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1.
Kardiol Pol ; 80(3): 266-277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766359

ABSTRACT

ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the cardiac emergencies whose management has been most challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients presenting with the "lethal combo" of STEMI and concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection have faced dramatic issues related to the need for self-isolation, systemic inflammation with multi-organ disease and difficulties to obtain timely diagnosis and treatment. The interplay between these and other factors has partly neutralized the major advances in STEMI care achieved in the last decades, significantly impairing prognosis in these patients. In the present review article, we will provide an overview on mechanisms of myocardial injury, specific clinical and angiographic characteristics and contemporary management in different settings of STEMI patients with COVID-19, alongside the inherent implications in terms of in-hospital mortality and short-term clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
2.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602539

ABSTRACT

Aims Despite being a common finding in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cardiac troponin elevation remains a nonspecific detection of myocardial injury and further in-hospital investigation into the cause of myocardial injury is rarely done. COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury show a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate compared with those without myocardial injury and among those with myocardial injury, greater degrees of troponin elevation are associated with higher mortality rates. There are still many questions regarding possible cardiovascular sequelae and prognostic significance in these patients. Being able to distinguish between inflammatory and ischaemic causes of myocardial injury cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the non-invasive modality of choice to investigate myocardial involvement in these patients. Presented are the preliminary single-centre results from a multicentre study aimed to characterize the prevalence, type and extent of COVID-19-related cardiovascular sequelae using CMR imaging. Methods and results In this single-centre prospective observational cohort study, patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 and at least one value of high sensitivity I troponin (hs-Tnl) >99th percentile during hospitalization were eligible for follow-up contrast-enhanced CMR imaging. Patients with any standard CMR contraindications were excluded. Images were acquired using a standardized myocarditis protocol including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 and T2 mapping. Cutoff values of 1015 ms and 50 ms were used for abnormal T1 and T2 measurements, respectively. Of the 21 patients (65 ± 11.85 years) who underwent imaging, 15 (71.4%) were male. The mean follow-up duration from the date of confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis was 169 ± 19 days. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 64.1 ± 13.87 and 3 (14.3%) patients had evidence of wall motion abnormalities. LGE was seen in 9/20 (45.0%) patients, reflecting myocardial fibrosis. Increased native T1 signal representing myocardial fibrosis and/or oedema was seen in 9/20 (45.0%) patients. While increased native T2 signal, being more specific for oedema was observed in 3/20 (15.0%) patients. Considering CMR findings, 6 (28.6%) patients showed evidence of previous myocarditis. Conclusions In this single centre Italian study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and elevated cardiac enzymes, myocarditis-like injury was evident in about a quarter of the patients. Whether these findings will lead to long-term cardiac complications is still to be confirmed.

3.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356596

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces a coagulopathy characterized by platelet activation and a hypercoagulable state with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The viral spike protein S has been reported to enhance thrombosis formation, stimulate platelets to release procoagulant factors, and promote the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates even in absence of the virus. Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccines induce spike protein overexpression to trigger SARS-CoV-2-specific immune protection, thrombocyte activity has not been investigated in this context. Here, we provide the first phenotypic platelet characterization of healthy human subjects undergoing BNT162b2 vaccination. Using mass cytometry, we analyzed the expression of constitutive transmembrane receptors, adhesion proteins, and platelet activation markers in 12 healthy donors before and at five different time points within 4 weeks after the first BNT162b2 administration. We measured platelet reactivity by stimulating thrombocyte activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Activation marker expression (P-selectin, LAMP-3, LAMP-1, CD40L, and PAC-1) did not change after vaccination. All investigated constitutive transmembrane proteins showed similar expressions over time. Platelet reactivity was not altered after BNT162b2 administration. Activation marker expression was significantly lower compared with an independent cohort of mild symptomatic COVID-19 patients analyzed with the same platform. This study reveals that BNT162b2 administration does not alter platelet protein expression and reactivity.

4.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(6): 917-927, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources. METHODS: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses. RESULTS: Eight factors, namely, Oxygen saturation, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, admission before the date the national Maximum number of daily new cases was reached, Age, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and absolute Neutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71; p < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Risk Assessment/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Risk Factors
5.
Med (N Y) ; 2(4): 435-447.e4, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive risk score predicting the risk of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using complete blood count (CBC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a total of 13,138 inpatients with COVID-19 in Hubei, China, and Milan, Italy. Among them, 9,810 patients with ≥2 CBC records from Hubei were assigned to the training cohort. CBC parameters were analyzed as potential predictors for all-cause mortality and were selected by the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). FINDINGS: Five risk factors were derived to construct a composite score (PAWNN score) using the Cox regression model, including platelet counts, age, white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The PAWNN score showed good accuracy for predicting mortality in 10-fold cross-validation (AUROCs 0.92-0.93) and subsets with different quartile intervals of follow-up and preexisting diseases. The performance of the score was further validated in 2,949 patients with only 1 CBC record from the Hubei cohort (AUROC 0.97) and 227 patients from the Italian cohort (AUROC 0.80). The latent Markov model (LMM) demonstrated that the PAWNN score has good prediction power for transition probabilities between different latent conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The PAWNN score is a simple and accurate risk assessment tool that can predict the mortality for COVID-19 patients during their entire hospitalization. This tool can assist clinicians in prioritizing medical treatment of COVID-19 patients. FUNDING: This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFF0101504, 2016YFF0101505, 2020YFC2004702, 2020YFC0845500), the Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2020B1111330003), and the medical flight plan of Wuhan University (TFJH2018006).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Cell Count , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 50, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015003

