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1.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 70(3): 103344, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most approved vaccines utilise a two-dose strategy. To enable larger groups of patients to receive the first dose, the UK government increased the gap between the two doses from three to twelve weeks. Here we report on the immunogenicity of the first dose, including effect of age and vitamin D status on these levels over an 8 week-period. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthcare workers (HCW) receiving their first BNT162b2 vaccine dose between January and February 2021. Antibody (Ab) production was measured, prior to and weekly for 4 weeks post immunization, and a final measurement was performed at 8 weeks. Serum vitamin D concentrations were also measured at baseline. FINDINGS: Immunization of 97 HCW induced an Ab response that peaked 3•2 weeks post immunization to decrease thereafter. Ab levels remained positive at 8 weeks. IgG peak concentration was negatively associated with age (ß=-0•440, p<0.001). Response to immunization was also significantly affected by vitamin D status (p=0•022), on average 29•3% greater peak value in individuals with 25(OH)D>50nmol/L. No other variable showed significant effect. INTERPRETATION: The first dose of BNT162b2 produced Ab levels that remained positive after 8 weeks. Peak was greater in younger subjects and 25(OH)D>50nmol/L was beneficial. Booster campaigns should take into consideration vitamin D status which is at its highest following a period of sunshine exposure or following oral supplementation (400-1000IU daily). FUNDING: Abbott Diagnostics Ltd supplied the kits used to quantify the anti-SARS -CoV-2 Spike IgG and technical support as well as provided financial support for sample collections.

2.
Developmental Child Welfare ; : 25161032221079325, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1714636

ABSTRACT

Vital services provided by social workers to children in care or on the edge of care were largely delivered ?online? during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper explores the potential impact of these changes on vulnerable children and their families. Relationship-based practice is integral to social work and the shift to digital communication during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to accelerated practice changes and implications for relationship building both with and between service users. Going forward, social workers and other professionals are likely to move to an increasingly hybrid model of communication, combining both digital and face-to-face methods. This article identifies the impact of digital communication on relationships in professional practice, drawing on three studies of digital communication in the UK carried out at the University of East Anglia. The first considered how child protection social workers responded to the challenges of COVID-19, the second looked at how children in care were keeping in touch with their birth families and the third focused on the approaches being taken to moving children from foster care to adoptive families. Five themes related to relationships were identified across all three studies: the significance of the age and developmental stage of the child;the frequency of contact and communication;digital literacy/exclusion;the impact of the lack of sensory experience;and the importance of the relationship history. The article concludes with implications for utilising digital methods in building and maintaining relationships in practice and highlights the need to consider both the inner and outer worlds of those involved.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319093

ABSTRACT

Background: Controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic relies heavily on worldwide immunization programs. Most of the current approved vaccines utilise a two-dose strategy to prime-boost the immune system. To enable larger groups of patients to receive the first dose, the UK government increased the gap between the two doses from three to 12 weeks. Here we report on the immunogenicity of the first dose.Methods: Anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG production (quantitative Abbott immunoassays) and vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D;LCMS) and 1-α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D, LCMS)) were measured in a group of 105 HCW, post immunization with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.Findings: The anti-Spike IgG Ab response showed minimal change within the first week, rapidly peaked 3·2 weeks post immunization, subsequently decreasing to the nadir at 8 weeks prior to the scheduled second dose being administered. All subjects who responded with positive anti-Spike IgG Abs, retained significant levels at 8 weeks. Response to immunization was significantly modified by age and replete vitamin D status (25(OH)D>50 nmol/L).Interpretation: The results indicate that in this cohort 1) Ab levels are greatest 3-4 weeks post the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine 2) Abs are still circulating eight weeks post first dose 3) age significantly modifies the initial Ab response, the youngest decile having a greater peak and faster decline, resulting in 4) no significant difference in Ab concentration with age at W8 and 5) baseline vitamin D affected the peak of response, with vitamin D replete individuals showing the strongest Ab response.Funding Information: Abbott Diagnostics Ltd supplied the kits used to quantify the anti-SARS -CoV-2 Spike IgG and technical support as well as provided financial support for sample collections.Declaration of Interests: Abbott Diagnostics Ltd provided the necessary immunoassay for analysis of the samples for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and financial support for collection of samples. SR and MB work at Abbott Diagnostics Ltd. All other authors have no conflict of interest. Ethics Approval Statement: All participants provided written informed consent. The study was approved by the Health Research Authority Health and Care Research Wales ethical committee (IRAS#292799).

