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1.
Fam Pract ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence of chronic disease had drastically been reduced due to health care interruptions. The aim of this study is to analyse cancer diagnosis during the last 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Time-series study of cancer diagnoses recorded in primary care settings, using data from the primary care electronic health records from January 2014 to December 2021. We obtained the expected monthly rate per 100,000 inhabitants using a time regression adjusted by trend and seasonality. We additionally compared rates of cancer diagnoses in 2019 with those of 2020 and 2021 using the t-test. We performed the analysis globally, by sex and by type of cancer. RESULTS: In 2020, the rate of cancer diagnoses had reduced by -21% compared to 2019 (P < 0.05). Greater reductions were observed during the lockdown in early 2020 (>40%) and with some types of cancers, especially prostate and skin cancers (-29.6% and -26.9%, respectively, P < 0.05). Lung cancers presented statistically non-significant reductions in both years. Cancer diagnosis returned to expected around March 2021, and the rate in 2021 was similar to that of 2019 (overall difference of 0.21%, P = 0.967). However, an 11% reduction was still found when comparing the pandemic months of 2020-2021 with pre-pandemic months. CONCLUSIONS: Although primary care cancer diagnoses in 2021 have returned to pre-pandemic levels, missing diagnoses during the last 2 years have not been fully recovered.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 15: 100337, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have resumed mass-gathering events like music festivals, despite the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreading. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of two mass-gathering outdoor events, held during a peak of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, on COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: This was a retrospective, population-based control-matched analysis. The study population included attendees to two outdoor music festivals held in Catalonia (North-East Spain). The primary objective was to compare the incidence of COVID-19 within the 3-to-10 days following the event between attendees and a population-based control group. FINDINGS: The analysis included 18,275 and 27,347 attendees to the first and second festivals, respectively, and their corresponding controls. The post-festival 7-day cumulative COVID-19 incidence among attendees and controls was 4.14% (95% CI 3.86-4.44) vs. 1.69% (1.51-1.88) for the first festival (RR 2.46; 2.16-2.80), and 2.42% (2.35-2.61) and 1.10% (0.99-1.2) for the second festival (RR 2.19; 1.92-2.51). COVID-19 incidence among immunized individuals was also two-fold higher in attendees than in controls. Previous COVID-19 infection, vaccination, and adequate mask-wearing were significantly associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection after the events. INTERPRETATION: Despite the proven effectiveness of preventive measures such as Ag-RDT screening, mask-wearing and vaccination, caution should be taken when holding these events during a period of high community SARS-CoV-2 transmission. FUNDING: Crowdfunding campaign YoMeCorono (https://www.yomecorono.com/) and the Generalitat de Catalunya.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1639, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758236

ABSTRACT

Small trials have suggested that heterologous vaccination with first-dose ChAdOx1 and second-dose BNT162b2 may generate a better immune response than homologous vaccination with two doses of ChAdOx1. In this cohort analysis, we use linked data from Catalonia (Spain), where those aged <60 who received a first dose of ChAdOx1 could choose between ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 for their second dose. Comparable cohorts were obtained after exact-matching 14,325/17,849 (80.3%) people receiving heterologous vaccination to 14,325/149,386 (9.6%) receiving homologous vaccination by age, sex, region, and date of second dose. Of these, 464 (3.2%) in the heterologous and 694 (4.8%) in the homologous groups developed COVID-19 between 1st June 2021 and 5th December 2021. The resulting hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) is 0.66 [0.59-0.74], favouring heterologous vaccination. The two groups had similar testing rates and safety outcomes. Sensitivity and negative control outcome analyses confirm these findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a heterologous vaccination schedule with ChAdOx1 followed by BNT162b2 was more efficacious than and similarly safe to homologous vaccination with two doses of ChAdOx1. Most of the infections in our study occurred when Delta was the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant in Spain. These data agree with previous phase 2 randomised trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , /therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , /therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-329997