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a hypercoagulable state, characterized by abnormal coagulation parameters and by increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. With this study, we aimed to investigate the activation state and the expression of transmembrane proteins in platelets of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We investigated transmembrane proteins expression with a customized mass cytometry panel of 21 antibodies. Platelets of 8 hospitalized COVID-19 patients not requiring intensive care support and without pre-existing conditions were compared to platelets of healthy controls (11 donors) with and without in vitro stimulation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP). Mass cytometry of non-stimulated platelets detected an increased surface expression of activation markers P-Selectin (0.67 vs. 1.87 median signal intensity for controls vs. patients, p = 0.0015) and LAMP-3 (CD63, 0.37 vs. 0.81, p = 0.0004), the GPIIb/IIIa complex (4.58 vs. 5.03, p < 0.0001) and other adhesion molecules involved in platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte interactions. Upon TRAP stimulation, mass cytometry detected a higher expression of P-selectin in COVID-19 samples compared to controls (p < 0.0001). However, we observed a significantly reduced capacity of COVID-19 platelets to increase the expression of activation markers LAMP-3 and P-Selectin upon stimulation with TRAP. We detected a hyperactivated phenotype in platelets during SARS-CoV-2 infection, consisting of highly expressed platelet activation markers, which might contribute to the hypercoagulopathy observed in COVID-19. In addition, several transmembrane proteins were more highly expressed compared to healthy controls. These findings support research projects investigating antithrombotic and antiplatelet treatment regimes in COVID-19 patients, and provide new insights on the phenotypical platelet expression during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Leukocytes/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Leukocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , P-Selectin/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenotype , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Heart ; 106(19): 1512-1518, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Risk stratification is crucial to optimise treatment strategies in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the impact on mortality of an early assessment of cardiac biomarkers in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital (Rozzano-Milan, Lombardy, Italy) is a tertiary centre that has been converted to the management of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were entered in a dedicated database for cohort observational analyses. Outcomes were stratified according to elevated levels (ie, above the upper level of normal) of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TnI), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or both measured within 24 hours after hospital admission. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 397 consecutive patients with COVID-19 were included up to 1 April 2020. At the time of hospital admission, 208 patients (52.4%) had normal values for cardiac biomarkers, 90 (22.7%) had elevated both hs-TnI and BNP, 59 (14.9%) had elevated only BNP and 40 (10.1%) had elevated only hs-TnI. The rate of mortality was higher in patients with elevated hs-TnI (22.5%, OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.72 to 11.04), BNP (33.9%, OR 7.37, 95% CI 3.53 to 16.75) or both (55.6%, OR 18.75, 95% CI 9.32 to 37.71) as compared with those without elevated cardiac biomarkers (6.25%). A multivariate analysis identified concomitant elevation of both hs-TnI and BNP as a strong independent predictor of all-cause mortality (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 9.93). CONCLUSIONS: An early detection of elevated hs-TnI and BNP predicts mortality in patients with COVID-19. Cardiac biomarkers should be systematically assessed in patients with COVID-19 at the time of hospital admission in order to optimise risk stratification.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(14): 2239-2246, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637779

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Whether pulmonary artery (PA) dimension and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as assessed by chest computed tomography (CT), are associated with myocardial injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not known. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors for myocardial injury and death and to investigate whether myocardial injury has an independent association with all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a single-centre cohort study including consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 undergoing chest CT on admission. Myocardial injury was defined as high-sensitivity troponin I >20 ng/L on admission. A total of 332 patients with a median follow-up of 12 days were included. There were 68 (20.5%) deaths; 123 (37%) patients had myocardial injury. PA diameter was higher in patients with myocardial injury compared with patients without myocardial injury [29.0 (25th-75th percentile, 27-32) mm vs. 27.7 (25-30) mm, P < 0.001). PA diameter was independently associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury [adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.19, P = 0.01] and death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17, P = 0.01]. Compared with patients without myocardial injury, patients with myocardial injury had a lower prevalence of a CAC score of zero (25% vs. 55%, P < 0.001); however, the CAC score did not emerge as a predictor of myocardial injury by multivariable logistic regression. Myocardial injury was independently associated with an increased risk of death by multivariable Cox regression (adjusted HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.27-3.96, P = 0.005). Older age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission were other independent predictors for both myocardial injury and death. CONCLUSIONS: An increased PA diameter, as assessed by chest CT, is an independent risk factor for myocardial injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Myocardial injury is independently associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors
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