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1.
J Neurol ; 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of the safety and the humoral response to a third booster dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is relevant in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) treated with Ocrelizumab (OCR) or Fingolimod (FNG). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from Healthy controls (HCs) and pwMS treated with OCR or FNG at the following time-points: before the first of two vaccine doses (T0); 8 (T1), 16 (T2), 24 (T3) weeks after the first dose; within 8 weeks before (T0b) and after (T1b) the booster dose. IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein (Anti-TSP IgG) were quantified and expressed as binding antibody units (BAU)/mL. RESULTS: 40 HCs, 28 pwMS on OCR and 19 on FNG were included. At T0b 12 (42.9%) pwMS on OCR and 6 (31.6%) on FNG were still positive while, at T1b 16 (57.14%) pwMS on OCR and 16 (84.2%) on FNG, passed the threshold of positivity. The increase of Anti-TSP IgG levels at T1b was higher for: (i) HCs with respect to OCR (p < 0.001) and FNG (p = 0.032) groups; (ii) pwMS on FNG compared with pwMS on OCR (p < 0.001). No socio-demographic, clinical or laboratory variables were able to predict the anti-TSP IgG increase between T0b and T1b. Neither clinical relapses nor severe adverse events were reported in pwMS after each dose of vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The third booster dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to OCR- and FNG-treated pwMS revives the humoral response, independently of any clinical variable, and manifests a good safety and tolerability profile.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935702

ABSTRACT

Data regarding early predictors of clinical deterioration in patients with infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still scarce. The aim of the study is to identify early symptoms or signs that may be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study on a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in home isolation from March 2020 to April 2021. We assessed longitudinal clinical data (fever, dyspnea, need for hospitalization) through video calls at three specific time points: the beginning of symptoms or the day of the first positivity of the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2-RNA (t0 ), and 3 (t3 ) and 7 (t7 ) days after the onset of symptoms. We included 329 patients with COVID-19: 182 (55.3%) males, mean age 53.4 ± 17.4 years, median Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 1 (0-3). Of the 329 patients enrolled, 171 (51.98%) had a mild, 81 (24.6%) a moderate, and 77 (23.4%) a severe illness; 151 (45.9%) were hospitalized. Compared to patients with mild COVID-19, moderate and severe patients were older (p < 0.001) and had more comorbidities, especially hypertension (p < 0.001) and cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.01). At t3 and t7 , we found a significant higher rate of persisting fever (≥37°C) among patients with moderate (91.4% and 58.0% at t3 and t7 , respectively; p < 0.001) and severe outcome (75.3% and 63.6%, respectively; p < 0.001) compared to mild COVID-19 outcome (27.5% and 11.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Factors independently associated with a more severe outcome were persisting fever at t3 and t7 , increasing age, and CCI above 2 points. Persisting fever at t3 and t7 seems to be related to a more severe COVID-19. This data may be useful to assess hospitalization criteria and optimize the use of resources in the outpatient setting.

3.
Tomography ; 8(4): 1836-1850, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, primarily causes a respiratory tract infection that is not limited to respiratory distress syndrome, but it is also implicated in other body systems. Systemic complications were reported due to an exaggerated inflammatory response, which involves severe alveolar damage in the lungs and exacerbates the hypercoagulation that leads to venous thrombosis, ischemic attack, vascular dysfunction and infarction of visceral abdominal organs. Some complications are related to anticoagulant drugs that are administrated to stabilize hypercoagulability, but increase the risk of bleeding, hematoma and hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to report the diagnostic role of CT in the early diagnosis and management of patients with severe COVID-19 complications through the most interesting cases in our experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis of patients studied for COVID-19 in our institution and hospitals, which are part of the university training network, was performed. CASES: Pneumomediastinum, cortical kidney necrosis, splenic infarction, cerebral ischemic stroke, thrombosis of the lower limb and hematomas are the most major complications that are reviewed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the CT imaging modality with its high sensitivity and specificity remains the preferred imaging choice to diagnose early the different complications associated with COVID-19, such as thrombosis, ischemic stroke, infarction and pneumomediastinum, and their management, which significantly improved the outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Mediastinal Emphysema , Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infarction/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/complications , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/complications
4.
Pathogens ; 11(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938937