ABSTRACT

Background: Mandatory use of face covering masks (FCM) had been established for children aged six and above in Catalonia (Spain), as one of the non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at mitigating SARS-CoV-2 transmission within schools. To date, the effectiveness of this mandate has not been well established. The quasi-experimental comparison between 5 year-old children, as a control group, and 6 year-old children, as an interventional group, provides us with the appropriate research conditions for addressing this issue. Methods: We performed a retrospective population-based study among 599,314 children aged 3 to 11 years attending preschool (3-5 years, without FCM mandate) and primary education (6-11 years, with FCM mandate) with the aim of calculating the incidence of SARS-CoV-2, secondary attack rates (SAR) and the effective reproductive number (R*) for each grade during the first trimester of the 2021-2022 academic year, and analysing the differences between 5-year-old, without FCM, and 6 year-old children, with FCM. Findings: SARS-CoV-2 incidence was significantly lower in preschool than in primary education, and an age-dependent trend was observed. Children aged 3 and 4 showed lower outcomes for all the analysed epidemiological variables, while children aged 11 had the higher values. Six-year-old children showed higher incidence than 5 year-olds (3·54% vs 3·1%;OR: 1·15 [95%CI: 1·08-1·22]) and slightly lower but not statistically significant SAR and R*: SAR were 4·36% in 6 year-old children, and 4·59% in 5 year-old (IRR: 0·96 [95%CI: 0·82-1·11]);and R* was 0·9 and 0·93 (OR: 0·96 [95%CI: 0·87-1·09]), respectively. Interpretation: FCM mandates in schools were not associated with lower SARS-CoV-2 incidence or transmission, suggesting that this intervention was not effective. Instead, age-dependency was the most important factor in explaining the transmission risk for children attending school. Funding Information: CP and SA received funding from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and FEDER, with the project PGC2018-095456-B-I00. Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests. Ethics Approval Statement: The study was evaluated and approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the IDIAP Jordi Gol, Reference 21/018-PCV. This research was based on the agreement established in Regulation 2016/679 of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe of 27 April 2016 on Data Protection, and Organic Law 3/2018 of December 5 on the protection of personal data and the guarantee of digital rights.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite their clear lesser vulnerability to COVID-19, the extent by which children are susceptible to getting infected by SARS-CoV-2 and their capacity to transmit the infection to other people remains inadequately characterized. We aimed to evaluate the role of school reopening and the preventive strategies in place at schools in terms of overall risk for children and community transmission, by comparing transmission rates in children as detected by a COVID-19 surveillance platform in place in Catalonian Schools to the incidence at the community level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infections detected in Catalan schools during the entire first trimester of classes (September-December 2020) were analysed and compared with the ongoing community transmission and with the modelled predicted number of infections. There were 30.486 infections (2.12%) documented among the circa 1.5M pupils, with cases detected in 54.0% and 97.5% of the primary and secondary centres, respectively. During the entire first term, the proportion of "bubble groups" (stable groups of children doing activities together) that were forced to undergo confinement ranged between 1 and 5%, with scarce evidence of substantial intraschool transmission in the form of chains of infections, and with ~75% of all detected infections not leading to secondary cases. Mathematical models were also used to evaluate the effect of different parameters related to the defined preventive strategies (size of the bubble group, number of days of confinement required by contacts of an index case). The effective reproduction number inside the bubble groups in schools (R*), defined as the average number of schoolmates infected by each primary case within the bubble, was calculated, yielding a value of 0.35 for primary schools and 0.55 for secondary schools, and compared with the outcomes of the mathematical model, implying decreased transmissibility for children in the context of the applied measures. Relative homogenized monthly cumulative incidence ([Formula: see text]) was assessed to compare the epidemiological dynamics among different age groups and this analysis suggested the limited impact of infections in school-aged children in the context of the overall community incidence. CONCLUSIONS: During the fall of 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases detected in Catalan schools closely mirrored the underlying community transmission from the neighbourhoods where they were set and maintaining schools open appeared to be safe irrespective of underlying community transmission. Preventive measures in place in those schools appeared to be working for the early detection and rapid containment of transmission and should be maintained for the adequate and safe functioning of normal academic and face-to-face school activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Residence Characteristics , Schools , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Theoretical , Spain/epidemiology
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311657

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and related control measures have affected the diagnosis of other diseases, including sexually transmitted infections (STI). Our aim is to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of STI diagnosed in primary care. Methods: : Time-series study of STI, using data from primary care electronic health records in Catalonia (Spain) from January 2016 to March 2021. We obtained the monthly expected incidence of STI using a temporary regression, where the response variable was the incidence of STI from 2016 to 2019 and the adjustment variables were the trend and seasonality of the time series. Excess or reduction of STI were defined as the number of observed minus the expected cases, globally and stratified by age, sexe, type of STI and socioeconomic status. Results: : Between March 2020 and March 2021 we observed a reduction of 20.2% (95% CI: 13.0% to 25.8%) on STI diagnoses compared to the expected. This reduction was greater during the lockdown period (-39%), in women (-26.5%), in people aged under 60 years (up to -22.4% in people aged 30-59 years), less deprived areas (-24%) and some types of STI, specially chlamydia (-32%), gonorrhea (-30.7%) and HIV (-21.5%). Conversely, syphilis and non-specific STI were those with lesser reductions with -3.6% and -7.2%, respectively, Conclusions: : The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on STI incidence, reducing the number of diagnoses performed in primary care and raising concerns about future evolution of STI trends. Those STI that are less symptomatic or diagnosed through screening will deserve special attention regarding potential diagnostic delays.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595744