4.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(12): 2708-3145, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568038

ABSTRACT

The third edition of Flow Cytometry Guidelines provides the key aspects to consider when performing flow cytometry experiments and includes comprehensive sections describing phenotypes and functional assays of all major human and murine immune cell subsets. Notably, the Guidelines contain helpful tables highlighting phenotypes and key differences between human and murine cells. Another useful feature of this edition is the flow cytometry analysis of clinical samples with examples of flow cytometry applications in the context of autoimmune diseases, cancers as well as acute and chronic infectious diseases. Furthermore, there are sections detailing tips, tricks and pitfalls to avoid. All sections are written and peer-reviewed by leading flow cytometry experts and immunologists, making this edition an essential and state-of-the-art handbook for basic and clinical researchers.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Infections/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Mice , Practice Guidelines as Topic
5.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512696

ABSTRACT

Survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections frequently suffer from a range of post-infection sequelae. Whether survivors of mild or asymptomatic infections can expect any long-term health consequences is not yet known. Herein we investigated lasting changes to soluble inflammatory factors and cellular immune phenotype and function in individuals who had recovered from mild SARS-CoV-2 infections (n = 22), compared to those that had recovered from other mild respiratory infections (n = 11). Individuals who had experienced mild SARS-CoV-2 infections had elevated levels of C-reactive protein 1-3 months after symptom onset, and changes in phenotype and function of circulating T-cells that were not apparent in individuals 6-9 months post-symptom onset. Markers of monocyte activation, and expression of adherence and chemokine receptors indicative of altered migratory capacity, were also higher at 1-3 months post-infection in individuals who had mild SARS-CoV-2, but these were no longer elevated by 6-9 months post-infection. Perhaps most surprisingly, significantly more T-cells could be activated by polyclonal stimulation in individuals who had recently experienced a mild SARS-CoV-2, infection compared to individuals with other recent respiratory infections. These data are indicative of prolonged immune activation and systemic inflammation that persists for at least three months after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping/methods , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0028821, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365123

ABSTRACT

In the initial stages of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19 pandemic, a plethora of new serology tests were developed and introduced to the global market. Many were not evaluated rigorously, and there is a significant lack of concordance in results across methods. To enable meaningful clinical decisions to be made, robustly evaluated, quantitative serology methods are needed. These should be harmonized to a primary reference material, allowing for the comparison of trial data and improved clinical decision making. A comprehensive evaluation of the new Abbott IgG II anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG method was undertaken using CLSI-based protocols. Two different candidate primary reference materials and verification panels were assessed with a goal to move toward harmonization. The Abbott IgG II method performed well across a wide range of parameters with excellent imprecision (<3.5%) and was linear throughout the positive range (tested to 38,365 AU/ml). The sensitivity (based on ≥14-day post-positive reverse transcription-PCR [RT-PCR] samples) and specificity were 98.3% (90.6% to 100.0%) and 99.5% (97.1% to 100%), respectively. The candidate reference materials showed poor correlation across methods, with mixed responses noted in methods that use the spike protein versus the nucleocapsid proteins as their binding antigen. The Abbott IgG II anti-SARS-CoV-2 measurement appears to be the first linear method potentially capable of monitoring the immune response to natural infection, including from new emerging variants. The candidate reference materials assessed did not generate uniform results across several methods, and further steps are needed to enable the harmonization process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , South Africa
7.
Br Dent J ; 229(9): 597, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241895

Subject(s)
Dentistry , Pandemics , Aerosols
8.
Age Ageing ; 49(5): 696-700, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087659

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the response to the pandemic are combining to produce a tidal wave of need for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation will be needed for survivors of COVID-19, many of whom are older, with underlying health problems. In addition, rehabilitation will be needed for those who have become deconditioned as a result of movement restrictions, social isolation, and inability to access healthcare for pre-existing or new non-COVID-19 illnesses. Delivering rehabilitation in the same way as before the pandemic will not be practical, nor will this approach meet the likely scale of need for rehabilitation. This commentary reviews the likely rehabilitation needs of older people both with and without COVID-19 and discusses how strategies to deliver effective rehabilitation at scale can be designed and implemented in a world living with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Rehabilitation , Aged , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Forecasting , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Organizational Innovation , Physical Functional Performance , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Recovery of Function , Rehabilitation/methods , Rehabilitation/organization & administration , Rehabilitation/trends , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Practice ; : 1-8, 2020.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-900191
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