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Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A: Statistics in Society ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161758
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 45(6): 587-596, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804539


INTRODUCTION: At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government implemented its first national lockdown between March and May 2020 in order to limit the dissemination of the virus. This historic measure affected patients' daily lives and transportation, resulting in changes in the delivery of medical care, particularly emergency care. This study aimed to assess the impact of this restriction policy on the number and severity of ophthalmic emergencies seen in an ophthalmology emergency department. METHODS: This retrospective study conducted at the regional university Hospital of Tours included all patients presenting to the ophthalmology emergency department over four periods: lockdown (03/16/2020 to 05/10/2020), post-lockdown (05/11/2020 to 06/12/2020) and the two corresponding periods in 2019. The following data were recorded: sex, age, time of visit, reason for visit, diagnosis, severity of emergency graded on the BaSe SCOrE, time from first symptoms until visit, existence of a work-related injury, and referral source (ophthalmologist or other). RESULTS: A total of 1186 and 1905 patients were respectively included during the 2020 lockdown period and the corresponding period in 2019. The study populations for the 2019 and 2020 post-lockdown periods consisted of 1242 and 1086 patients respectively. During the lockdown, the number of consultations decreased significantly (-37.7%), affecting mild and severe emergencies similarly. During the post-lockdown period, the number of emergencies gradually increased but did not reach the level of the corresponding period in 2019 (-12.6%). CONCLUSION: The first French lockdown resulted in a significant decrease in ophthalmic emergency visits, similar for all levels of severity. All age groups were impacted similarly, without the expected exaggerated decrease for patients over 50 years of age, who are considered to be at greater risk for developing a severe form of COVID-19. The post-lockdown period showed a gradual increase in ophthalmic emergency visits, although these remained fewer than the previous year.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, University , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; 50(8):619-628, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391356


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world for more than a year, with multiple waves of infections resulting in morbidity, mortality and disruption to the economy and society. Response measures employed to control it have generally been effective but are unlikely to be sustainable over the long term. METHODS: We examined the evidence for a vaccine-driven COVID-19 exit strategy including academic papers, governmental reports and epidemiological data, and discuss the shift from the current pandemic footing to an endemic approach similar to influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases. RESULTS: A desired endemic state is characterised by a baseline prevalence of infections with a generally mild disease profile that can be sustainably managed by the healthcare system, together with the resumption of near normalcy in human activities. Such an endemic state is attainable for COVID-19 given the promising data around vaccine efficacy, although uncertainty remains around vaccine immunity escape in emergent variants of concern. Maintenance of non-pharmaceutical interventions remains crucial until high vaccination coverage is attained to avoid runaway outbreaks. It may also be worthwhile to de-escalate measures in phases, before standing down most measures for an endemic state. If a variant that substantially evades immunity emerges, it will need to be managed akin to a new disease threat, with pandemic preparedness and response plans. CONCLUSION: An endemic state for COVID-19, characterised by sustainable disease control measures, is likely attainable through vaccination.

Mater Today Adv ; 11: 100148, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284399


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had caused a severe depletion of the worldwide supply of N95 respirators. The development of methods to effectively decontaminate N95 respirators while maintaining their integrity is crucial for respirator regeneration and reuse. In this study, we systematically evaluated five respirator decontamination methods using vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) or ultraviolet (254 nm wavelength, UVC) radiation. Through testing the bioburden, filtration, fluid resistance, and fit (shape) of the decontaminated respirators, we found that the decontamination methods using BioQuell VHP, custom VHP container, Steris VHP, and Sterrad VHP effectively inactivated Cardiovirus (3-log10 reduction) and bacteria (6-log10 reduction) without compromising the respirator integrity after 2-15 cycles. Hope UVC system was capable of inactivating Cardiovirus (3-log10 reduction) but exhibited relatively poorer bactericidal activity. These methods are capable of decontaminating 10-1000 respirators per batch with varied decontamination times (10-200 min). Our findings show that N95 respirators treated by the previously mentioned decontamination methods are safe and effective for reuse by industry, laboratories, and hospitals.