ABSTRACT

Nursing homes have accounted for a significant part of SARS-CoV-2 mortality, causing great social alarm. Using data collected from electronic medical records of 1,319,839 institutionalised and non-institutionalised persons ≥ 65 years, the present study investigated the epidemiology and differential characteristics between these two population groups. Our results showed that the form of presentation of the epidemic outbreak, as well as some risk factors, are different among the elderly institutionalised population with respect to those who are not. In addition to a twenty-fold increase in the rate of adjusted mortality among institutionalised individuals, the peak incidence was delayed by approximately three weeks. Having dementia was shown to be a risk factor for death, and, unlike the non-institutionalised group, neither obesity nor age were shown to be significantly associated with the risk of death among the institutionalised. These differential characteristics should be able to guide the actions to be taken by the health administration in the event of a similar infectious situation among institutionalised elderly people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(2): 69-72, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592478

ABSTRACT

We observed an unusual pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children under 5 years in Catalonia (Spain). We observed a near absence of RSV during winter months and a subsequent surge during the late spring. Primary care electronic health records combined with hospital RSV laboratory confirmation could be used to monitor trends of respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292668

ABSTRACT

Small trials have suggested that heterologous vaccination with first-dose ChAdOx1 and second-dose BNT162b2 may generate a better immune response than homologous vaccination with two doses of ChAdOx1. We used linked data from Catalonia (Spain), where those aged <60 who received a first dose of ChAdOx1 could choose between ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 for their second dose. Comparable cohorts were obtained after exact-matching 14,325/17,849 (80.3%) people receiving heterologous vaccination to 14,325/149,386 (9.6%) receiving homologous vaccination by age, sex, region, and date of second dose. Of these, 238 (1.7%) in the heterologous and 389 (2.7%) in the homologous groups developed COVID-19 between 1st June 2021 and 11th October 2021. The resulting hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.61 [ 0.52-0.71 ], favouring heterologous vaccination, with a Number Needed to Treat of 94.9 [ 71.8 - 139.8 ]. The two groups had similar testing rates and safety outcomes. Sensitivity and negative control outcome analyses confirmed these findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a heterologous vaccination schedule with ChAdOx1 followed by BNT162b2 was more efficacious than and similarly safe to homologous vaccination with two doses of ChAdOx1. Most of the infections in our study occurred when Delta was the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant in Spain. These data agree with previous phase 2 randomised trials.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 182: 109127, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499769

ABSTRACT

AIM: To analyse the relation between face-to-face appointments and management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) visited in primary care practices (PCP). METHODS: Retrospective study in 287 primary care practices (PCPs) attending>300,000 patients with T2DM. We analysed the results of 9 diabetes-related indicators of the Healthcare quality standard, comprising foot and retinopathy screening, blood pressure (BP) and glycemic control; and the incidence of T2DM. We calculated each indicator's percentage of change in 2020 with respect to the results of 2019. RESULTS: Indicators' results were reduced in 2020 compared to 2019, highlighting the indicators of foot and retinopathy screening (-51.6% and -25.7%, respectively); the glycemic control indicator (-21.2%); the BP control indicator (-33.7%) and the incidence of T2DM (-25.6%). Conversely, the percentage of type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c > 10% increased by 34%. PCPs with<11 weekly face-to-face appointments offered per professional had greater reductions than those PCPs with more than 40. For instance, a reduction of -60.7% vs -38.2% (p-value < 0.001) in the foot screening's indicator; -27.5% vs -12.5% (p-value < 0.001) in glycemic control and -40.2 vs -24.3% (p-value < 0.001) in BP control. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing face-to-face visits offered may impact T2DM patients' follow-up and thus worsen their control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
11.
BMJ ; 374: n1868, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of BNT162b2 vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospital admission and death with covid-19 among nursing home residents, nursing home staff, and healthcare workers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nursing homes and linked electronic medical record, test, and mortality data in Catalonia on 27 December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 28 456 nursing home residents, 26 170 nursing home staff, and 61 791 healthcare workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were followed until the earliest outcome (confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospital admission or death with covid-19) or 26 May 2021. Vaccination status was introduced as a time varying exposure, with a 14 day run-in after the first dose. Mixed effects Cox models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios with index month as a fixed effect and adjusted for confounders including sociodemographics, comorbidity, and previous medicine use. RESULTS: Among the nursing home residents, SARS-CoV-2 infection was found in 2482, 411 were admitted to hospital with covid-19, and 450 died with covid-19 during the study period. In parallel, 1828 nursing home staff and 2968 healthcare workers were found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection, but fewer than five were admitted or died with covid-19. The adjusted hazard ratio for SARS-CoV-2 infection after two doses of vaccine was 0.09 (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.11) for nursing home residents, 0.20 (0.17 to 0.24) for nursing home staff, and 0.13 (0.11 to 0.16) for healthcare workers. Adjusted hazard ratios for hospital admission and mortality after two doses of vaccine were 0.05 (0.04 to 0.07) and 0.03 (0.02 to 0.04), respectively, for nursing home residents. Nursing home staff and healthcare workers recorded insufficient events for mortality analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination was associated with 80-91% reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection in all three cohorts and greater reductions in hospital admissions and mortality among nursing home residents for up to five months. More data are needed on longer term effects of covid-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 693956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320593