ABSTRACT

Universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination has been applied for years in most countries, but HBV infection remains an unresolved public health problem worldwide, with over one-third of the world's population infected during their lifetime and approximately 248 million hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carriers. HBV infection may reactivate with symptomatic and sometimes life-threatening clinical manifestations due to a reduction in the immune response of various origins, due to chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy, treatments increasingly practiced worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 and its COVID-19 associated disease have introduced new chances for HBV reactivation due to the use of dexamethasone and tocilizumab to counteract the cytokine storm. This could and should be prevented by accurate screening of HBV serologic markers and adequate pharmacologic prophylaxis. This article describes the case of a patient with COVID-19 who developed HBV reactivation and died of liver failure and analyzes published data on this setting to provide useful information to physicians who manage these patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911722

ABSTRACT

Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in immunocompromised patients. Vaccination may have a suboptimal efficacy in this population, in particular if patients are exposed to anti-B-cell therapy. We report the virological and clinical characteristics of a patient with follicle center lymphoma under bimonthly maintenance therapy with obinutuzumab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Despite three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, the patient was infected by the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. After an initial period of clinical and molecular remission due to early therapy with sotrovimab, the patient experienced a fatal relapse sustained by the same viral strain.

6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 562-565, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of an innovative model of HCV micro-elimination in a hospital setting in an area of high HCV prevalence. PATIENTS AND METODS: Between January and December 2019, a prospective, interventional study for a program of HCV case-finding and linkage-to-care was performed in S. Anna and S. Sebastiano hospital of Caserta, in Campania, a region in southern Italy. All adult patients who were admitted to the Caserta hospital in the study period and resulted positive for anti-HCV were included in the study. The outcomes evaluated were the number of subjects resulting HCV-RNA-positive, those linked-to-care and treated with a DAA and the subjects whose anti-HCV-status was unknown. RESULTS: In the study period, 14,396 subjects, admitted to the hospital for different reasons, were tested for anti-HCV: 529 (3.7%) subjects resulted positive for anti-HCV. Of the 529 anti-HCV-positive subjects, 10 died during hospitalization and 243 were already treated with a DAA. The remaining 276 subjects were contacted and agreed to be evaluated. Of these 276 subjects, 68 patients resulted HCV- RNA-negative and 194 HCV-RNA-positive and 180 of these were treated with a DAA according to the international guidelines. DISCUSSION: A simple, rapid, inexpensive model of HCV micro-elimination in the hospital setting allowed us to find anti-HCV-positive subjects with unknown anti-HCV status or not linked to a clinical center.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA/therapeutic use
8.
Pathogens ; 11(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given the impact of COVID-19 on the world healthcare system, and the efforts of the healthcare community to find prognostic factors for hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic impact of transaminases and bilirubin levels at admission to hospital on disease progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using the CoviCamp database, we performed a multicenter, observational, retrospective study involving 17 COVID-19 Units in southern Italy. We included all adult patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection with at least one determination at hospital admission of aminotransaminases and/or total bilirubin. RESULTS: Of the 2054 patients included in the CoviCamp database, 1641 were included in our study; 789 patients (48%) were considered to have mild COVID-19, 347 (21%) moderate COVID-19, 354 (22%) severe COVID-19, and 151 patients (9%) died during hospitalization. Older age (odds ratio (OR): 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.03), higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.088; 95%CI 1.005-1.18), presence of dementia (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.30-3.73), higher serum AST (OR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.0001-1.004), and total bilirubin (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.002-1.19) values were associated with a more severe clinical outcome. Instead, the 151 patients who died during hospitalization showed a higher serum bilirubin value at admission (OR 1.1165; 95% CI: 1.017-1.335); the same did not apply for AST. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 with higher levels of AST and bilirubin had an increased risk of disease progression.

9.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are the largest class of bioactive compounds in plants, which are synthesized as secondary metabolites. In the last few years, interesting studies have demonstrated the efficacy of polyphenols against coronavirus infections. METHODS: we conducted a phase II multicentric clinical trial (TAEROVID-19) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to assess the safety and feasibility of Taurisolo® aerosol formulation in hospitalized patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. RESULTS: we observed a rapid decline of symptoms and a low rate of intensive care in patients treated with Taurisolo®, with a faster decline of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first trial assessing the safety and feasibility of Taurisolo® aerosol formulation. We could argue that this treatment could act as an add-on therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, owing to both its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Further controlled trials are needed, which may be of interest to evaluate the compound's efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 868286, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809603

