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J Virol ; 96(2): e0159921, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494959


Live oral vaccines have been explored for their protective efficacy against respiratory viruses, particularly for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7. The potential of a live oral vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), however, remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of live SARS-CoV-2 delivered to the gastrointestinal tract in rhesus macaques and its protective efficacy against intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Postpyloric administration of SARS-CoV-2 by esophagogastroduodenoscopy resulted in limited virus replication in the gastrointestinal tract and minimal to no induction of mucosal antibody titers in rectal swabs, nasal swabs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Low levels of serum neutralizing antibodies were induced and correlated with modestly diminished viral loads in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Overall, our data show that postpyloric inoculation of live SARS-CoV-2 is weakly immunogenic and confers partial protection against respiratory SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 remains a global threat, despite the rapid deployment but limited coverage of multiple vaccines. Alternative vaccine strategies that have favorable manufacturing timelines, greater ease of distribution, and improved coverage may offer significant public health benefits, especially in resource-limited settings. Live oral vaccines have the potential to address some of these limitations; however, no studies have yet been conducted to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a live oral vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report that oral administration of live SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates may offer prophylactic benefits, but the formulation and route of administration will require further optimization.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Animals , Female , Macaca mulatta , Male
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4570-4575, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263108


Inpatient coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases present enormous costs to patients and health systems in the United States. Many hospitalized patients may continue testing COVID-19 positive even after the resolution of symptoms. Thus, a pressing concern for clinicians is the safety of discharging these asymptomatic patients if they have any remaining infectivity. This case report explores the viral viability in a patient with persistent COVID-19 over the course of a 2-month hospitalization. Positive nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected and isolated in the laboratory and analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and serology was tested for neutralizing antibodies throughout the hospitalization period. The patient experienced waning symptoms by hospital day 40 and had no viable virus growth by hospital day 41, suggesting no risk of infectivity, despite positive RT-PCR results which prolonged his hospital stay. Notably, this case showed infectivity for at least 24 days after disease onset, which is longer than the discontinuation of transmission-based precautions recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Thus, our findings suggest that the timeline for discontinuing transmission-based precautions may need to be extended for patients with severe and prolonged COVID-19 disease. Additional large-scale studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions on the appropriate clinical management for these patients. ​.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Virus Shedding/physiology , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology