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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 263, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to dramatic improvements in survival for people living with HIV, but is unable to cure infection, or induce viral control off therapy. Designing intervention trials with novel agents with the potential to confer a period of HIV remission without ART remains a key scientific and community goal. We detail the rationale, design, and outcomes of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of two HIV-specific long-acting broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs): 3BNC117-LS and 10-1074-LS, which target CD4 binding site and V3 loop respectively, on post-treatment viral control. METHODS: RIO is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded prospective phase II study. Eligible individuals will have started ART within 3 months of primary HIV infection and have viral sequences that appear to be sensitive to both bNAbs. It will randomise 72 eligible participants 1:1 to the following arms via a two-stage design. In Stage 1, arm A participants are given dual long-acting (LS-variants) bNAbs infusions, followed by intensively monitored Analytical Treatment Interruption (ATI) (n = 36); in arm B, participants receive placebo infusions followed by ATI. The primary endpoint will be time to viral rebound within 36 weeks after ATI. Upon viral rebound, the participant and researcher are unblinded. Participants in arm A recommence ART and complete the study. Participants in arm B are invited to restart ART and enroll into Stage 2 where they will receive open-label LS bNAbs, followed by a second ATI 24 weeks after. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include adverse events, time to undetectable viraemia after restarting ART, immunological markers, HIV proviral DNA, serum bNAb concentrations in blood, bNAb resistance at viral rebound, and quality of life measures. DISCUSSION: The two-stage design was determined in collaboration with community involvement. This design allows all participants the option to receive bNAbs. It also tests the hypothesis that bNAbs may drive sustained HIV control beyond the duration of detectable bNAb concentrations. Community representatives were involved at all stages. This included the two-stage design, discussion on the criteria to restart ART, frequency of monitoring visits off ART, and reducing the risk of onward transmission to HIV-negative partners. It also included responding to the challenges of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol is registered on Clinical. TRIALS: gov and EudraCT and has approval from UK Ethics and MHRA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Community Participation , HIV Antibodies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
HIV Med ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines were revised in 2021 for the 17th time with updates on all aspects of HIV care. KEY POINTS OF THE GUIDELINES UPDATE: Version 11.0 of the Guidelines recommend six first-line treatment options for antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adults: tenofovir-based backbone plus an unboosted integrase inhibitor or plus doravirine; abacavir/lamivudine plus dolutegravir; or dual therapy with lamivudine or emtricitabine plus dolutegravir. Recommendations on preferred and alternative first-line combinations from birth to adolescence were included in the new paediatric section made with Penta. Long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was included as a switch option and, along with fostemsavir, was added to all drug-drug interaction (DDI) tables. Four new DDI tables for anti-tuberculosis drugs, anxiolytics, hormone replacement therapy and COVID-19 therapies were introduced, as well as guidance on screening and management of anxiety disorders, transgender health, sexual health for women and menopause. The sections on frailty, obesity and cancer were expanded, and recommendations for the management of people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk were revised extensively. Treatment of recently acquired hepatitis C is recommended with ongoing risk behaviour to reduce transmission. Bulevirtide was included as a treatment option for the hepatitis Delta virus. Drug-resistant tuberculosis guidance was adjusted in accordance with the 2020 World Health Organization recommendations. Finally, there is new guidance on COVID-19 management with a focus on continuance of HIV care. CONCLUSIONS: In 2021, the EACS Guidelines were updated extensively and broadened to include new sections. The recommendations are available as a free app, in interactive web format and as an online pdf.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315019

