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1.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119269

ABSTRACT

Plasmatic presepsin (PSP) is a novel biomarker reported to be useful for sepsis diagnosis and prognosis. During the pandemic, only few studies highlighted a possible correlation between PSP and COVID-19 severity, but results remain inconsistent. The present study aims to establish the correlation between PSP and COVID-19 severity. English-language papers assessing a correlation between COVID-19 and PSP from MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, MeSH, LitCovid NLM, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the World Health Organization (WHO) website, published from January 2020 were considered with no publication date limitations. Two independent reviewers performed data abstraction and quality assessment, and one reviewer resolved inconsistencies. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022325971).Fifteen articles met our eligibility criteria. The aggregate study population included 1373 COVID-19 patients who had undergone a PSP assessment. The random-effect meta-analysis was performed in 7 out of 15 selected studies, considering only those reporting the mean PSP levels in low- and high-severity cases (n = 707).The results showed that the pooled mean difference of PSP levels between high- and low-severity COVID-19 patients was 441.70 pg/ml (95%CI: 150.40-732.99 pg/ml).Our data show that presepsin is a promising biomarker that can express COVID-19 severity.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987896

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths worldwide and is the second most serious pandemic after the Spanish flu. Despite SARS-CoV-2 infection having a dominant effect on morbidity and life-threatening outcomes, the role of bacterial co-infection in patients with COVID-19 is poorly understood. The present study aimed to verify the existence of bacterial co-infections and their possible role as cofactors worsening COVID-19-related clinical manifestations. Methods: All patients with suspected SARS-CoV-infection, hospitalised in COVID-19 wards at the Sant'Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, were retrospectively included in this single-centre study and their specific bacterial serologies were assessed. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 1204 individual records were retrieved. Among them, 959 were excluded because of a negative nasopharyngeal swab or missing data; of the eligible 245 patients, 51 were co-infected. Compared to patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection alone, those with Chlamydia pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae co-infections had worse respiratory/radiological features and more intensive care unit admissions. However, the co-infection did not result in a higher mortality rate. Conclusions: The present study, comparing clinical, laboratory and radiological findings between patients with COVID-19 vs. those with co-infections (C. pneumoniae or M. pneumoniae) showed that, on admission, these features were worse in co-infected patients, although the mortality rate did not differ between the two groups.

3.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884282

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 emerged in late 2019 in China and quickly spread across the globe, causing over 521 million cases of infection and 6.26 million deaths to date. After 2 years, numerous advances have been made. First of all, the preventive vaccine, which has been implemented in record time, is effective in more than 95% of cases. Additionally, in the diagnostic field, there are numerous molecular and antigenic diagnostic kits that are equipped with high sensitivity and specificity. Real Time-PCR-based assays for the detection of viral RNA are currently considered the gold-standard method for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and can be used efficiently on pooled nasopharyngeal, or oropharyngeal samples for widespread screening. Moreover, additional, and more advanced molecular methods such as droplet-digital PCR (ddPCR), clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS), are currently under development to detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, as the number of subjects infected with SARS-CoV-2 continuously increases globally, health care systems are being placed under increased stress. Thus, the clinical laboratory plays an important role, helping to select especially asymptomatic individuals who are actively carrying the live replicating virus, with fast and non-invasive molecular technologies. Recent diagnostic strategies, other than molecular methods, have been adopted to either detect viral antigens, i.e., antigen-based immunoassays, or human anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, i.e., antibody-based immunoassays, in nasal or oropharyngeal swabs, as well as in blood or saliva samples. However, the role of mucosal sIgAs, which are essential in the control of viruses entering the body through mucosal surfaces, remains to be elucidated, and in particular the role of the immune response in counteracting SARS-CoV-2 infection, primarily at the site(s) of virus entry that appears to be promising.

4.
Microorganisms ; 10(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a rapidly spreading pandemic. The present study aims to compare a modified quick SOFA (MqSOFA) score with the NEWS-2 score to predict in-hospital mortality (IHM), 30-days mortality and recovery setting. METHODS: All patients admitted from March to October 2020 to the Emergency Department of St. Anna Hospital, Ferrara, Italy with clinically suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were retrospectively included in this single-centre study and evaluated with the MqSOFA and NEWS-2 scores. Statistical and logistic regression analyses were applied to our database. RESULTS: A total of 3359 individual records were retrieved. Among them, 2716 patients were excluded because of a negative nasopharyngeal swab and 206 for lacking data; thus, 437 patients were eligible. The data showed that the MqSOFA and NEWS-2 scores equally predicted IHM (p < 0.001) and 30-days mortality (p < 0.001). Higher incidences of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents, dementia, chronic kidney disease and cancer were found in the deceased vs. survived group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we confirmed that the MqSOFA score was non-inferior to the NEWS-2 score in predicting IHM and 30-days mortality. Furthermore, the MqSOFA score was easier to use than NEWS-2 and is more suitable for emergency settings. Neither the NEWS-2 nor the MqSOFA scores were able to predict the recovery setting.

5.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 475-487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444697

ABSTRACT

The "Spanish" flu has often been described as the "Greatest Medical Holocaust in History" and most victims were young and healthy. In Italy, as elsewhere, this pandemic influenza struck in three successive and close waves with incredible speed in a very short time. The virus first arrived in a few Italian regions and gripped the country in an epidemic clamp. When the flu hit Ferrara, the health authorities began to claim that it was no more or less like the same disease that Ferrara had also experienced in the 19th century, although the population was not very willing to believe them. Moreover, the control measures were considered by all to be extremely mild, varying only the opening hours of cinemas and pharmacies and forbidding spitting on the ground; there was no disinfection of stores and streets and the dead were left at home for three days, unlike in larger cities. In 1918-19, Ferrara did much to contain the devastating effects of the war, especially in terms of saving lives. The largest Red Cross unit in Italy, later called Ospedale Nuovo, was built. Moreover, since Ferrara was the first hospital evacuation zone, it was necessary to build other hospitals in the city's schools in addition to the already existing ones, including the famous Ospedale Militare Neurologico di Villa Seminario, which was the first Italian neurological hospital of the Great War for veterans of the front line, intended for the specialised treatment of nervous disorders and psychosis caused by the war or by bombs. We have extracted the cases of death from the Register of Deaths of the Municipality of Ferrara. During the period January 1918 - June 1919, in addition to the number of deaths due to influenza, grippe or Spanish flu we also considered influenza-related complications affecting mortality and identified seven main groups of diseases by grouping them according to morbid forms and anatomical location. According to these criteria, 1,059 deaths were attributable to influenza or related causes during January-December 1918. This partly reflects the excess of deaths in the year 1918 of 1,279 over the average for the years 1916-1919, and 1920. The largest number of deaths was attributable to bronchopneumonia and pneumonia. However, an increase in mortality from other infectious diseases such as typhoid ileus, tuberculosis, malaria and smallpox was observed during the same period until January 2019, making up the shortfall in the total number of deaths recorded.

6.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374533

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly discovered coronavirus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 has rapidly become a public health emergency of international concern. Although remarkable scientific achievements have been reached since the beginning of the pandemic, the knowledge behind this novel coronavirus, in terms of molecular and pathogenic characteristics and zoonotic potential, is still relatively limited. Today, there is a vaccine, or rather several vaccines, which, for the first time in the history of highly contagious infectious diseases that have plagued mankind, has been manufactured in just one year. Currently, four vaccines are licensed by regulatory agencies, and they use RNA or viral vector technologies. The positive effects of the vaccination campaign are being felt in many parts of the world, but the disappearance of this new infection is still far from being a reality, as it is also threatened by the presence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants that could undermine the effectiveness of the vaccine, hampering the immunization control efforts. Indeed, the current findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 is adapting to transmission in humans more efficiently, while further divergence from the initial archetype should be considered. In this review, we aimed to provide a collection of the current knowledge regarding the molecular, phylogenetic, and pathogenetic insights into SARS-CoV-2. The most recent findings obtained with respect to the impact of novel emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as the development and implementation of vaccines are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Disease Management , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Zoonoses
7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 687513, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305658

