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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1170-e1179, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482493


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and restrictions had significant disruption to patient care. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on hospitalizations of patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis as well as alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in Alberta, Canada. METHODS: We used validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) coding algorithms to identify liver-related hospitalizations for nonalcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and AH in the province of Alberta between March 2018 and September 2020. We used the provincial inpatient discharge and laboratory databases to identify our cohorts. We used elevated alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase, elevated international normalized ratio, or bilirubin to identify AH patients. We compared COVID-19 restrictions (April-September 2020) with prior study periods. Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate the temporal trends among the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: We identified 2916 hospitalizations for nonalcoholic cirrhosis, 2318 hospitalizations for alcoholic cirrhosis, and 1408 AH hospitalizations during our study time. The in-hospital mortality rate was stable in relation to the pandemic for alcoholic cirrhosis and AH. However, nonalcoholic cirrhosis patients had lower in-hospital mortality rate after March 2020 (8.5% vs 11.5%; P = .033). There was a significant increase in average monthly admissions in the AH cohort (22.1/10,000 admissions during the pandemic vs 11.6/10,000 admissions before March 2020; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Before and during COVID-19 monthly admission rates were stable for nonalcoholic and alcoholic cirrhosis; however, there was a significant increase in AH admissions. Because alcohol sales surged during the pandemic, future impact on alcoholic liver disease could be detrimental.

COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Pandemics
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17787, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397899


Despite COVID-19's significant morbidity and mortality, considering cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic treatment strategies for hospitalized patients remains critical to support healthcare resource decisions within budgetary constraints. As such, we calculated the cost-effectiveness of using remdesivir and dexamethasone for moderate to severe COVID-19 respiratory infections using the United States health care system as a representative model. A decision analytic model modelled a base case scenario of a 60-year-old patient admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Patients requiring oxygen were considered moderate severity, and patients with severe COVID-19 required intubation with intensive care. Strategies modelled included giving remdesivir to all patients, remdesivir in only moderate and only severe infections, dexamethasone to all patients, dexamethasone in severe infections, remdesivir in moderate/dexamethasone in severe infections, and best supportive care. Data for the model came from the published literature. The time horizon was 1 year; no discounting was performed due to the short duration. The perspective was of the payer in the United States health care system. Supportive care for moderate/severe COVID-19 cost $11,112.98 with 0.7155 quality adjusted life-year (QALY) obtained. Using dexamethasone for all patients was the most-cost effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $980.84/QALY; all remdesivir strategies were more costly and less effective. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed dexamethasone for all patients was most cost-effective in 98.3% of scenarios. Dexamethasone for moderate-severe COVID-19 infections was the most cost-effective strategy and would have minimal budget impact. Based on current data, remdesivir is unlikely to be a cost-effective treatment for COVID-19.

COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/economics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/economics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/economics , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Computer Simulation , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dexamethasone/economics , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Humans , Intensive Care Units/economics , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/economics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiration, Artificial/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology