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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310504

ABSTRACT

The novelty of new human coronavirus COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 and the lack of effective drugs and vaccines gave rise to a wide variety of strategies employed to fight this worldwide pandemic. Many of these strategies rely on the repositioning of existing drugs that could shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. In this study, we presented a new network-based algorithm for drug repositioning, called SAveRUNNER (Searching off-lAbel dRUg aNd NEtwoRk), which predicts drug-disease associations by quantifying the interplay between the drug targets and the disease-specific proteins in the human interactome via a novel network-based similarity measure that prioritizes associations between drugs and diseases locating in the same network neighborhoods. Specifically, we applied SAveRUNNER on a panel of 14 selected diseases with a consolidated knowledge about their disease-causing genes and that have been found to be related to COVID-19 for genetic similarity, comorbidity, or for their association to drugs tentatively repurposed to treat COVID-19. Focusing specifically on SARS subnetwork, we identified 282 repurposable drugs, including some the most rumored off-label drugs for COVID-19 treatments, as well as a new combination therapy of 5 drugs, actually used in clinical practice. Furthermore, to maximize the efficiency of putative downstream validation experiments, we prioritized 24 potential anti-SARS-CoV repurposable drugs based on their network-based similarity values. These top-ranked drugs include ACE-inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and thrombin inhibitors. Finally, our findings were in-silico validated by performing a gene set enrichment analysis, which confirmed that most of the network-predicted repurposable drugs may have a potential treatment effect against human coronavirus infections.

3.
Front Neurol ; 12: 794471, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581261

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mainly colonizes nasopharynx. In upper airways acute infections, e.g., the common cold, saline nasal irrigations have a significant efficacy in reducing symptoms. The present study aimed to test the efficacy of nasal lavages in upper airways symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A series of consecutive adult subjects who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from December 2020 to February 2021 performed daily nasal lavages with saline solution (Lavonase®-Purling, Lugo di Romagna, Italy) for 12 days, starting on the day after the SARS-CoV-2 positive swab. A control group included a historical series of patients who were infected in February-March 2020 and who did not perform lavages. An ad hoc questionnaire regarding symptoms was administered to each subjects at base-line and 10 days after diagnosis (i.e., on the same day of the control swab) in both cases and controls. Results: A total of 140 subjects were enrolled. 68 participants in the treatment group and 72 in the control group were included. 90% of respondents declared the lavages were simple to use and 70% declared they were satisfied. Symptoms of blocked nose, runny nose, or sneezing decreased by an average of 24.7% after the treatment. Blocked nose and sneezing increased in the same period of time in the control group. Ears and eyes symptoms, anosmia/ageusia symptoms, and infection duration (10.53 days in the treatment group and 10.48 days in the control group) didn't vary significantly among the two groups. Conclusion: Nasal lavages resulted to significantly decrease nasal symptoms in newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 patients. These devices proved to be well-tolerated and easy to be used. Further studies on a larger number of subjects are needed in order to possibly confirm these preliminary results.

4.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14829, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the CoronaVirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Questionnaire (COVID-Q), a novel symptom questionnaire specific for COVID-19 patients, to provide a comprehensive evaluation that may be helpful for physicians, and evaluate the questionnaire's performance in identifying subjects at higher risk of testing positive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive non-hospitalised adults who underwent nasopharyngeal-throat swab for severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection at Treviso Hospital in March 2020, were enrolled. Subjects were divided into positive (cases) and negative (controls). All subjects answered the COVID-Q. Patients not able to answer COVID-Q because of clinical conditions were excluded. Parallel Analysis and Principal Component Analysis identified items measuring the same dimension. The Item Response Theory (IRT)-based analyses evaluated the functioning of item categories, the presence of clusters of local dependence among items, item fit within the model and model fit to the data. RESULTS: Answers obtained from 230 cases (113 males; mean age 55 years, range 20-99) and 230 controls (61 males; mean age 46 years, range 21-89) were analysed. Six components were extracted with parallel analysis: asthenia, influenza-like symptoms, ear and nose symptoms, breathing issues, throat symptoms, and anosmia/ageusia. The final IRT models retained 27 items as significant for symptom assessment. The total questionnaire's score was significantly associated with positivity to the molecular test: subjects with multiple symptoms were more likely to be affected (P < .001). Older age, male gender presence of breathing issues and anosmia/ageusia were significantly related to positivity (P < .001). Comorbidities had not a significant association with the COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: COVID-Q could be validated since the evaluated aspects were overall significantly related to infection. The application of the questionnaire to clinical practice may help to identify subjects who are likely to be affected by COVID-19 and address them to a nasopharyngeal swab in order to achieve an early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111954, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330660

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a worldwide public health emergency. Despite the beginning of a vaccination campaign, the search for new drugs to appropriately treat COVID-19 patients remains a priority. Drug repurposing represents a faster and cheaper method than de novo drug discovery. In this study, we examined three different network-based approaches to identify potentially repurposable drugs to treat COVID-19. We analyzed transcriptomic data from whole blood cells of patients with COVID-19 and 21 other related conditions, as compared with those of healthy subjects. In addition to conventionally used drugs (e.g., anticoagulants, antihistaminics, anti-TNFα antibodies, corticosteroids), unconventional candidate compounds, such as SCN5A inhibitors and drugs active in the central nervous system, were identified. Clinical judgment and validation through clinical trials are always mandatory before use of the identified drugs in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Drug Repositioning , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Central Nervous System Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/trends , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/pharmacology
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(2): e1008686, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067382

ABSTRACT

The novelty of new human coronavirus COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 and the lack of effective drugs and vaccines gave rise to a wide variety of strategies employed to fight this worldwide pandemic. Many of these strategies rely on the repositioning of existing drugs that could shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. In this study, we presented a new network-based algorithm for drug repositioning, called SAveRUNNER (Searching off-lAbel dRUg aNd NEtwoRk), which predicts drug-disease associations by quantifying the interplay between the drug targets and the disease-specific proteins in the human interactome via a novel network-based similarity measure that prioritizes associations between drugs and diseases locating in the same network neighborhoods. Specifically, we applied SAveRUNNER on a panel of 14 selected diseases with a consolidated knowledge about their disease-causing genes and that have been found to be related to COVID-19 for genetic similarity (i.e., SARS), comorbidity (e.g., cardiovascular diseases), or for their association to drugs tentatively repurposed to treat COVID-19 (e.g., malaria, HIV, rheumatoid arthritis). Focusing specifically on SARS subnetwork, we identified 282 repurposable drugs, including some the most rumored off-label drugs for COVID-19 treatments (e.g., chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, heparin), as well as a new combination therapy of 5 drugs (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir), actually used in clinical practice. Furthermore, to maximize the efficiency of putative downstream validation experiments, we prioritized 24 potential anti-SARS-CoV repurposable drugs based on their network-based similarity values. These top-ranked drugs include ACE-inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (e.g., anti-IFNγ, anti-TNFα, anti-IL12, anti-IL1ß, anti-IL6), and thrombin inhibitors. Finally, our findings were in-silico validated by performing a gene set enrichment analysis, which confirmed that most of the network-predicted repurposable drugs may have a potential treatment effect against human coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Comorbidity , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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