ABSTRACT

The human oral microbiome (HOM) is the second largest microbial community after the gut and can impact the onset and progression of several localized and systemic diseases, including those of viral origin, especially for viruses entering the body via the oropharynx. However, this important aspect has not been clarified for the new pandemic human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing COVID-19 disease, despite it being one of the many respiratory viruses having the oropharynx as the primary site of replication. In particular, no data are available about the non-bacterial components of the HOM (fungi, viruses), which instead has been shown to be crucial for other diseases. Consistent with this, this study aimed to define the HOM in COVID-19 patients, to evidence any association between its profile and the clinical disease. Seventy-five oral rinse samples were analyzed by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) to simultaneously identify oral bacteria, fungi, and viruses. To correlate the HOM profile with local virus replication, the SARS-CoV-2 amount in the oral cavity was quantified by digital droplet PCR. Moreover, local inflammation and secretory immune response were also assessed, respectively by measuring the local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (L-6, IL-17, TNFα, and GM-CSF) and the production of secretory immunoglobulins A (sIgA). The results showed the presence of oral dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients compared to matched controls, with significantly decreased alpha-diversity value and lower species richness in COVID-19 subjects. Notably, oral dysbiosis correlated with symptom severity (p = 0.006), and increased local inflammation (p < 0.01). In parallel, a decreased mucosal sIgA response was observed in more severely symptomatic patients (p = 0.02), suggesting that local immune response is important in the early control of virus infection and that its correct development is influenced by the HOM profile. In conclusion, the data presented here suggest that the HOM profile may be important in defining the individual susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, facilitating inflammation and virus replication, or rather, inducing a protective IgA response. Although it is not possible to determine whether the alteration in the microbial community is the cause or effect of the SARS-CoV-2 replication, these parameters may be considered as markers for personalized therapy and vaccine development.

8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(5): 639-345, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262631

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents an important clinical complication of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and high plasma D-dimer levels could suggest a higher risk of hypercoagulability. We aimed to analyse if laboratory exams, risk assessment scores, comorbidity scores were useful in predicting the VTE in SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted in internal medicine (IM). We evaluated 49 older adults with suspected VTE analysing history and blood chemistry, besides we calculated the Padua Prediction Score, the modified early warning scoring (MEWS) and the modified Elixhauser index (mEI). All patients underwent venous color-doppler ultrasounds of the lower limbs. Out of the 49 patients enrolled (mean age 79.3±14 years), 10 (20.4%) had deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and they were more frequently female (80% vs 20%, p = 0.04). We could not find any association with the Padua Prediction Score, the MEWS, and the mEI. D-dimer plasma levels were also not associated with DVT. In elderly people hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in IM, our data, although limited by the sample size, suggest that prediction and diagnosis of VTE is difficult, due to lack of precise biomarkers and scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Early Warning Score , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 577528, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993339
10.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965887

ABSTRACT

The pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to be able to enter the body via the eye conjunctiva, but the presence of antiviral response in the eye remains poorly known. Our study was thus aimed to analyze the presence of secretory mucosal anti-SARS-CoV-2 type A immunoglobulins (IgA) in the conjunctival fluid of COVID-19 patients. The tears of 28 COVID-19 patients and 20 uninfected controls were collected by the Schirmer test and analyzed by a specific ELISA assay detecting anti-spike (S1) virus protein IgA. The results showed that 35.7% of COVID-19 subjects have specific antiviral IgA at the ocular level, persisting till 48 days post disease onset. Most of the IgA positive subjects presented mild symptoms. The collected data indicate a prolonged persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA at the eye level and suggest that IgA detection may be extremely helpful in clarifying virus pathology and epidemiology.

