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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the complexity of the clinical management and pharmacological treatment of patients presenting with an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). AIM: to explore the incidence and prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in patients presenting with ACS before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We evaluated in-hospital Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeding among 2851 patients with ACS from 17 Italian centers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., March-April 2020) and in the same period in the previous two years. RESULTS: The incidence of in-hospital TIMI major and minor bleeding was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. TIMI major or minor bleeding was associated with a significant threefold increase in all-cause mortality, with a similar prognostic impact before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence and clinical impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We confirmed a significant and sizable negative prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients.

2.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602665

ABSTRACT

Aims Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically changed the management and the prognosis of patients experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Several scientific societies have highlighted the need for dedicated paths to deliver better and faster care to improve outcomes. Nevertheless, data depicting the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ACS in Italy are still poor. To perform a propensity weighted analysis on a multicentre Italian registry involving patients with ACS managed before vs. during COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account baseline patients characteristics, clinical presentation, procedural aspects, and in-hospital outcomes (death, bleeding, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, mechanical complication, and arrhythmic complication). Methods and results We included all consecutive patients who have suffered from ACS during two periods before (March/April 2018, March/April 2019) vs. the period of COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). A generalized boosted non-parsimonious regression was used to estimate the propensity scores of having an ACS in 2020 (year of COVID-19) vs. 2018/2019 using an average treatment effect and balancing for all baseline confounders. We included 2851 patients admitted to hospital with ACS in 17 Italian centres: 1079 (37.8%) during 2018, 1056 (37.0%) in 2019, and 716 (25.1%) during the first COVID-19 wave of 2020. Seventy (2.5%) patients had a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 at admission. During 2020 there were higher time-to-emergency-call (P = 0.028) and less diagnosis of unstable angina (P = 0.029) and MINOCA (P = 0.004);none of the admission symptoms differ significantly across the years (P > 0.05) except for fever that was more prevalent in 2020 (P < 0.001). Patients suffering from ACS had lower admission EF (P = 0.006). After PS weighting, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), night admission (P = 0.017), cardiocirculatory arrest before cath-lab (P = 0.041), worst Killip class (P = 0.039), admission EF (P = 0.026), and need for left-ventricle mechanical support (P = 0.011) as independent predictors of in-hospital death. After propensity weighted analysis none of the in-hospital outcomes differed significantly across the years of investigation (all P > 0.05). Conclusions During COVID-19 pandemic in Italy the characteristics and management of ACS was slightly different than the past. However, the rates of ‘hard’, in-hospital outcomes (e.g. deaths) are almost similar to the past, suggesting appropriate care and well-organized emergency-paths for ACS.

3.
Hypertens Res ; 45(2): 333-343, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521736

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is associated with more severe disease and adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Recent investigations have indicated that hypertension might be an independent predictor of outcomes in COVID-19 patients regardless of other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities. We explored the significance of coronary calcifications in 694 hypertensive patients in the Score-COVID registry, an Italian multicenter study conducted during the first pandemic wave in the Western world (March-April 2020). A total of 1565 patients admitted with RNA-PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swabs and chest computed tomography (CT) at hospital admission were included in the study. Clinical outcomes and cardiovascular calcifications were analyzed independently by a research core lab. Hypertensive patients had a different risk profile than nonhypertensive patients, with more cardiovascular comorbidities. The deceased hypertensive patients had a greater coronary calcification burden at the level of the anterior descending coronary artery. Hypertension status and the severity cutoffs of coronary calcifications were used to stratify the clinical outcomes. For every 100-mm3 increase in coronary calcium volume, hospital mortality in hypertensive patients increased by 8%, regardless of sex, age, diabetes, creatinine, and lung interstitial involvement. The coronary calcium score contributes to stratifying the risk of complications in COVID-19 patients. Cardiovascular calcifications appear to be a promising imaging marker for providing pathophysiological insight into cardiovascular risk factors and COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Hypertension , Vascular Calcification , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
5.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2215-2229, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309072