ABSTRACT

• Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to dramatic improvements in survival for people living with HIV, but is unable to cure infection, or induce viral control off therapy. Designing intervention trials with novel agents with the potential to confer a period of HIV remission without ART, remains a key scientific and community goal. We detail the rationale, design, and outcomes of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of two HIV-specific long-acting broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs);3BNC117-LS and 10-1074-LS, which target CD4 binding site and V3 loop respectively, on post-treatment viral control.• Methods: RIO is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded prospective phase II study. Eligible individuals will have started ART within 3 months of primary HIV infection and have viral sequences that appear to be sensitive to both bNAbs. It will randomise 72 eligible participants 1:1 to the following arms via a two-stage design. In stage 1, arm A participants are given dual long-acting (LS-variants) bNAbs infusions, followed by intensively monitored Analytical Treatment Interruption (ATI) (n=36);in arm B, participants receive placebo infusions followed by ATI. The primary endpoint will be time to viral rebound within 36 weeks after ATI. Upon viral rebound, the participant and researcher are unblinded. Participants in arm A recommence ART and complete the study. Participants in arm B are invited to restart ART and enroll into stage 2 where they will receive open-label LS bNAbs, followed by a second ATI 24 weeks after. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include adverse events, time to undetectable viraemia after re-starting ART, immunological markers, HIV proviral DNA, serum bNAb concentrations in blood, bNAb resistance at viral rebound, and quality of life measures.• Discussion: The two-stage design was determined in collaboration with community involvement. This design allows all participants the option to receive bNAbs. It also tests the hypothesis that bNAbs may drive sustained HIV-control beyond the duration of detectable bNAb concentrations. Community representatives were involved at all stages. This included the two-stage design, discussion on the criteria to restart ART, frequency of monitoring visits off ART and reducing the risk of onward transmission to HIV-negative partners. It also included responding to the challenges of COVID-19. Trial registration : The protocol is registered on Clinical.trials.gov and EudraCT and has approval from UK Ethics and MHRA.

4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(2): e25882, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The International AIDS Society convened a multidisciplinary committee of experts in December 2020 to provide guidance and key considerations for the safe and ethical management of clinical trials involving people living with HIV (PLWH) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This consultation did not discuss guidance for the design of prevention studies for people at risk of HIV acquisition, nor for the programmatic delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART). DISCUSSION: There is strong ambition to continue with HIV research from both PLWH and the research community despite the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. How to do this safely and justly remains a critical debate. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to be highly dynamic. It is expected that with the emergence of effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention and treatment strategies, the risk to PLWH in clinical trials will decline over time. However, with the emergence of more contagious and potentially pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 variants, the effectiveness of current prevention and treatment strategies may be compromised. Uncertainty exists about how equally SARS-CoV-2 prevention and treatment strategies will be available globally, particularly for marginalized populations, many of whom are at high risk of reduced access to ART and/or HIV disease progression. All of these factors must be taken into account when deciding on the feasibility and safety of developing and implementing HIV research. CONCLUSIONS: It can be assumed for the foreseeable future that SARS-CoV-2 will persist and continue to pose challenges to conducting clinical research in PLWH. Guidelines regarding how best to implement HIV treatment studies will evolve accordingly. The risks and benefits of performing an HIV clinical trial must be carefully evaluated in the local context on an ongoing basis. With this document, we hope to provide a broad guidance that should remain viable and relevant even as the nature of the pandemic continues to develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
HIV Med ; 23(1): 90-102, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We describe COVID-19 mortality among people with and without HIV during the first wave of the pandemic in England. METHODS: National surveillance data on adults (aged ≥ 15 years) with diagnosed HIV resident in England were linked to national COVID-19 mortality surveillance data (2 March 2020-16 June 2020); HIV clinicians verified linked cases and provided information on the circumstances of death. We present COVID-19 mortality rates by HIV status, using negative binomial regression to assess the association between HIV and mortality, adjusting for gender, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: Overall, 99 people with HIV, including 61 of black ethnicity, died of/with COVID-19 (107/100 000) compared with 49 483 people without HIV (109/100 000). Compared to people without HIV, higher COVID-19 mortality rates were observed in people with HIV of black (188 vs. 122/100 000) and Asian (131 vs. 77.0/100 000) ethnicity, and in both younger (15-59 years: 58.3 vs. 10.2/100 000) and older (≥ 60 years: 434 vs. 355/100 000) people. After adjustment for demographic factors, people with HIV had a higher COVID-19 mortality risk than those without (2.18; 95% CI: 1.76-2.70). Most people with HIV who died of/with COVID-19 had suppressed HIV viraemia (91%) and at least one comorbidity reported to be associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes (87%). CONCLUSIONS: In the first wave of the pandemic in England, COVID-19 mortality among people with HIV was low, but was higher than in those without HIV, after controlling for demographic factors. This supports the strategy of prioritizing COVID-19 vaccination for people with HIV and strongly encouraging its uptake, especially in those of black and Asian ethnicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , England/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2095-e2106, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modulates coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of adults with and without HIV who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 207 centers across the United Kingdom and whose data were prospectively captured by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Characterization Protocol (CCP) study. METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association between HIV status and day-28 mortality, after separate adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, 10 individual comorbidities, and disease severity at presentation (as defined by hypoxia or oxygen therapy). RESULTS: Among 47 592 patients, 122 (0.26%) had confirmed HIV infection, and 112/122 (91.8%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, HIV-positive people were younger (median 56 vs 74 years; P < .001) and had fewer comorbidities, more systemic symptoms and higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels. The cumulative day-28 mortality was similar in the HIV-positive versus HIV-negative groups (26.7% vs. 32.1%; P = .16), but in those under 60 years of age HIV-positive status was associated with increased mortality (21.3% vs. 9.6%; P < .001 [log-rank test]). Mortality was higher among people with HIV after adjusting for age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.14; P = .05), and the association persisted after adjusting for the other variables (aHR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.48; P = .008) and when restricting the analysis to people aged <60 years (aHR 2.87; 95% CI 1.70-4.84; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive status was associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , World Health Organization
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1843-1849, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232190

