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1.
J Med Chem ; 65(8): 6231-6249, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867997

ABSTRACT

Enzymes involved in RNA capping of SARS-CoV-2 are essential for the stability of viral RNA, translation of mRNAs, and virus evasion from innate immunity, making them attractive targets for antiviral agents. In this work, we focused on the design and synthesis of nucleoside-derived inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2 nsp14 (N7-guanine)-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) that catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) cofactor to the N7-guanosine cap. Seven compounds out of 39 SAM analogues showed remarkable double-digit nanomolar inhibitory activity against the N7-MTase nsp14. Molecular docking supported the structure-activity relationships of these inhibitors and a bisubstrate-based mechanism of action. The three most potent inhibitors significantly stabilized nsp14 (ΔTm ≈ 11 °C), and the best inhibitor demonstrated high selectivity for nsp14 over human RNA N7-MTase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Humans , Methyltransferases , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA, Viral/genetics , S-Adenosylmethionine , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
2.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-906007

ABSTRACT

The Mesoniviridae are a newly assigned family of viruses in the order Nidovirales. Unlike other nidoviruses, which include the Coronaviridae, mesoniviruses are restricted to mosquito hosts and do not infect vertebrate cells. To date there is little information on the morphological and antigenic characteristics of this new group of viruses and a dearth of mesonivirus-specific research tools. In this study we determined the genetic relationships of recent Australian isolates of Alphamesonivirus 4 (Casuarina virus-CASV) and Alphamesonivirus 1 (Nam Dinh virus-NDiV), obtained from multiple mosquito species. Australian isolates of NDiV showed high-level similarity to the prototype NDiV isolate from Vietnam (99% nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity). Isolates of CASV from Central Queensland were genetically very similar to the prototype virus from Darwin (95-96% nt and 91-92% aa identity). Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that virion diameter (≈80 nm) and spike length (≈10 nm) were similar for both viruses. Monoclonal antibodies specific to CASV and NDiV revealed a close antigenic relationship between the two viruses with 13/34 mAbs recognising both viruses. We also detected NDiV RNA on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards fed on by wild mosquitoes supporting a possible mechanism of horizontal transmission between insects in nature.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Culicidae/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Nidovirales/genetics , Nidovirales/immunology , Animals , Australia , Nidovirales/classification , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vietnam , Virion
3.
Viruses ; 12(10):1159, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-847587

ABSTRACT

The Mesoniviridae are a newly assigned family of viruses in the order Nidovirales. Unlike other nidoviruses, which include the Coronaviridae, mesoniviruses are restricted to mosquito hosts and do not infect vertebrate cells. To date there is little information on the morphological and antigenic characteristics of this new group of viruses and a dearth of mesonivirus-specific research tools. In this study we determined the genetic relationships of recent Australian isolates of Alphamesonivirus 4 (Casuarina virus—CASV) and Alphamesonivirus 1 (Nam Dinh virus—NDiV), obtained from multiple mosquito species. Australian isolates of NDiV showed high-level similarity to the prototype NDiV isolate from Vietnam (99% nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity). Isolates of CASV from Central Queensland were genetically very similar to the prototype virus from Darwin (95–96% nt and 91–92% aa identity). Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that virion diameter (≈80 nm) and spike length (≈10 nm) were similar for both viruses. Monoclonal antibodies specific to CASV and NDiV revealed a close antigenic relationship between the two viruses with 13/34 mAbs recognising both viruses. We also detected NDiV RNA on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards fed on by wild mosquitoes supporting a possible mechanism of horizontal transmission between insects in nature.

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