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical and demographical studies on COVID-19 patients have demonstrated that men experience worse outcomes than women. However, in most cases, the data were not stratified according to gender, limiting the understanding of the real impact of gender on outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the disaggregated in-hospital outcomes and explore the possible interactions between gender and cardiovascular calcifications. Data was derived from the sCORE-COVID-19 registry, an Italian multicentre registry that enrolled COVID-19 patients who had undergone a chest computer tomography scan on admission. A total of 1683 hospitalized patients (mean age 67±14 years) were included. Men had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, a higher pneumonia extension, more coronary calcifications (63% vs.50.9%, p<0.001), and a higher coronary calcium score (391±847 vs. 171±479 mm3, p<0.001). Men experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (24.4% vs. 17%, p=0.001), but the death event tended to occur earlier in women (15±7 vs. 8±7 days, p= 0.07). Non-survivors had a higher coronary, thoracic aorta, and aortic valve calcium score. Female sex, a known independent predictor of a favorable outcome in SARS-CoV2 infection, was not protective in women with a coronary calcification volume greater than 100 mm3. There were significant differences in cardiovascular comorbidities and vascular calcifications between men and women with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. The differences in outcomes can be at least partially explained by the different cardiovascular profiles. However, women with poor outcomes had the same coronary calcific burden as men. The presumed favorable female sex bias in COVID-19 must therefore be reviewed in the context of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Calcification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
7.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117479, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence has been published as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) on cerebrovascular events over the last few months, with considerable attention paid to ischemic strokes. Conversely, little is known about the clinical course of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: The Italian Society of Hospital Neurosciences (SNO) promoted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study (SNO-COVID-19), involving 20 Neurological Departments in Northern Italy. Clinical data on patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases, admitted from March 1st to April 30th, 2020, were collected. A comparison was made of the demographical and clinical features of both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients with ICH. RESULTS: 949 patients were enrolled (average age 73.4 years; 52.7% males); 135 patients had haemorrhagic stroke and 127 (13.4%) had a primary ICH. Only 16 patients with ICH (12.6%) had laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia or respiratory distress (OR 5.4), lobar location (OR 5.0) and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment (OR 2.9) were the only factors significantly associated with increased mortality in ICH. SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of respiratory involvement, led to a non-significantly increased risk of in-hospital death (37.5% vs 23.4%, p = 0.2). DISCUSSION: ICH patients with COVID-19 did not experience an increase in mortality as striking as ischemic stroke. The inflammatory response and respiratory complications could justify the slight increase of death in ICH. Bleeding sites and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment were the only other predictors of a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
8.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 136-143, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The potential impact of coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary artery calcium, on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients remains unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), in a large, unselected population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing non-gated chest computed tomography (CT) for clinical practice. METHODS: SARS-CoV 2 positive patients from the multicenter (16 Italian hospitals), retrospective observational SCORE COVID-19 (calcium score for COVID-19 Risk Evaluation) registry were stratified in three groups: (a) "clinical CAD" (prior revascularization history), (b) "subclinical CAD" (CAC >0), (c) "No CAD" (CAC = 0). Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and the secondary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident (MI/CVA). RESULTS: Amongst 1625 patients (male 67.2%, median age 69 [interquartile range 58-77] years), 31%, 57.8% and 11.1% had no, subclinical and clinical CAD, respectively. Increasing rates of in-hospital mortality (11.3% vs. 27.3% vs. 39.8%, p < 0.001) and MI/CVA events (2.3% vs. 3.8% vs. 11.9%, p < 0.001) were observed for patients with no CAD vs. subclinical CAD vs clinical CAD, respectively. The association with in-hospital mortality was independent of in-study outcome predictors (age, peripheral artery disease, active cancer, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, LDH, aerated lung volume): subclinical CAD vs. No CAD: adjusted hazard ratio (adj-HR) 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-7.17, p=0.025); clinical CAD vs. No CAD: adj-HR 3.74 (95% CI 1.21-11.60, p=0.022). Among patients with subclinical CAD, increasing CAC burden was associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality (20.5% vs. 27.9% vs. 38.7% for patients with CAC score thresholds≤100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively, p < 0.001). The adj-HR per 50 points increase in CAC score 1.007 (95%CI 