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1.
Cancer Discov ; 12(4): 958-983, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706860

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) relies on the in-depth understanding of protective immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We characterized the polarity and specificity of memory T cells directed against SARS-CoV-2 viral lysates and peptides to determine correlates with spontaneous, virus-elicited, or vaccine-induced protection against COVID-19 in disease-free and cancer-bearing individuals. A disbalance between type 1 and 2 cytokine release was associated with high susceptibility to COVID-19. Individuals susceptible to infection exhibited a specific deficit in the T helper 1/T cytotoxic 1 (Th1/Tc1) peptide repertoire affecting the receptor binding domain of the spike protein (S1-RBD), a hotspot of viral mutations. Current vaccines triggered Th1/Tc1 responses in only a fraction of all subject categories, more effectively against the original sequence of S1-RBD than that from viral variants. We speculate that the next generation of vaccines should elicit Th1/Tc1 T-cell responses against the S1-RBD domain of emerging viral variants. SIGNIFICANCE: This study prospectively analyzed virus-specific T-cell correlates of protection against COVID-19 in healthy and cancer-bearing individuals. A disbalance between Th1/Th2 recall responses conferred susceptibility to COVID-19 in both populations, coinciding with selective defects in Th1 recognition of the receptor binding domain of spike. See related commentary by McGary and Vardhana, p. 892. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 873.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(1): 114-122, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530068

ABSTRACT

Importance: Whether the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with cancer have improved in terms of disease management and capacity is yet to be defined. Objective: To test whether severity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients with cancer have improved during the course of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: OnCovid is a European registry that collects data on consecutive patients with solid or hematologic cancer and COVID-19. This multicenter case series study included real-world data from 35 institutions across 6 countries (UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany). This update included patients diagnosed between February 27, 2020, and February, 14, 2021. Inclusion criteria were confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of solid or hematologic cancer. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were differentiated at 14 days and 3 months as the 2 landmark end points. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared by stratifying patients across 5 phases (February to March 2020, April to June 2020, July to September 2020, October to December 2020, and January to February 2021) and across 2 major outbreaks (February to June 2020 and July 2020 to February 2021). Results: At data cutoff, 2795 consecutive patients were included, with 2634 patients eligible for analysis (median [IQR] age, 68 [18-77] years ; 52.8% men). Eligible patients demonstrated significant time-dependent improvement in 14-day case-fatality rate (CFR) with estimates of 29.8% (95% CI, 0.26-0.33) for February to March 2020; 20.3% (95% CI, 0.17-0.23) for April to June 2020; 12.5% (95% CI, 0.06-22.90) for July to September 2020; 17.2% (95% CI, 0.15-0.21) for October to December 2020; and 14.5% (95% CI, 0.09-0.21) for January to February 2021 (all P < .001) across the predefined phases. Compared with the second major outbreak, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak were more likely to be 65 years or older (974 of 1626 [60.3%] vs 564 of 1008 [56.1%]; P = .03), have at least 2 comorbidities (793 of 1626 [48.8%] vs 427 of 1008 [42.4%]; P = .001), and have advanced tumors (708 of 1626 [46.4%] vs 536 of 1008 [56.1%]; P < .001). Complications of COVID-19 were more likely to be seen (738 of 1626 [45.4%] vs 342 of 1008 [33.9%]; P < .001) and require hospitalization (969 of 1626 [59.8%] vs 418 of 1008 [42.1%]; P < .001) and anti-COVID-19 therapy (1004 of 1626 [61.7%] vs 501 of 1008 [49.7%]; P < .001) during the first major outbreak. The 14-day CFRs for the first and second major outbreaks were 25.6% (95% CI, 0.23-0.28) vs 16.2% (95% CI, 0.13-0.19; P < .001), respectively. After adjusting for country, sex, age, comorbidities, tumor stage and status, anti-COVID-19 and anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 complications, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak had an increased risk of death at 14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.32) and 3 months (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51) compared with those diagnosed in the second outbreak. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this registry-based study suggest that mortality in patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 has improved in Europe; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis, improved management, and dynamic changes in community transmission over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1669-1680, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is not yet known. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and their impact on the survival of patients with cancer. We also aimed to describe patterns of resumption and modifications of systemic anti-cancer therapy following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: OnCovid is an active European registry study enrolling consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with a history of solid or haematological malignancy and who had a diagnosis of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this retrospective study, patients were enrolled from 35 institutions across Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, and entered into the registry at the point of data lock (March 1, 2021), were eligible for analysis. The present analysis was focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent clinical reassessment at each participating institution. We documented prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and described factors associated with their development and their association with post-COVID-19 survival, which was defined as the interval from post-COVID-19 reassessment to the patients' death or last follow-up. We also evaluated resumption of systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients treated within 4 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis. The OnCovid study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974. FINDINGS: 2795 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, were entered into the study by the time of the data lock on March 1, 2021. After the exclusion of ineligible patients, the final study population consisted of 2634 patients. 1557 COVID-19 survivors underwent a formal clinical reassessment after a median of 22·1 months (IQR 8·4-57·8) from cancer diagnosis and 44 days (28-329) from COVID-19 diagnosis. 234 (15·0%) patients reported COVID-19 sequelae, including respiratory symptoms (116 [49·6%]) and residual fatigue (96 [41·0%]). Sequelae were more common in men (vs women; p=0·041), patients aged 65 years or older (vs other age groups; p=0·048), patients with two or more comorbidities (vs one or none; p=0·0006), and patients with a history of smoking (vs no smoking history; p=0·0004). Sequelae were associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 (p<0·0001), complicated COVID-19 (p<0·0001), and COVID-19 therapy (p=0·0002). With a median post-COVID-19 follow-up of 128 days (95% CI 113-148), COVID-19 sequelae were associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1·80 [95% CI 1·18-2·75]) after adjusting for time to post-COVID-19 reassessment, sex, age, comorbidity burden, tumour characteristics, anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 severity. Among 466 patients on systemic anti-cancer therapy, 70 (15·0%) permanently discontinued therapy, and 178 (38·2%) resumed treatment with a dose or regimen adjustment. Permanent treatment discontinuations were independently associated with an increased risk of death (HR 3·53 [95% CI 1·45-8·59]), but dose or regimen adjustments were not (0·84 [0·35-2·02]). INTERPRETATION: Sequelae post-COVID-19 affect up to 15% of patients with cancer and adversely affect survival and oncological outcomes after recovery. Adjustments to systemic anti-cancer therapy can be safely pursued in treatment-eligible patients. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Belgium , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , France , Germany , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , United Kingdom
4.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(12): 3297-3315, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298835

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms underlying virus-host interactions during cancer therapies remain elusive. When comparing nasopharyngeal swabs from cancer and noncancer patients for RT-qPCR cycle thresholds measuring acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 1063 patients (58% with cancer), we found that malignant disease favors the magnitude and duration of viral RNA shedding concomitant with prolonged serum elevations of type 1 IFN that anticorrelated with anti-RBD IgG antibodies. Cancer patients with a prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection exhibited the typical immunopathology of severe COVID-19 at the early phase of infection including circulation of immature neutrophils, depletion of nonconventional monocytes, and a general lymphopenia that, however, was accompanied by a rise in plasmablasts, activated follicular T-helper cells, and non-naive Granzyme B+FasL+, EomeshighTCF-1high, PD-1+CD8+ Tc1 cells. Virus-induced lymphopenia worsened cancer-associated lymphocyte loss, and low lymphocyte counts correlated with chronic SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding, COVID-19 severity, and a higher risk of cancer-related death in the first and second surge of the pandemic. Lymphocyte loss correlated with significant changes in metabolites from the polyamine and biliary salt pathways as well as increased blood DNA from Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae gut family members in long-term viral carriers. We surmise that cancer therapies may exacerbate the paradoxical association between lymphopenia and COVID-19-related immunopathology, and that the prevention of COVID-19-induced lymphocyte loss may reduce cancer-associated death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Lymphopenia/complications , Neoplasms/complications , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , DNA, Bacterial/blood , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/blood , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Micrococcaceae/genetics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Prognosis , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 153: 123-132, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in the management of patients with cancer and delays in treatment delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the use of hospital resources and cancer mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patient flows, patient pathways and use of hospital resources during the pandemic were simulated using a discrete event simulation model and patient-level data from a large French comprehensive cancer centre's discharge database, considering two scenarios of delays: massive return of patients from November 2020 (early-return) or March 2021 (late-return). Expected additional cancer deaths at 5 years and mortality rate were estimated using individual hazard ratios based on literature. RESULTS: The number of patients requiring hospital care during the simulation period was 13,000. In both scenarios, 6-8% of patients were estimated to present a delay of >2 months. The overall additional cancer deaths at 5 years were estimated at 88 in early-return and 145 in late-return scenario, with increased additional deaths estimated for sarcomas, gynaecological, liver, head and neck, breast cancer and acute leukaemia. This represents a relative additional cancer mortality rate at 5 years of 4.4 and 6.8% for patients expected in year 2020, 0.5 and 1.3% in 2021 and 0.5 and 0.5% in 2022 for each scenario, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic-related diagnostic and treatment delays in patients with cancer are expected to impact patient survival. In the perspective of recurrent pandemics or alternative events requiring an intensive use of limited hospital resources, patients should be informed not to postpone care, and medical resources for patients with cancer should be sanctuarised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Hospital Administration , Hospitals , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 258, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132059

ABSTRACT

The circulating metabolome provides a snapshot of the physiological state of the organism responding to pathogenic challenges. Here we report alterations in the plasma metabolome reflecting the clinical presentation of COVID-19 patients with mild (ambulatory) diseases, moderate disease (radiologically confirmed pneumonitis, hospitalization and oxygen therapy), and critical disease (in intensive care). This analysis revealed major disease- and stage-associated shifts in the metabolome, meaning that at least 77 metabolites including amino acids, lipids, polyamines and sugars, as well as their derivatives, were altered in critical COVID-19 patient's plasma as compared to mild COVID-19 patients. Among a uniformly moderate cohort of patients who received tocilizumab, only 10 metabolites were different among individuals with a favorable evolution as compared to those who required transfer into the intensive care unit. The elevation of one single metabolite, anthranilic acid, had a poor prognostic value, correlating with the maintenance of high interleukin-10 and -18 levels. Given that products of the kynurenine pathway including anthranilic acid have immunosuppressive properties, we speculate on the therapeutic utility to inhibit the rate-limiting enzymes of this pathway including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Metabolome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Prognosis
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 62-81, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are thought to have an increased risk of developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and of dying from the disease. In this work, predictive factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality in cancer patients were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this large nationwide retro-prospective cohort study, we collected data on patients with solid tumours and COVID-19 diagnosed between March 1 and 11th June 2020. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality and COVID-19 severity, defined as admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and/or mechanical ventilation and/or death, was one of the secondary end-points. RESULTS: From April 4 to 11th June 2020, 1289 patients were analysed. The most frequent cancers were digestive and thoracic. Altogether, 424 (33%) patients had a severe form of COVID-19 and 370 (29%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with death were male sex (odds ratio 1.73, 95%CI: 1.18-2.52), The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Scale (ECOG PS) ≥ 2 (OR 3.23, 95%CI: 2.27-4.61), updated Charlson comorbidity index (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01-1.16) and admission to ICU (OR 3.62, 95%CI 2.14-6.11). The same factors, age along with corticosteroids before COVID-19 diagnosis, and thoracic primary tumour site were independently associated with COVID-19 severity. None of the anticancer treatments administered within the previous 3 months had any effect on mortality or COVID-19 severity, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the subgroup of patients with detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was associated with a slight increase of the risk of death (OR 1.53; 95%CI: 1.00-2.34; p = 0.05). A total of 431 (39%) patients had their systemic anticancer treatment (such as chemotherapy, targeted or immune therapy) interrupted or stopped following diagnosis of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and COVID-19 severity in cancer patients are high and are associated with general characteristics of patients. We found no deleterious effects of recent anticancer treatments, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the RT-PCR-confirmed subgroup of patients. In almost 40% of patients, the systemic anticancer therapy was interrupted or stopped after COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Nat Cancer ; 1(10): 965-975, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798872

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are presumed to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes due to underlying malignancy and treatment-induced immunosuppression. Of the first 178 patients managed for COVID-19 at the Gustave Roussy Cancer Centre, 125 (70.2%) were hospitalized, 47 (26.4%) developed clinical worsening and 31 (17.4%) died. An age of over 70 years, smoking status, metastatic disease, cytotoxic chemotherapy and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of ≥2 at the last visit were the strongest determinants of increased risk of death. In multivariable analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score remained the only predictor of death. In contrast, immunotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy did not increase clinical worsening or death risk. Biomarker studies found that C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of clinical worsening, while C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were associated with an increased risk of death. COVID-19 management impacted the oncological treatment strategy, inducing a median 20 d delay in 41% of patients and adaptation of the therapeutic strategy in 30% of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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