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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059383, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, involving several pathophysiological processes. In patients with severe COVID-19 without macrovascular thrombosis, escalating into high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) or therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) could be beneficial in limiting the extension of microvascular thrombosis and forestalling the evolution of lung and multiorgan microcirculatory dysfunction. In the absence of data from randomised trials, clinical practice varies widely. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a French multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial to compare the efficacy and safety of three anticoagulation strategies in patients with COVID-19. Patients with oxygen-treated COVID-19 showing no pulmonary artery thrombosis on computed tomography with pulmonary angiogram will be randomised to receive either low-dose PA, HD-PA or TA for 14 days. Patients attaining the extremes of weight and those with severe renal failure will not be included. We will recruit 353 patients. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1:1 basis, and stratified by centre, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, D-dimer levels and body mass index. The primary endpoint is a hierarchical criterion at day 28 including all-cause mortality, followed by the time to clinical improvement defined as the time from randomisation to an improvement of at least two points on the ordinal clinical scale. Secondary outcomes include thrombotic and major bleeding events at day 28, individual components of the primary endpoint, number of oxygen-free, ventilator-free and vasopressor-free days at day 28, D-dimer and sepsis-induced coagulopathy score at day 7, intensive care unit and hospital stay at day 28 and day 90, and all-cause death and quality of life at day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by an ethical committee (Ethics Committee, Ile de France VII, Paris, France; reference 2020-A03531-38). Patients will be included after obtaining their signed informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04808882.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Microcirculation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 177, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at higher risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). No study has evaluated the relationship between VAP and mortality in this population, or compared this relationship between SARS-CoV-2 patients and other populations. The main objective of our study was to determine the relationship between VAP and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. METHODS: Planned ancillary analysis of a multicenter retrospective European cohort. VAP was diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. Univariable and multivariable marginal Cox's regression models, with cause-specific hazard for duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, were used to compare outcomes between study groups. Extubation, and ICU discharge alive were considered as events of interest, and mortality as competing event. FINDINGS: Of 1576 included patients, 568 were SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 482 influenza pneumonia, and 526 no evidence of viral infection at ICU admission. VAP was associated with significantly higher risk for 28-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted HR 1.70 (95% CI 1.16-2.47), p = 0.006), and influenza groups (1.75 (1.03-3.02), p = 0.045), but not in the no viral infection group (1.07 (0.64-1.78), p = 0.79). VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the SARS-CoV-2 group, but not in the influenza or no viral infection groups. VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of ICU stay in the 3 study groups. No significant difference was found in heterogeneity of outcomes related to VAP between the 3 groups, suggesting that the impact of VAP on mortality was not different between study groups. INTERPRETATION: VAP was associated with significantly increased 28-day mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 patients. However, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, did not significantly modify the relationship between VAP and 28-day mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Aged , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies
6.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0482, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301385

ABSTRACT

The pulmonary vascular endothelialitis together with the high rate of distal pulmonary embolism or thrombosis extensively reported in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients may impair antibiotic diffusion in the lung parenchyma of coronavirus disease 2019 patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia leading to insufficient antibiotic concentration, thus promoting lung abscess formation. We report that 17 of 119 coronavirus disease 2019 patients (14%) with ventilator-associated pneumonia developed a lung abscess. Proportion of patients receiving corticosteroids did not differ between patients with and without lung abscess. Most of lung abscess were polymicrobial. Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were the leading causative bacteria. Most of lung abscesses involved the right lower lobe. Three patients had concomitant pulmonary embolism or thrombosis in the territory of lung abscess. Lung abscess was retrospectively visible on chest radiograph in 29% of the patients. As the occurrence of lung abscess impacts the duration of antibiotics therapy, chest CT scan should be easily performed in case of treatment failure of ventilator-associated pneumonia despite adequate antimicrobial therapy.