1.001-1.013, p=0.016). Cardiovascular risk factors were not independent predictors of in-hospital mortality when CAD presence and extent were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and extent of CAD are associated with in-hospital mortality and MI/CVA among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease and they appear to be a better prognostic gauge as compared to a clinical cardiovascular risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Aged , Calcium , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies reported a high incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) among patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but detailed data about clinical characteristics, risk factors of these patients and prognostic role of PE are still lacking. We aim to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to describe their risk factors, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes. METHODS: This is a multicenter Italian study including 333 consecutive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to seven hospitals from February 22 to May 15, 2020. All the patients underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for PE detection. In particular, CTPA was performed in case of inadequate response to high-flow oxygen therapy (Fi02≥0.4 to maintain Sp02≥92%), elevated D-dimer (>0.5µg/mL), or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 333 patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and undergoing CTPA, PE was detected in 109 (33%) cases. At CTPA, subsegmental, segmental, lobar and central thrombi were detected in 31 (29%), 50 (46%), 20 (18%) and 8 (7%) cases, respectively. In-hospital death occurred in 29 (27%) patients in the PE-group and in 47 (21%) patients in the non-PE group (p = 0.25). Patients in PE-group had a low rate of traditional risk factors and deep vein thrombosis was detected in 29% of patients undergoing compression ultrasonography. In 71% of cases with documented PE, the thrombotic lesions were located in the correspondence of parenchymal consolidation areas. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a low rate of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, PE is present in about 1 out 3 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia undergoing CTPA for inadequate response to oxygen therapy, elevated D-dimer level, or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. In most of the cases, the thromboses were located distally in the pulmonary tree and were mainly confined within pneumonia areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Eur Radiol ; 31(6): 4031-4041, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Enlarged main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD) resulted to be associated with pulmonary hypertension and mortality in a non-COVID-19 setting. The aim was to investigate and validate the association between MPAD enlargement and overall survival in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a cohort study on 1469 consecutive COVID-19 patients submitted to chest CT within 72 h from admission in seven tertiary level hospitals in Northern Italy, between March 1 and April 20, 2020. Derivation cohort (n = 761) included patients from the first three participating hospitals; validation cohort (n = 633) included patients from the remaining hospitals. CT images were centrally analyzed in a core-lab blinded to clinical data. The prognostic value of MPAD on overall survival was evaluated at adjusted and multivariable Cox's regression analysis on the derivation cohort. The final multivariable model was tested on the validation cohort. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 58-77) years and 537 (70.6%) were males. In the validation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 59-77) years with 421 (66.5%) males. Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) was a predictor of mortality at adjusted (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI]: 1.741 [1.253-2.418], p < 0.001) and multivariable regression analysis (HR [95%CI]: 1.592 [1.154-2.196], p = 0.005), together with male gender, old age, high creatinine, low well-aerated lung volume, and high pneumonia extension (c-index [95%CI] = 0.826 [0.796-0.851]). Model discrimination was confirmed on the validation cohort (c-index [95%CI] = 0.789 [0.758-0.823]), also using CT measurements from a second reader (c-index [95%CI] = 0.790 [0.753;0.825]). CONCLUSION: Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) at admitting chest CT is an independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter at chest CT performed within 72 h from the admission was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter (≥ 31 mm) was an independent predictor of death in COVID-19 patients at adjusted and multivariable regression analysis. • The combined evaluation of clinical findings, lung CT features, and main pulmonary artery diameter may be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Artery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
eNeurologicalSci ; 22: 100306, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987639

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy cases are increasingly being reported in patients affected by COVID-19, but the largest series so far only includes 4 patients. We present a series of 6 patients diagnosed with PRES during COVID-19 hospitalized in 5 Centers in Lombardia, Italy. 5 out of the 6 patients required intensive care assistence and seizures developed at weaning from assisted ventilation. 3 out of 6 patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid analysis which was normal in all cases, with negative PCR for Sars-CoV-2 genome search. PRES occurrence may be less rare than supposed in COVID-19 patients and a high suspicion index is warranted for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

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