11.
Infez Med ; 28(4): 621-633, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950505

ABSTRACT

The plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, provides one of the best historical examples of pandemic infection. It can therefore be considered the first "globalized" disease, thanks also to the crowds that favoured the rebalancing of infectious agents between Europe and the Middle East. In this paper we analyse all the official documents of the time, highlighting the most effective prevention measures implemented in the city of Ferrara during the Italian plague. Historical mortality data for the 1630 Italian plague in northern Italy are first analysed. In contrast to the high rates recorded throughout the area from Milan to Florence, the mortality rate in Ferrara remained normal over the period. From the city's documents it emerged that the authorities, from the 16th century onwards, had already understood that the spread of the contagion could also occur through domestic animals, although rats are never mentioned. The strength of Ferrara's response to the "plague emergency" stems from an efficient and emergency-ready health control system, financed and supported by the "permanent surveillance team of the city and the Pontifical Legation of Ferrara - Azienda Sanitaria Pubblica" even in times of great economic difficulty for the State. Among the various measures that the city of Ferrara adopted to deal with the plague the following should be mentioned: guards at the city gates, lazarettos, safety of doctors, self-isolation and treatment of every suspicious case as if it were a real case of plague, measures to support the poorer classes of the population, veterinary and hygiene standards for the city and for housing, management of Catholic religious functions and the precepts of the Legation of Ferrara, which was under papal control, closure of churches to avoid mass gatherings, and limitations of all kinds of social and economic relations within and outside the population. The broad regimen, laid down in the 16th century, contains extremely modern health rules which are very much in line with those recommended by the WHO and the health authorities of each individual state in the current COVID-19 pandemic, even starting with hand-washing. The fight against epidemics of the past, especially the history of the plague in the 17th century, anticipates very important and valid concepts, and represents a wake-up call for the recent epidemics of emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Plague/history , Yersinia pestis , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Vectors , History, 17th Century , History, Medieval , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Paintings/history , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/prevention & control , Plague/transmission
12.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717751

ABSTRACT

Until less than two decades ago, all known human coronaviruses (CoV) caused diseases so mild that they did not stimulate further advanced CoV research. In 2002 and following years, the scenario changed dramatically with the advent of the new more pathogenic CoVs, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndome (SARS-CoV-1), Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and the new zoonotic SARS-CoV-2, likely originated from bat species and responsible for the present coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which to date has caused 15,581,007 confirmed cases and 635,173 deaths in 208 countries, including Italy. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is mainly airborne via droplets generated by symptomatic patients, and possibly asymptomatic individuals during incubation of the disease, although for the latter, there are no certain data yet. However, research on asymptomatic viral infection is currently ongoing worldwide to elucidate the real prevalence and mortality of the disease. From a clinical point of view, COVID-19 would be defined as "COVID Planet " because it presents as a multifaceted disease, due to the large number of organs and tissues infected by the virus. Overall, based on the available published data, 80.9% of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 develop a mild disease/infection, 13.8% severe pneumonia, 4.7% respiratory failure, septic shock, or multi-organ failure, and 3% of these cases are fatal, but mortality parameter is highly variable in different countries. Clinically, SARS-CoV-2 causes severe primary interstitial viral pneumonia and a "cytokine storm syndrome", characterized by a severe and fatal uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response triggered by the activation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) with development of endothelitis and generalized thrombosis that can lead to organ failure and death. Risk factors include advanced age and comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Virus entry occurs via binding the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor present in almost all tissues and organs through the Spike (S) protein. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 infection is prevented by the use of masks, social distancing, and improved hand hygiene measures. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the main biological and clinical features of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, also focusing on the principal measures taken in some Italian regions to face the emergency and on the most important treatments used to manage the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109876, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343336

