epitope sequences known to be conserved across strains. These antigens were expressed either in a native form or in the form of vaccibodies targeted to the endocytic receptor XCR1 and CD11c expressed by different types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). When delivered in skin with cationic nanoparticles and surface electroporation, multiple DNA vaccinations as a stand-alone regimen induced substantial antibody and T-cell responses, which were not promoted by targeting antigens to APCs. Interestingly, a DNA-MLV prime-boost strategy strongly enhanced the antibody response and broadened the T-cell responses over the one induced by MLV or DNA-only. The anti-nucleoprotein antibody response induced by the DNA-MLV prime-boost was clearly promoted by targeting the antigen to CD11c and XCR1, indicating a benefit of APC-targeting on the B-cell response. In conclusion, a DNA-MLV prime-boost strategy, by enhancing the potency and breadth of MLV vaccines, stands as a promising vaccine strategy to improve the control of PRRSV in infected herds.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunization Schedule , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibody Formation , Immunity, Cellular , Organisms, Genetically Modified/genetics , Organisms, Genetically Modified/immunology , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Swine , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1087, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178860

ABSTRACT

We characterized five different vaccine candidates and a commercial vaccine in terms of safety, immunogenicity and using a systems vaccinology approach, with the aim to select novel vaccine candidates against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Seven groups of six M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were primo- and booster vaccinated with the different experimental bacterin formulations, the commercial vaccine Hyogen® as a positive control or PBS as a negative control. The experimental bacterin was formulated with cationic liposomes + c-di-AMP (Lipo_AMP), cationic liposomes + Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1, TLR7, and TLR9 ligands (TLR ligands; Lipo_TLR), micro-particles + TLR ligands (PLGA_TLR), squalene-in-water emulsion + TLR ligands (SWE_TLR), or DDA:TDB liposomes (Lipo_DDA:TDB). Lipo_DDA:TDB and Lipo_AMP were the most potent in terms of serum antibody induction, and Lipo_DDA:TDB, Lipo_AMP, and SWE_TLR significantly induced Th1 cytokine-secreting T-cells. Only PLGA_TLR appeared to induce Th17 cells, but was unable to induce serum antibodies. The transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that the induction of inflammatory and myeloid cell blood transcriptional modules (BTM) in the first 24 h after vaccination correlated well with serum antibodies, while negative correlations with the same modules were found 7 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, many cell cycle and T-cell BTM upregulated at day seven correlated positively with adaptive immune responses. When comparing the delivery of the identical TLR ligands with the three formulations, we found SWE_TLR to be more potent in the induction of an early innate immune response, while the liposomal formulation more strongly promoted late cell cycle and T-cell BTM. For the PLGA formulation we found signs of a delayed and weak perturbation of these BTM. Lipo_AMP was found to be the most potent vaccine at inducing a BTM profile similar to that correlating with adaptive immune response in this and other studies. Taken together, we identified four promising vaccine candidates able to induce M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody and T-cell responses. In addition, we have adapted a systems vaccinology approach developed for human to pigs and demonstrated its capacity in identifying early immune signatures in the blood relating to adaptive immune responses. This approach represents an important step in a more rational design of efficacious vaccines for pigs.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/immunology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/immunology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/adverse effects , Bacterial Vaccines/chemistry , Cell Cycle , Drug Administration Routes , Drug Compounding , Gene Expression Profiling , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/genetics , Swine , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Vaccination
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 77, 2019 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though the right to health is included in Haiti's constitution, little progress has been made to expand universal health coverage nationwide, a strategy to ensure access to health services for all, while preventing financial hardship among the poor. Realizing universal health coverage will require a better understanding of inequities in health care utilization and out-of-pocket payments for health. This study measures inequality in health services utilization and the determinants of health seeking behavior in Haiti. It also examines the determinants of catastrophic health expenditures, defined by the Sustainable Development Goal Framework (Indicator 3.8.2) as expenditures that exceed 10% of overall household expenditures. METHODOLOGY: Three types of analysis were conducted using the 2012 and 2013 Household Surveys (Enquête sur les Conditions de Vie des Ménages Après Séisme (ECVMAS I (2012) and ECVMAS II (2013)) to measure: 1) outpatient services as a measure of inequalities using the 2013 Concentration Index; 2) drivers of health seeking behavior using a logistic regression model for 2013; and 3) determinants of catastrophic health expenditures using Seemingly Unrelated Regressions for both 2012 and 2013. RESULTS: The rate of catastrophic health expenditures increased nationwide from 9.43% in 2012 to 11.54% in 2013. This increase was most notable among the poorest wealth quintile (from 11.62% in 2012 to 18.20% in 2013), yet declined among the richest wealth quintile (from 9.49% to 4.46% during the same period). The increase in the rate of catastrophic health expenditures among the poorest coincides with a sharp decrease in external donor funding for the health sector. Regression analysis indicated that the rich wealth quintiles were less likely than poor wealth quintiles to incur catastrophic health expenditures. Interestingly, households were less likely to incur catastrophic health expenditures when they accessed care from Community Health Workers than when they received care from other types of providers, including public and private health care facilities. This study also shows that Community Health Worker-provided services have a negative concentration index (- 0.22) and are therefore most utilized by poor quintiles. In contrast, both public and private outpatient services had positive concentration indexes (0.05 and 0.12 respectively) and are most utilized by the rich wealth quintiles. Seeking care from traditional healers was found to be pro-poor in Haiti (concentration index of - 0.18) yet was also associated with higher catastrophic health expenditures albeit the coefficient was not significant. CONCLUSION: The expansion of universal health coverage in Haiti is evolving in a 'pro-rich' manner. Realizing Haiti's right to health will require a course-correction supported by national policies that protect the poor wealth quintiles from catastrophic health expenditures. Such policies may include Community Health Worker service delivery expansion in underserved areas. Evidence-based interventions may also be required to lower outpatient user fees, subsidize drug costs and promote efficiencies in pro-poor disaster relief programming.