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses have neuroinvasive and neurotropic abilities that might explain psychiatric outcomes in affected patients. We hypothesized that delirium might be the sole clinical manifestation or even the prodrome of a psychiatric episode consistent with the mental history of a few infected patients with a preexisting diagnosed cognitive impairment. We examined three patients with preexisting mild cognitive impairment and delirium at admission for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. We diagnosed delirium using DSM-5 and Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and measured consciousness level by the Glasgow Coma Scale. All the patients had no history of fever, respiratory complications, anosmia or ageusia, meningitis, and negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis for SARS-CoV-2. Our first patient had no psychiatric history, the second reported only a depressive episode, and the third had a history of bipolar disorder dated back to 40 years before. In the first patient, delirium resolved 2 days following the admission. The other two patients recovered in 4 and 14 days, and delirium appeared as the prodrome of a new psychiatric episode resembling past events. Clinicians should monitor the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 presence in the brain might clinically manifest in the form of delirium and acute psychiatric sequelae, even without other systemic symptoms. Psychiatric history and preexisting mild cognitive impairment are to be considered as predisposing factors for COVID-19 sequelae in delirium patients.

11.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792833

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to the hospitalization of an unselected population with the possibility to evaluate the epidemiology of viral hepatitis. Thus, a retrospective multicenter study was conducted in an area of Southern Italy with the aim of assessing the prevalence of HCV and HBV markers and the ability of current screening program to capture cases. We evaluated 2126 hospitalized patients in seven COVID Centers of Naples and Caserta area in which 70% of the Campania population lives. HBsAg and HCV-Ab prevalence was 1.6% and 5.1%, respectively, with no differences between gender. Decade distribution for birth year shows a bimodal trend of HCV prevalence, with a peak (11.6%) in the decade 1930-1939 and a second peak (5.6%) for those born in 1960-1969. An analysis of the screening period imposed by the Italian government for those born between 1969 and 1989 shows that only 17% of cases of HCV infection could be captured. A small alignment of the screening period, i.e., those born from 1960 to 1984, would capture 40% of cases. The data confirm the high endemicity of our geographical area for hepatitis virus infections and underline the need for a tailored screening program according to the regional epidemiology.

12.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Real-world clinical data suggest an attenuated short-term humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) receiving high efficacy (HE) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) such as Ocrelizumab (OCR) and Fingolimod (FNG). Long-term humoral response in pwMS treated with these HE-DMTs has been poorly investigated. The aim of our study was to explore: i) the humoral response up to six months after a full cycle of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG and to compare it to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs); ii) the relationship between humoral response and clinical and immunological characteristics of the studied population. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from HCs and pwMS treated with OCR or FNG at the following time points: before BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine (T0), and 4 (T1), 8 (T2), 16 (T3) and 24 (T4) weeks after the first dose. Sera were stored at -20 °C and tested for the quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein (Anti-TSP IgG) expressed in binding antibody units (BAU). At T1 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titres were assessed. The relationship between Anti-TSP IgG at each time-point and clinical and laboratoristic analyses were analysed by the Spearman correlation coefficient. RESULTS: 47 HCs and 50 pwMS (28 on OCR and 22 on FNG) were included in the study. All HCs mounted a positive humoral response at T1 and preserved it up to six months. At T1 only 57.1% pwMS on OCR (p < 0.001 compared with HCs) and 40.9% on FNG (p < 0.001) had a positive humoral response at T1, with only 39.3% and 27.3% maintaining a positive response at sixth months (T4), respectively. A strong positive correlation was observed between Nabs titres and Anti-TSP IgG at T1 (rho 0.87, p < 0.0001) with NAbs titres significantly higher in HCs compared with pwMS on OCR and FNG (p<0.0001). We also found a strong positive correlation between time-window since last OCR infusion and anti-TSP IgG titres at all time-points (T1 rho=0.58, p = 0.001; T2 rho=0.59, p = 0.001; T3 rho=0.53, p = 0.004; T4 rho=0.47, p = 0.01). In the FNG group we observed a significant correlation between the humoral response measured from T1 to T4 and: i) treatment duration (T1: rho -0.65, p = 0.001; T2: rho -0.8 p< 0.001; T3: rho -0.72, p=<0.001; T4: rho -0.67, p<0.001), ii) disease duration (T1: rho -0.5, p = 0.017; T2: rho -0.6, p = 0.003; T3: rho -0.58, p = 0.005; T4: rho -0.57, p = 0.006), and iii) baseline total lymphocyte count (T1: rho 0.37, p = 0.08; T2: rho 0.45, p = 0.03; T3: rho 0.43, p = 0.04; T4: rho 0.45, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term data show a weakened and short-lasting humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG when compared with HCs. MS neurologists should take into account the time elapsed since the last infusion for pwMS on OCR, and the lymphocyte count as well as the disease and treatment duration for those on FNG when called to counsel such pwMS regarding the vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5736, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778634