11.
Radiology ; 298(2): E70-E80, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977565

ABSTRACT

Background The association of pulmonary embolism (PE) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, and the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE is unknown. Purpose To conduct meta-analysis of the study-level incidence of PE and DVT and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE from multicenter individual patient data. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search identified studies evaluating the incidence of PE or DVT in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, to June 15, 2020. These outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model and were further evaluated using metaregression analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE was estimated on the basis of individual patient data using the summary receiver operating characteristic curve. Results Twenty-seven studies with 3342 patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. The pooled incidence rates of PE and DVT were 16.5% (95% CI: 11.6, 22.9; I2 = 0.93) and 14.8% (95% CI: 8.5, 24.5; I2 = 0.94), respectively. PE was more frequently found in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (24.7% [95% CI: 18.6, 32.1] vs 10.5% [95% CI: 5.1, 20.2] in those not admitted to the ICU) and in studies with universal screening using CT pulmonary angiography. DVT was present in 42.4% of patients with PE. D-dimer tests had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.737 for PE, and D-dimer levels of 500 and 1000 µg/L showed high sensitivity (96% and 91%, respectively) but low specificity (10% and 24%, respectively). Conclusion Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurred in 16.5% and 14.8% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respectively, and more than half of patients with PE lacked DVT. The cutoffs of D-dimer levels used to exclude PE in preexisting guidelines seem applicable to patients with COVID-19. © RSNA, 2020 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Woodard in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/blood , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/blood
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 119, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of bacterial and viral co-infections among patients admitted to the ICU for acute respiratory failure related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are lacking. We aimed to assess the rate of bacterial and viral co-infections, as well as to report the most common micro-organisms involved in patients admitted to the ICU for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this monocenter retrospective study, we reviewed all the respiratory microbiological investigations performed within the first 48 h of ICU admission of COVID-19 patients (RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2) admitted for acute respiratory failure. RESULTS: From March 13th to April 16th 2020, a total of 92 adult patients (median age: 61 years, 1st-3rd quartiles [55-70]; males: n = 73/92, 79%; baseline SOFA: 4 [3-7] and SAPS II: 31 [21-40]; invasive mechanical ventilation: n = 83/92, 90%; ICU mortality: n = 45/92, 49%) were admitted to our 40-bed ICU for acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Among them, 26 (28%) were considered as co-infected with a pathogenic bacterium at ICU admission with no co-infection related to atypical bacteria or viruses. The distribution of the 32 bacteria isolated from culture and/or respiratory PCRs was as follows: methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (n = 10/32, 31%), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 7/32, 22%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 6/32, 19%), Enterobacteriaceae (n = 5/32, 16%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 2/32, 6%), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 1/32, 3%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 1/32, 3%). Among the 24 pathogenic bacteria isolated from culture, 2 (8%) and 5 (21%) were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporin and to amoxicillin-clavulanate combination, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a 28% rate of bacterial co-infection at ICU admission of patients with severe SARSCoV-2 pneumonia, mostly related to Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacteriaceae. In French patients with confirmed severe SARSCoV-2 pneumonia requiring ICU admission, our results encourage the systematic administration of an empiric antibiotic monotherapy with a 3rd generation cephalosporin, with a prompt de-escalation as soon as possible. Further larger studies are needed to assess the real prevalence and the predictors of co-infection together with its prognostic impact on critically ill patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238413, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732993

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and endotheliopathy reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) combined with strict and prolonged immobilization inherent to deep sedation and administration of neuromuscular blockers for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) may expose critically ill COVID-19 patients to an increased risk of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to assess the rate and to describe the clinical features and the outcomes of ARDS COVID-19 patients diagnosed with PE during ICU stay. From March 13th to April 24th 2020, a total of 92 patients (median age: 61 years, 1st-3rd quartiles [55-70]; males: n = 73/92, 79%; baseline SOFA: 4 [3-7] and SAPS II: 31 [21-40]; invasive mechanical ventilation: n = 83/92, 90%; ICU mortality: n = 45/92, 49%) were admitted to our 41-bed COVID-19 ICU for ARDS due to COVID-19. Among them, 26 patients (n = 26/92, 28%) underwent a Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography which revealed PE in 16 (n = 16/26, 62%) of them, accounting for 17% (n = 16/92) of the whole cohort. PE was bilateral in 3 (19%) patients and unilateral in 13 (81%) patients. The most proximal thrombus was localized in main (n = 4, 25%), lobar (n = 2, 12%) or segmental (n = 10, 63%) pulmonary artery. Most of the thrombi (n = 13/16, 81%) were located in a parenchymatous condensation. Only three of the 16 patients (19%) had lower limb venous thrombosis on Doppler ultrasound. Three patients were treated with alteplase and anticoagulation (n = 3/16, 19%) while the 13 others (n = 13/16, 81%) were treated with anticoagulation alone. ICU mortality was higher in patients with PE compared to that of patients without PE (n = 11/16, 69% vs. n = 2/10, 20%; p = 0.04). The low rate of lower limb venous thrombosis together with the high rate of distal pulmonary thrombus argue for a local immuno-thrombotic process associated with the classic embolic process. Further larger studies are needed to assess the real prevalence and the risk factors of pulmonary embolism/thrombosis together with its prognostic impact on critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , France , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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