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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308974

ABSTRACT

Aim: . To investigate the prevalence and prognostic impact of right heart failure and right ventricular-arterial uncoupling in Corona Virus Infectious Disease 2019 ( COVID-19) complicated by an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: . Ninety-four consecutive patients (mean age 64 yrs) admitted for acute respiratory failure on COVID-19 were enrolled. Coupling of right ventricular function to the pulmonary circulation was evaluated by a comprehensive trans-thoracic echocardiography with focus on the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio Results: . The majority of patients needed ventilatory support, which was non-invasive in 22 and invasive in 37. There were 25 deaths, all in the invasively ventilated patients. Survivors were younger (62±13 vs 68±12 years, p =0.033), less often overweight or usual smokers, had lower NT-proBNP and interleukin-6, and higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 )/fraction of inspired O 2 (FIO 2 ) ratio (270±104 vs 117±57 mmHg, p <0.001). In the non-survivors, PASP was increased (42±12 vs 30±7 mmHg, p <0.001), while TAPSE was decreased (19±4 vs 25±4 mm, p<0.001). Accordingly the TAPSE/PASP ratio was lower than in the survivors (0.51±0.22 vs 0.89±0.29 mm/mmHg, p <0.001). At univariate/multivariable analysis, the TAPSE/PASP (HR:0.026;95%CI:0.01-0.579;p:0.019) and PaO 2 /FIO 2 (HR:0.988;95%CI:0.988-0.998;p:0.018) ratios were the only independent predictors of mortality, with ROC-determined cut-off values of 159 mmHg and 0.635 mm/mmHg respectively. Conclusions: . COVID-19 ARDS is associated with clinically relevant uncoupling of right ventricular function from the pulmonary circulation;bedside echocardiography of TAPSE/PASP adds to the prognostic relevance of PaO 2 /FIO 2 in ARDS on COVID-19.

3.
Ultraschall Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500782

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this survey was to describe the use and diffusion of lung ultrasound (LUS), the level of training received before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clinical impact LUS has had on COVID-19 cases in intensive care units (ICU) from February 2020 to May 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Italian Lung Ultrasound Survey (ITALUS) was a nationwide online survey proposed to Italian anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians carried out after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It consisted of 27 questions, both quantitative and qualitative. RESULTS: 807 responded to the survey. The median previous LUS experience was 3 years (IQR 1.0-6.0). 473 (60.9 %) reported having attended at least one training course on LUS before the COVID-19 pandemic. 519 (73.9 %) reported knowing how to use the LUS score. 404 (52 %) reported being able to use LUS without any supervision. 479 (68.2 %) said that LUS influenced their clinical decision-making, mostly with respect to patient monitoring. During the pandemic, the median of patients daily evaluated with LUS increased 3-fold (p < 0.001), daily use of general LUS increased from 10.4 % to 28.9 % (p < 0.001), and the daily use of LUS score in particular increased from 1.6 % to 9.0 % (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This survey showed that LUS was already extensively used during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic by anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians in Italy, and then its adoption increased further. Residency programs are already progressively implementing LUS teaching. However, 76.7 % of the sample did not undertake any LUS certification.

4.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 670, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949110

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and prognostic impact of right heart failure and right ventricular-arterial uncoupling in Corona Virus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) complicated by an Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients (mean age 64 years) admitted for acute respiratory failure on COVID-19 were enrolled. Coupling of right ventricular function to the pulmonary circulation was evaluated by a comprehensive trans-thoracic echocardiography with focus on the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio RESULTS: The majority of patients needed ventilatory support, which was noninvasive in 22 and invasive in 37. There were 25 deaths, all in the invasively ventilated patients. Survivors were younger (62 ± 13 vs. 68 ± 12 years, p = 0.033), less often overweight or usual smokers, had lower NT-proBNP and interleukin-6, and higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired O2 (FIO2) ratio (270 ± 104 vs. 117 ± 57 mmHg, p < 0.001). In the non-survivors, PASP was increased (42 ± 12 vs. 30 ± 7 mmHg, p < 0.001), while TAPSE was decreased (19 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 mm, p < 0.001). Accordingly, the TAPSE/PASP ratio was lower than in the survivors (0.51 ± 0.22 vs. 0.89 ± 0.29 mm/mmHg, p < 0.001). At univariate/multivariable analysis, the TAPSE/PASP (HR: 0.026; 95%CI 0.01-0.579; p: 0.019) and PaO2/FIO2 (HR: 0.988; 95%CI 0.988-0.998; p: 0.018) ratios were the only independent predictors of mortality, with ROC-determined cutoff values of 159 mmHg and 0.635 mm/mmHg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 ARDS is associated with clinically relevant uncoupling of right ventricular function from the pulmonary circulation; bedside echocardiography of TAPSE/PASP adds to the prognostic relevance of PaO2/FIO2 in ARDS on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
7.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873551