Subject(s)
Catastrophic Illness/economics , Health Equity , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Human Rights , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Haiti , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006870, 2018 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of current global rabies mortality range from 26,000 to 59,000 deaths per annum. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis using inactivated rabies virus vaccines (IRVs) is effective, it requires two to three doses and is regarded as being too expensive and impractical for inclusion in routine childhood immunization programmes. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the development of a simian-adenovirus-vectored rabies vaccine intended to enable cost-effective population-wide pre-exposure prophylaxis against rabies. ChAdOx2 RabG uses the chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 (AdC68) backbone previously shown to achieve pre-exposure protection against rabies in non-human primates. ChAdOx2 differs from AdC68 in that it contains the human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5) E4 orf6/7 region in place of the AdC68 equivalents, enhancing ease of manufacturing in cell lines which provide AdHu5 E1 proteins in trans. We show that immunogenicity of ChAdOx2 RabG in mice is comparable to that of AdC68 RabG and other adenovirus serotypes expressing rabies virus glycoprotein. High titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) are elicited after a single dose. The relationship between levels of VNA activity and rabies virus glycoprotein monomer-binding antibody differs after immunization with adenovirus-vectored vaccines and IRV vaccines, suggesting routes to further enhancement of the efficacy of the adenovirus-vectored candidates. We also demonstrate that ChAdOx2 RabG can be thermostabilised using a low-cost method suitable for clinical bio-manufacture and ambient-temperature distribution in tropical climates. Finally, we show that a dose-sparing effect can be achieved by formulating ChAdOx2 RabG with a simple chemical adjuvant. This approach could lower the cost of ChAdOx2 RabG and other adenovirus-vectored vaccines. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: ChAdOx2 RabG may prove to be a useful tool to reduce the human rabies death toll. We have secured funding for Good Manufacturing Practice- compliant bio-manufacture and Phase I clinical trial of this candidate.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Simian/genetics , Drug Carriers , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , Rabies/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Costs and Cost Analysis , Drug Stability , Female , Genetic Vectors , Immunization Schedule , Mice , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Rabies Vaccines/economics , Rabies Vaccines/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/economics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
19.
NPJ Vaccines ; 3: 41, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302283

ABSTRACT

Inactivated vaccines lack immunogenicity and therefore require potent adjuvants. To understand the in vivo effects of adjuvants, we used a system immunology-based analysis of ovine blood transcriptional modules (BTMs) to dissect innate immune responses relating to either antibody or haptoglobin levels. Using inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus as an antigen, we compared non-adjuvanted to liposomal-formulated vaccines complemented or not with TLR4 and TLR7 ligands. Early after vaccination, BTM relating to myeloid cells, innate immune responses, dendritic cells, and antigen presentation correlated positively, whereas BTM relating to T and natural killer cells, as well as cell cycle correlated negatively with antibody responses. Interestingly, similar BTM also correlated with haptoglobin, but in a reversed manner, indicating that acute systemic inflammation is not beneficial for early antibody responses. Analysis of vaccine-dependent BTM modulation showed that liposomal formulations induced similar responses to those correlating to antibody levels. Surprisingly, the addition of the TLR ligands appeared to reduce early immunological perturbations and mediated anti-inflammatory effects, despite promoting antibody responses. When pre-vaccination BTM were analyzed, we found that high vaccine responders expressed higher levels of many BTM relating to cell cycle, antigen-presenting cells, and innate responses as compared with low responders. In conclusion, we have transferred human BTM to sheep and identified early vaccine-induced responses associated with antibody levels or unwanted inflammation in a heterogeneous and small group of animals. Such readouts are applicable to other veterinary species and very useful to identify efficient vaccine adjuvants, their mechanism of action, and factors related to low responders.

20.
BMC Immunol ; 19(1): 6, 2018 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need for rapid and accurate comparison of panels of adjuvanted vaccine formulations and subsequent rational down selection, presents several challenges for modern vaccine development. Here we describe a method which may enable vaccine and adjuvant developers to compare antigen/adjuvant combinations in a harmonized fashion. Three reference antigens: Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A (Ag85A), were selected as model antigens and were each formulated with three adjuvants: aluminium oxyhydroxide, squalene-in-water emulsion, and a liposome formulation mixed with the purified saponin fraction QS21. RESULTS: The nine antigen/adjuvant formulations were assessed for stability and immunogenicity in mice in order to provide benchmarks against which other formulations could be compared, in order to assist subsequent down selection of adjuvanted vaccines. Furthermore, mouse cellular immune responses were analyzed by measuring IFN-γ and IL-5 production in splenocytes by ELISPOT, and humoral responses were determined by antigen-specific ELISA, where levels of total IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2c in serum samples were determined. CONCLUSIONS: The reference antigens and adjuvants described in this study, which span a spectrum of immune responses, are of potential use as tools to act as points of reference in vaccine development studies. The harmonized methodology described herein may be used as a tool for adjuvant/antigen comparison studies.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay/methods , Vaccines/analysis , Acyltransferases/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-5/immunology , Interleukin-5/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/metabolism , Vaccines/immunology
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