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1.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 707-712, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634116

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed to assess prevalence of IgG antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and factors associated with seropositivity in a large cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: From 11 May until 11 June 2020, 3981 HCWs at a large Swedish emergency care hospital provided serum samples and questionnaire data. Presence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was measured as an indicator of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. RESULTS: The total seroprevalence was 18% and increased during the study period. Among the seropositive HCWs, 11% had been entirely asymptomatic. Participants who worked with COVID-19 patients had higher odds for seropositivity: adjusted odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence intervals 1.59-2.42). HCWs from three of the departments managing COVID-19 patients had significantly higher seroprevalences, whereas the prevalence among HCWs from the intensive care unit (also managing COVID-19 patients) was significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected patients had a variable, but on average higher, likelihood for SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Personnel, Hospital , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623646

ABSTRACT

A majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections are transmitted from a minority of infected subjects, some of which may be symptomatic or pre-symptomatic. We aimed to quantify potential infectiousness among asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) in relation to prior or later symptomatic disease. We previously (at the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic) performed a cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infections among 27,000 healthcare workers (HCWs) at work in the capital region of Sweden. We performed both SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and serology. Furthermore, the cohort was comprehensively followed for sick leave, both before and after sampling. In the present report, we used the cohort database to quantify potential infectiousness among HCWs at work. Those who had sick leave either before or after sampling were classified as post-symptomatic or pre-symptomatic, whereas the virus-positive subjects with no sick leave were considered asymptomatic. About 0.2% (19/9449) of HCW at work were potentially infectious and pre-symptomatic (later had disease) and 0.17% (16/9449) were potentially infectious and asymptomatic (never had sick leave either before nor after sampling). Thus, 33% and 28% of all the 57 potentially infectious subjects were pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic, respectively. When a questionnaire was administered to HCWs with past infection, only 10,5% of HCWs had had no indication at all of having had SARS-CoV-2 infection ("truly asymptomatic"). Our findings provide a unique quantification of the different groups of asymptomatic, potentially infectious HCWs.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most COVID-19 related infections and deaths may occur in healthcare outside hospitals. Here we explored SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers (HCWs) in this setting. DESIGN: All healthcare providers in Stockholm, Sweden were asked to recruit HCWs at work for a study of past or present SARS-CoV-2 infections among HCWs. Study participants This study reports the results from 839 HCWs, mostly employees of primary care centers, sampled in June 2020. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was found among 12% (100/839) of HCWs, ranging from 0% to 29% between care units. Seropositivity decreased by age and was highest among HCWs <40 years of age. Within this age group there was 19% (23/120) seropositivity among women and 11% (15/138) among men (p<0.02). Current infection, as measured using PCR, was found in only 1% and the typical testing pattern of pre-symptomatic potential "superspreaders" found in only 2/839 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Previous SARS-CoV-2 infections were common among younger HCWs in this setting. Pre-symptomatic infection was uncommon, in line with the strong variability in SARS-CoV-2 exposure between units. Prioritizing infection prevention and control including sufficient and adequate personal protective equipment, and vaccination for all HCWs are important to prevent nosocomial infections and infections as occupational injuries during an ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel/trends , Adult , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sweden/epidemiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5160, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117661

ABSTRACT

The extent that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 may protect against future virus-associated disease is unknown. We invited all employees (n = 15,300) at work at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden to participate in a study examining SARS-Cov-2 antibodies in relation to registered sick leave. For consenting 12,928 healthy hospital employees antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 could be determined and compared to participant sick leave records. Subjects with viral serum antibodies were not at excess risk for future sick leave (adjusted odds ratio (OR) controlling for age and sex: 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.85 (0.43-1.68)]. By contrast, subjects with antibodies had an excess risk for sick leave in the weeks prior to testing [adjusted OR in multivariate analysis: 3.34 (2.98-3.74)]. Thus, presence of viral antibodies marks past disease and protection against excess risk of future disease. Knowledge of whether exposed subjects have had disease in the past or are at risk for future disease is essential for planning of control measures.Trial registration: First registered on 02/06/20, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04411576.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology
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