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a complete physical isolation has been worldwide introduced. The impossibility of visiting their loved ones during the hospital stay causes additional distress for families: in addition to the worries about clinical recovery, they may feel exclusion and powerlessness, anxiety, depression, mistrust in the care team and post-traumatic stress disorder. The impossibility of conducting the daily meetings with families poses a challenge for healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to delineate and share consensus statements in order to enable healthcare team to provide by telephone or video calls an optimal level of communication with patient's relatives under circumstances of complete isolation. EVIDENCE REVIEW: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness and the AHCPR Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports were explored from 1999 to 2019. Exclusion criteria were: poor or absent relevance regarding the aim of the consensus statements, studies prior to 1999, non-English language. Since the present pandemic context is completely new, unexpected and unexplored, there are not randomised controlled trials regarding clinical communication in a setting of complete isolation. Thus, a multiprofessional taskforce of physicians, nurses, psychologists and legal experts, together with some family members and former intensive care unit patients was established by four Italian national scientific societies. Using an e-Delphi methodology, general and specific questions were posed, relevant topics were argumented, until arriving to delineate position statements and practical checklist, which were set and evaluated through an evidence-based consensus procedure. FINDINGS: Ten statements and two practical checklists for phone or video calls were drafted and evaluated; they are related to who, when, why and how family members must be given clinical information under circumstances of complete isolation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The statements and the checklists offer a structured methodology in order to ensure a good-quality communication between healthcare team and family members even in isolation, confirming that time dedicated to communication has to be intended as a time of care.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 388, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-698287

ABSTRACT

Polyclonal preparation of IgM as an adjuvant therapy has been reported as a relevant immunomodulant therapy in several infectious diseases, exhibiting, in most cases, improvement of the clinical course. No drug has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy for COVID-19. Immunomodulatory treatment with hydroxychloroquine and biologics as tocilizumab, in fact, has not proven to show satisfactory results in several reports. We therefore treated a selected patient with interstitial multifocal pneumonia, positive to COVID-19, with polyclonal preparation of immunoglobulins as an adjuvant therapy, obtaining in few days clinical remission and improvements in radiological findings. Based on this case report, we suggest that clinical trials are conducted to test the efficacy and safety of polyclonal immunoglobulins for adjunctive therapy of COVID-19.

10.
Infection ; 48(5): 779-782, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276775

ABSTRACT

At present, there is no definitive antiviral treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe our early experience with remdesivir in four critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients received a 200 mg loading dose, followed by 100 mg daily intravenously for up to 10 days. All patients had been previously treated with other antivirals before remdesivir initiation. One patient experienced a torsade de pointes requiring cardiac resuscitation and one died due to multiple organ failure. Three patients showed biochemical signs of liver injury. Lymphocyte count increased in all patients soon after remdesivir initiation. Nasal swab SARS-CoV-2 RNA became negative in three of four patients after 3 days of therapy. We observed an in vivo virological effect of remdesivir in four critically ill, COVID-19 patients, coupled with a significant burden of adverse events. Although limited by the low number of subjects studied, our preliminary experience may be relevant for clinicians treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Darunavir/administration & dosage , Darunavir/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Multiple Organ Failure/chemically induced , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/diagnosis , Torsades de Pointes/physiopathology , Torsades de Pointes/virology
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