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1.
Antiviral Res ; 214: 105605, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293609

ABSTRACT

This study compared disease progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in three different models of golden hamsters: aged (≈60 weeks old) wild-type (WT), young (6 weeks old) WT, and adult (14-22 weeks old) hamsters expressing the human-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. After intranasal (IN) exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 Washington isolate (WA01/2020), 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) was used to monitor disease progression in near real time and animals were euthanized at pre-determined time points to directly compare imaging findings with other disease parameters associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consistent with histopathology, 18F-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated that aged WT hamsters exposed to 105 plaque forming units (PFU) developed more severe and protracted pneumonia than young WT hamsters exposed to the same (or lower) dose or hACE2 hamsters exposed to a uniformly lethal dose of virus. Specifically, aged WT hamsters presented with a severe interstitial pneumonia through 8 d post-exposure (PE), while pulmonary regeneration was observed in young WT hamsters at that time. hACE2 hamsters exposed to 100 or 10 PFU virus presented with a minimal to mild hemorrhagic pneumonia but succumbed to SARS-CoV-2-related meningoencephalitis by 6 d PE, suggesting that this model might allow assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the central nervous system (CNS). Our group is the first to use (18F-FDG) PET/CT to differentiate respiratory disease severity ranging from mild to severe in three COVID-19 hamster models. The non-invasive, serial measure of disease progression provided by PET/CT makes it a valuable tool for animal model characterization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Animals , Cricetinae , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Mesocricetus , Disease Progression
2.
Antiviral Res ; 213: 105589, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255500

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spurred the rapid development of a range of therapeutic antibody treatments. As part of the US government's COVID-19 therapeutic response, a research team was assembled to support assay and animal model development to assess activity for therapeutics candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Candidate treatments included monoclonal antibodies, antibody cocktails, and products derived from blood donated by convalescent patients. Sixteen candidate antibody products were obtained directly from manufacturers and evaluated for neutralization activity against the WA-01 isolate of SARS-CoV-2. Products were further tested in the Syrian hamster model using prophylactic (-24 h) or therapeutic (+8 h) treatment approaches relative to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 exposure. In vivo assessments included daily clinical scores and body weights. Viral RNA and viable virus titers were quantified in serum and lung tissue with histopathology performed at 3d and 7d post-virus-exposure. Sham-treated, virus-exposed hamsters showed consistent clinical signs with concomitant weight loss and had detectable viral RNA and viable virus in lung tissue. Histopathologically, interstitial pneumonia with consolidation was present. Therapeutic efficacy was identified in treated hamsters by the absence or diminution of clinical scores, body weight loss, viral loads, and improved semiquantitative lung histopathology scores. This work serves as a model for the rapid, systematic in vitro and in vivo assessment of the efficacy of candidate therapeutics at various stages of clinical development. These efforts provided preclinical efficacy data for therapeutic candidates. Furthermore, these studies were invaluable for the phenotypic characterization of SARS CoV-2 disease in hamsters and of utility to the broader scientific community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , RNA, Viral
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240051

ABSTRACT

Humanity has faced three recent outbreaks of novel betacoronaviruses, emphasizing the need to develop approaches that broadly target coronaviruses. Here, we identify 55 monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent donors that bind diverse betacoronavirus spike proteins. Most antibodies targeted an S2 epitope that included the K814 residue and were non-neutralizing. However, 11 antibodies targeting the stem helix neutralized betacoronaviruses from different lineages. Eight antibodies in this group, including the six broadest and most potent neutralizers, were encoded by IGHV1-46 and IGKV3-20. Crystal structures of three antibodies of this class at 1.5-1.75-Å resolution revealed a conserved mode of binding. COV89-22 neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern including Omicron BA.4/5 and limited disease in Syrian hamsters. Collectively, these findings identify a class of IGHV1-46/IGKV3-20 antibodies that broadly neutralize betacoronaviruses by targeting the stem helix but indicate these antibodies constitute a small fraction of the broadly reactive antibody response to betacoronaviruses after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 166, 2022 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185872

ABSTRACT

Experimental vaccines for the deadly zoonotic Nipah (NiV), Hendra (HeV), and Ebola (EBOV) viruses have focused on targeting individual viruses, although their geographical and bat reservoir host overlaps warrant creation of multivalent vaccines. Here we explored whether replication-incompetent pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions or NiV-based virus-like particles (VLPs) were suitable multivalent vaccine platforms by co-incorporating multiple surface glycoproteins from NiV, HeV, and EBOV onto these virions. We then enhanced the vaccines' thermotolerance using carbohydrates to enhance applicability in global regions that lack cold-chain infrastructure. Excitingly, in a Syrian hamster model of disease, the VSV multivalent vaccine elicited safe, strong, and protective neutralizing antibody responses against challenge with NiV, HeV, or EBOV. Our study provides proof-of-principle evidence that replication-incompetent multivalent viral particle vaccines are sufficient to provide protection against multiple zoonotic deadly viruses with high pandemic potential.

6.
Science ; 377(6607): 728-735, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968212

ABSTRACT

The potential for future coronavirus outbreaks highlights the need to broadly target this group of pathogens. We used an epitope-agnostic approach to identify six monoclonal antibodies that bind to spike proteins from all seven human-infecting coronaviruses. All six antibodies target the conserved fusion peptide region adjacent to the S2' cleavage site. COV44-62 and COV44-79 broadly neutralize alpha- and betacoronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariants BA.2 and BA.4/5, albeit with lower potency than receptor binding domain-specific antibodies. In crystal structures of COV44-62 and COV44-79 antigen-binding fragments with the SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptide, the fusion peptide epitope adopts a helical structure and includes the arginine residue at the S2' cleavage site. COV44-79 limited disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in a Syrian hamster model. These findings highlight the fusion peptide as a candidate epitope for next-generation coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19 , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Peptides/immunology , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
BMJ ; 369: m2195, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the protective effects of appropriate personal protective equipment for frontline healthcare professionals who provided care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: 420 healthcare professionals (116 doctors and 304 nurses) who were deployed to Wuhan by two affiliated hospitals of Sun Yat-sen University and Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University for 6-8 weeks from 24 January to 7 April 2020. These study participants were provided with appropriate personal protective equipment to deliver healthcare to patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and were involved in aerosol generating procedures. 77 healthcare professionals with no exposure history to covid-19 and 80 patients who had recovered from covid-19 were recruited to verify the accuracy of antibody testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Covid-19 related symptoms (fever, cough, and dyspnoea) and evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, defined as a positive test for virus specific nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal swabs, or a positive test for IgM or IgG antibodies in the serum samples. RESULTS: The average age of study participants was 35.8 years and 68.1% (286/420) were women. These study participants worked 4-6 hour shifts for an average of 5.4 days a week; they worked an average of 16.2 hours each week in intensive care units. All 420 study participants had direct contact with patients with covid-19 and performed at least one aerosol generating procedure. During the deployment period in Wuhan, none of the study participants reported covid-19 related symptoms. When the participants returned home, they all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleic acids and IgM or IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.7%). CONCLUSION: Before a safe and effective vaccine becomes available, healthcare professionals remain susceptible to covid-19. Despite being at high risk of exposure, study participants were appropriately protected and did not contract infection or develop protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Healthcare systems must give priority to the procurement and distribution of personal protective equipment, and provide adequate training to healthcare professionals in its use.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(616): eabj5413, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406601

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern threatens the efficacy of existing vaccines and therapeutic antibodies and underscores the need for additional antibody-based tools that potently neutralize variants by targeting multiple sites of the spike protein. We isolated 216 monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 from plasmablasts and memory B cells collected from patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The three most potent antibodies targeted distinct regions of the receptor binding domain (RBD), and all three neutralized the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta variants. The crystal structure of the most potent antibody, CV503, revealed that it binds to the ridge region of SARS-CoV-2 RBD, competes with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and has limited contact with key variant residues K417, E484, and N501. We designed bispecific antibodies by combining nonoverlapping specificities and identified five bispecific antibodies that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection at concentrations of less than 1 ng/ml. Through a distinct mode of action, three bispecific antibodies cross-linked adjacent spike proteins using dual N-terminal domain­RBD specificities. One bispecific antibody was greater than 100-fold more potent than a cocktail of its parent monoclonals in vitro and prevented clinical disease in a hamster model at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Two bispecific antibodies in our panel comparably neutralized the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants and wild-type virus. Furthermore, a bispecific antibody that neutralized the Beta variant protected hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 expressing the E484K mutation. Thus, bispecific antibodies represent a promising next-generation countermeasure against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Complexity ; 2021, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1109682

ABSTRACT

In recent years, supply chain finance (SCF) is exploited to solve the financing difficulties of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SME credit risk assessment is a critical part in the SCF system. The diffusion of SME credit risk may cause serious consequences, leading the whole supply chain finance system unstable and insecure. Compared with traditional credit risk assessment models, the supply chain relationship, credit condition of SME, and core enterprises should all be considered to rate SME credit risk in SCF. Traditional methods mix all indicators from different index systems. They cannot give a quantitative result on how these index systems work. Furthermore, traditional credit risk assessment models are heavily dependent on the number of annotated SME data. However, it is implausible to accumulate enough credit risky SMEs in advance. In this paper, we propose an adaptive heterogenous multiview graph learning method to tackle the small sample size problem for SMEs’ credit risk forecasting. Three graphs are constructed by using indicators from supply chain operation, SME financial indicator, and nonfinancial indicator individually. All the graphs are integrated in an adaptive manner, providing a quantitative explanation on how the three parts cooperate. The experimental analysis shows that the proposed method has good performance for determining whether SME is risky or nonrisky in SCF. From the perspective of SCF, SME financing ability is still the main factor to determine the credit risk of SME.

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