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including < 80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 (20B) most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 (20D) developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, within the limitations of phylogeographical reconstruction, the estimated ancestral scenario suggests an important role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Infection ; 50(4): 849-858, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly compromised screening, laboratory controls, clinical surveillance and treatment of chronic hepatitis patients and worsened their outcome, as evidenced by its significant correlation with advanced cirrhosis, liver decompensation and mortality. RESULTS: This pandemic significantly impaired also the sector of liver transplantation, whose wards, operating rooms, outpatients' facilities, and healthcare personnel have been dedicated to patients with COVID-19. In addition, screening and treatment for HBV infection have been delayed or suspended in in most countries, with an increased risk of viral reactivation. Similar delay or suspension have also occurred for universal hepatitis B vaccination programs in many countries. Likewise, COVID-19 pandemic has made unreachable the goal of elimination of HCV infection as a worldwide public-health issue predicted for 2030 by the WHO. CONCLUSION: This review article demonstrates how COVID-19 pandemic is causing serious damage to the sector of liver disease, which has quickly lost the beneficial effects of years of study, research, and clinical and technological application, as well as considerable financial investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclonic Storms , Hepatitis B, Chronic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Neurol Sci ; 43(5): 2947-2949, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with natalizumab (NTZ) and found a short-term efficient humoral response; however, there are no studies assessing the levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in pwMS treated with NTZ over time. METHODS: Humoral immune response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was assessed in a group of 26 pwMS on NTZ up to 6 months after a full COVID-19 vaccination cycle and compared it with 43 age- and sex-matched group of HC. Serum samples were collected before the first dose (T0), and 4 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the first dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS-IgG assay (DiaSorin-S.p.A.) was employed for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (cutoff for positive IgG antibodies: 33.8 BAU/mL). RESULTS: At T1 and T2, both groups showed an efficient humoral response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. A significant reduction of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was detected at T2 both in pwMS and in HC, but SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were still above the cutoff limit in all participants. CONCLUSIONS: pwMS on NTZ develop and maintain a long-term humoral response after a full COVID-19 vaccination cycle comparable to their healthy peers, and these findings are relevant for clinicians called to counsel about COVID-19 mRNA vaccine timing and booster doses in pwMS treated with NTZ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314810

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was the reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary dynamics in time and space in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed that pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 entered Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314809

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including <80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687077

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines are available to face the global threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we report on the clinical cases of two healthcare workers vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine who were infected by the same viral clade but had different clinical outcomes.

19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(5): 1548-1560, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653231

ABSTRACT

To address the impact of COVID-19 olfactory loss on the brain, we analyzed the neural connectivity of the central olfactory system in recently SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects with persisting olfactory impairment (hyposmia). Twenty-seven previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects (10 males, mean age ± SD 40.0 ± 7.6 years) with clinically confirmed COVID-19 related hyposmia, and eighteen healthy, never SARS-CoV-2 infected, normosmic subjects (6 males, mean age ± SD 36.0 ± 7.1 years), were recruited in a 3 Tesla MRI study including high angular resolution diffusion and resting-state functional MRI acquisitions. Specialized metrics of structural and functional connectivity were derived from a standard parcellation of olfactory brain areas and a previously validated graph-theoretic model of the human olfactory functional network. These metrics were compared between groups and correlated to a clinical index of olfactory impairment. On the scanning day, all subjects were virus-free and cognitively unimpaired. Compared to control, both structural and functional connectivity metrics were found significantly increased in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects. Greater residual olfactory impairment was associated with more segregated processing within regions more functionally connected to the anterior piriform cortex. An increased neural connectivity within the olfactory cortex was associated with a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection when the olfactory loss was a residual COVID-19 symptom. The functional connectivity of the anterior piriform cortex, the largest cortical recipient of afferent fibers from the olfactory bulb, accounted for the inter-individual variability in the sensory impairment. Albeit preliminary, these findings could feature a characteristic brain connectivity response in the presence of COVID-19 related residual hyposmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Net/diagnostic imaging , Smell/physiology , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
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