ABSTRACT

The new zoonotic coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus not previously seen in humans and which appears to come from bat species. It originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread rapidly throughout the world, causing over 5,569,679 global cases and 351,866 deaths in almost every country in the world, including Europe, particularly Italy. In general, based on existing data published to date, 80.9% of patients infected with the virus develop mild infection; 13.8% severe pneumonia; 4.7% respiratory failure, septic shock or multi-organ failure; 3% of these cases are fatal. Critical patients have been shown to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and hospitalization in intensive care units. The average age of patients admitted to hospital is 57-79 years, with one third half with an underlying disease. Asymptomatic infections have also been described, but their frequency is not known. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is mainly airborne from one person to another via droplets. The data available so far seem to indicate that SARS-CoV-2 is capable of producing an excessive immune reaction in the host. The virus attacks type II pneumocytes in the lower bronchi through the binding of the Spike protein (S protein) to viral receptors, of which the angiotensin 2 conversion enzyme (ACE2) receptor is the most important. ACE2 receptor is widely expressed in numerous tissues, including the oropharynx and conjunctiva, but mostly distributed in ciliated bronchial epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes in the lower bronchi. The arrival of SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs causes severe primary interstitial viral pneumonia that can lead to the "cytokine storm syndrome", a deadly uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response triggered by the activation of interleukin 6 (IL-6), whose effect is extensive lung tissue damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), that are life-threatening for patients with COVID-19. In the absence of a therapy of proven efficacy, current management consists of off-label or compassionate use therapies based on antivirals, antiparasitic agents in both oral and parenteral formulation, anti-inflammatory drugs, oxygen therapy and heparin support and convalescent plasma. Like most respiratory viruses can function and replicate at low temperatures (i.e. 34-35 °C) and assuming viral thermolability of SARS-CoV-2, local instillation or aerosol of antiviral (i.e. remdesivir) in humid heat vaporization (40°-41 °C) in the first phase of infection (phenotype I, before admission), both in asymptomatic but nasopharyngeal swab positive patients, together with antiseptic-antiviral oral gargles and povidone-iodine eye drops for conjunctiva (0,8-5% conjunctival congestion), would attack the virus directly through the receptors to which it binds, significantly decreasing viral replication, risk of evolution to phenotypes IV and V, reducing hospitalization and therefore death.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Aerosols , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Lung/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Alanine/administration & dosage , Animals , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Theoretical , Phenotype , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(3): 254-264, 2020 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-33545

ABSTRACT

18 years ago, in 2002, the world was astonished by the appearance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), supported by a zoonotic coronavirus, called SARS-CoV, from the Guangdong Province of southern China. After about 10 years, in 2012, another similar coronavirus triggered the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Both caused severe pneumonia killing 774 and 858 people with 8700 cases of confirmed infection for the former, and 2494 for the latter, causing significant economic losses. 8 years later, despite the MERS outbreak remaining in certain parts of the world, at the end of 2019, a new zoonotic coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and responsible of coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), arose from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It spread rapidly and to date has killed 3,242 persons with more than 81,000 cases of infection in China and causing over 126,000 global cases and 5,414 deaths in 166 other countries around the world, especially Italy. SARS-CoV-2 would seem to have come from a bat, but the intermediate reservoir continues to be unknown. Nonetheless, as for SARS-CoV and MERS CoV, the Spillover effect linked to animal-human promiscuity, human activities including deforestation, illegal bush-trafficking and bushmeat, cannot be excluded. Recently, however, evidence of inter-human only transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been accumulated and thus, the outbreak seems to be spreading by human-to-human transmission throughout a large part of the world. Herein we will provide with an update on the main features of COVID-19 and suggest possible solutions how to halt the expansion of this novel pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiological Monitoring , Global Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Zoonoses , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Camelus , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera , Civil Defense , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Human Activities , Italy , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Vaccines , Zoonoses/epidemiology
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