ABSTRACT

Efforts to recognize and minimize the risk to study participants will be necessary to safely and ethically resume scientific research in the context of the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. These efforts are uniquely challenging in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cure clinical trials, which often involve complex experimental therapy regimens and perhaps analytic treatment interruption, in which participants pause antiretroviral therapy. In this viewpoint, we discuss our approach to reopening an HIV cure trial in this context, with a focus on key considerations regarding study design, informed consent and participant education, and study implementation. These recommendations might be informative to other groups seeking to resume HIV cure research in settings similar to ours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2095-e2106, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modulates coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of adults with and without HIV who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 207 centers across the United Kingdom and whose data were prospectively captured by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Characterization Protocol (CCP) study. METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association between HIV status and day-28 mortality, after separate adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, 10 individual comorbidities, and disease severity at presentation (as defined by hypoxia or oxygen therapy). RESULTS: Among 47 592 patients, 122 (0.26%) had confirmed HIV infection, and 112/122 (91.8%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, HIV-positive people were younger (median 56 vs 74 years; P < .001) and had fewer comorbidities, more systemic symptoms and higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels. The cumulative day-28 mortality was similar in the HIV-positive versus HIV-negative groups (26.7% vs. 32.1%; P = .16), but in those under 60 years of age HIV-positive status was associated with increased mortality (21.3% vs. 9.6%; P < .001 [log-rank test]). Mortality was higher among people with HIV after adjusting for age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.14; P = .05), and the association persisted after adjusting for the other variables (aHR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.48; P = .008) and when restricting the analysis to people aged <60 years (aHR 2.87; 95% CI 1.70-4.84; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive status was associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , World Health Organization
9.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(6): 590-592, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927855

ABSTRACT

While clinical environments are highly focused on COVID-19, reports of missed or delayed treatment for conditions that imitate COVID-19, such as pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii, are emerging. Given the uncertain spectrum of COVID-19 presentations and variable sensitivity of laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2, there is a risk that, without a high index of suspicion, alternative aetiologies may be overlooked while pursuing a diagnosis of COVID-19. The British HIV Association has been calling for the inclusion of HIV testing in all patients admitted to hospital with suspected COVID-19. In this article we reflect on the importance of including HIV testing to prevent avoidable morbidity and mortality in our patients.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/physiopathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis, Differential , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/pathology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral
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