ABSTRACT

Monitoring transmission is a prerequisite for containing COVID-19. We report on effective potential growth (EPG) as a novel measure for the early identification of local outbreaks based on primary care electronic medical records (EMR) and PCR-confirmed cases. Secondly, we studied whether increasing EPG precedes local hospital and intensive care (ICU) admissions and mortality. Population-based cohort including all Catalan citizens' PCR tests, hospitalization, intensive care (ICU) and mortality between 1/07/2020 and 13/09/2020; linked EMR covering 88.6% of the Catalan population was obtained. Nursing home residents were excluded. COVID-19 counts were ascertained based on EMR and PCRs separately. Weekly empirical propagation (ρ7) and 14-day cumulative incidence (A14) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated at care management area (CMA) level, and combined as EPG = ρ7 × A14. Overall, 7,607,201 and 6,798,994 people in 43 CMAs were included for PCR and EMR measures, respectively. A14, ρ7, and EPG increased in numerous CMAs during summer 2020. EMR identified 2.70-fold more cases than PCRs, with similar trends, a median (interquartile range) 2 (1) days earlier, and better precision. Upticks in EPG preceded increases in local hospital admissions, ICU occupancy, and mortality. Increasing EPG identified localized outbreaks in Catalonia, and preceded local hospital and ICU admissions and subsequent mortality. EMRs provided similar estimates to PCR, but some days earlier and with better precision. EPG is a useful tool for the monitoring of community transmission and for the early identification of COVID-19 local outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e047567, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cancer care has been disrupted by the response of health systems to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially during lockdowns. The objective of our study is to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the incidence of cancer diagnoses in primary care. DESIGN: Time-series study of malignant neoplasms and diagnostic procedures, using data from the primary care electronic health records from January 2014 to September 2020. SETTING: Primary care, Catalonia, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: People older than 14 years and assigned in one of the primary care practices of the Catalan Institute of Health with a new diagnosis of malignant neoplasm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We obtained the monthly expected incidence of malignant neoplasms using a temporary regression, where the response variable was the incidence of cancer from 2014 to 2018 and the adjustment variables were the trend and seasonality of the time series. Excess or lack of malignant neoplasms was defined as the number of observed minus expected cases, globally and stratified by sex, age, type of cancer and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Between March and September 2020 we observed 8766 (95% CI 4135 to 13 397) fewer malignant neoplasm diagnoses, representing a reduction of 34% (95% CI 19.5% to 44.1%) compared with the expected. This underdiagnosis was greater in individuals aged older than 64 years, men and in some types of cancers (skin, colorectal, prostate). Although the reduction was predominantly focused during the lockdown, expected figures have not yet been reached (40.5% reduction during the lockdown and 24.3% reduction after that). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in cancer incidence has been observed during and after the lockdown. Urgent policy interventions are necessary to mitigate the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related control measures on other diseases and some strategies must be designed in order to reduce the underdiagnosis of cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 283, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the complications of COVID-19. Primary care electronic health records (EHR) have shown the utility as a surveillance system. We therefore analyse the trends of pneumonia during two waves of COVID-19 pandemic in order to use it as a clinical surveillance system and an early indicator of severity. METHODS: Time series analysis of pneumonia cases, from January 2014 to December 2020. We collected pneumonia diagnoses from primary care EHR, a software system covering > 6 million people in Catalonia (Spain). We compared the trend of pneumonia in the season 2019-2020 with that in the previous years. We estimated the expected pneumonia cases with data from 2014 to 2018 using a time series regression adjusted by seasonality and influenza epidemics. RESULTS: Between 4 March and 5 May 2020, 11,704 excess pneumonia cases (95% CI: 9909 to 13,498) were identified. Previously, we identified an excess from January to March 2020 in the population older than 15 years of 20%. We observed another excess pneumonia period from 22 october to 15 november of 1377 excess cases (95% CI: 665 to 2089). In contrast, we observed two great periods with reductions of pneumonia cases in children, accounting for 131 days and 3534 less pneumonia cases (95% CI, 1005 to 6064) from March to July; and 54 days and 1960 less pneumonia cases (95% CI 917 to 3002) from October to December. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnoses of pneumonia from the EHR could be used as an early and low cost surveillance system to monitor the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Seasons , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(6): 1930-1939, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a missing link in the natural history of COVID-19, from first (usually milder) symptoms to hospitalization and/or death. To fill in this gap, we characterized COVID-19 patients at the time at which they were diagnosed in outpatient settings and estimated 30-day hospital admission and fatality rates. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study.Data were obtained from Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP)-a primary-care records database covering >6 million people (>80% of the population of Catalonia), linked to COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and hospital emergency, inpatient and mortality registers. We included all patients in the database who were ≥15 years old and diagnosed with COVID-19 in outpatient settings between 15 March and 24 April 2020 (10 April for outcome studies). Baseline characteristics included socio-demographics, co-morbidity and previous drug use at the time of diagnosis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and results.Study outcomes included 30-day hospitalization for COVID-19 and all-cause fatality. RESULTS: We identified 118 150 and 95 467 COVID-19 patients for characterization and outcome studies, respectively. Most were women (58.7%) and young-to-middle-aged (e.g. 21.1% were 45-54 years old). Of the 44 575 who were tested with PCR, 32 723 (73.4%) tested positive. In the month after diagnosis, 14.8% (14.6-15.0) were hospitalized, with a greater proportion of men and older people, peaking at age 75-84 years. Thirty-day fatality was 3.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.4% to 3.6%), higher in men, increasing with age and highest in those residing in nursing homes [24.5% (23.4% to 25.6%)]. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infections were widespread in the community, including all age-sex strata. However, severe forms of the disease clustered in older men and nursing-home residents. Although initially managed in outpatient settings, 15% of cases required hospitalization and 4% died within a month of first symptoms. These data are instrumental for designing deconfinement strategies and will inform healthcare planning and hospital-bed allocation in current and future COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 208, 2020 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic and the lockdown measures on the follow-up and control of chronic diseases in primary care. METHODS: Retrospective study in 288 primary care practices (PCP) of the Catalan Institute of Health. We analysed the results of 34 indicators of the Healthcare quality standard (EQA), comprising different types: treatment (4), follow-up (5), control (10), screening (7), vaccinations (4) and quaternary prevention (4). For each PCP, we calculated each indicator's percentage of change in February, March and April 2020 respective to the results of the previous month; and used the T-Student test for paired data to compare them with the percentage of change in the same month of the previous year. We defined indicators with a negative effect those with a greater negative change or a lesser positive change in 2020 in comparison to 2019; and indicators with a positive effect those with a greater positive change or a lesser negative change. RESULTS: We observed a negative effect on 85% of the EQA indicators in March and 68% in April. 90% of the control indicators had a negative effect, highlighting the control of LDL cholesterol with a reduction of - 2.69% (95%CI - 3.17% to - 2.23%) in March and - 3.41% (95%CI - 3.82% to - 3.01%) in April; and the control of blood pressure with a reduction of - 2.13% (95%CI - 2.34% to - 1.9%) and - 2.59% (95%CI - 2.8% to - 2.37%). The indicators with the greatest negative effect were those of screening, such as the indicator of diabetic foot screening with a negative effect of - 2.86% (95%CI - 3.33% to - 2.39%) and - 4.13% (95%CI - 4.55% to - 3.71%) in March and April, respectively. Only one vaccination indicator, adult Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine, had a negative effect in both months. Finally, among the indicators of quaternary prevention, we observed negative effects in March and April although in that case a lower inadequacy that means better clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic and the lockdown measures have significantly reduced the results of the follow-up, control, screening and vaccination indicators for patients in primary care. On the other hand, the indicators for quaternary prevention have been strengthened and their results have improved.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
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