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1.
Nutrients ; 14(16):3275, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1979324

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the severity of COVID-19. The role of vitamin D in pregnant women with COVID-19 has been poorly investigated to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin D in affecting some clinical features in pregnancy between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients. Methods: Vitamin D pathway related polymorphisms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were quantified in pregnant women followed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy. Vitamin D deficiency was considered with values ≤30 ng/mL. Results: In total, 160 women were enrolled: 23 resulted positive for at least one SARS-CoV-2 related test (molecular swab or antibody tests). Vitamin D-associated polymorphisms were able to affect vitamin D levels in SARS-CoV-2 negative and positive subjects: remarkably, all the VDR TaqICC genotype patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2. In a sub-population (118 patients), vitamin D levels correlated with pregnancy-related factors, such as alpha-fetoprotein levels. Third-trimester vitamin D levels were lower in preterm births compared to full-term pregnancy: this trend was highlighted for SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating a role of vitamin D in affecting the clinical characteristics of pregnant women during the COVID-19 era. Further studies in larger and different cohorts of patients are required to confirm these findings.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(8):1521, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1969382

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is an emerging healthcare-associated infection that can easily cause dissemination in hospitals through colonizing the skin and contaminating environmental surfaces, especially in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Difficulties with identification of this organism, uncertainty about routes of transmission and antifungals resistance have impacted significantly outbreak detection and management. Here, we describe our experience with colonization/infection of C. auris among critically ill patients, admitted to a referral ICU of a University Hospital, in a transitional period (July 2021–March 2022) between management of non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients due to the reconversion of the ICU between two waves. A total of 8 patients presented colonization from C. auris, and two of them developed invasive infection from C. auris. The fungal pathogen was cultured from different sites: the skin (7 isolates), urine (2), respiratory tract (1), blood (1). The median time from admission to first detection is 24 days with 100% of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. All 8 patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections before identification of C. auris;62.5% of the patients had prior antifungal exposure;87.5% received steroids;37.5% patients used immunomodulatory;and 75% had severe COVID-19 illness prior to C. auris identification. Only two cases (25%) were treated with antifungals as C. auris infections (1 patient for suspected UTI;1 patient with candidemia). Infection control measures, including rapid microbiological identification, contact isolation, screening of contacts, antisepsis of colonized patients, dedicated equipment, cleaning and disinfection of the environment and subsequent follow-up sampling, remain essential in critically ill patients. Our experience highlights the importance of establishing a multidisciplinary model and bundling of practices for preventing C. auris' spread.

3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928462

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus has required major adjustments to healthcare systems, especially to infection control and antimicrobial stewardship. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and antibiotic consumption during the three waves of COVID-19 and to compare it to the period before the outbreak at Molinette Hospital, located in the City of Health and Sciences, a 1200-bed teaching hospital with surgical, medical, and intensive care units. We demonstrated an increase in MDR infections: particularly in K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), A. baumannii, and MRSA. Fluoroquinolone use showed a significant increasing trend in the pre-COVID period but saw a significant reduction in the COVID period. The use of fourth- and fifth-generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam increased at the beginning of the COVID period. Our findings support the need for restoring stewardship and infection control practices, specifically source control, hygiene, and management of invasive devices. In addition, our data reveal the need for improved microbiological diagnosis to guide appropriate treatment and prompt infection control during pandemics. Despite the infection control practices in place during the COVID-19 pandemic, invasive procedures in critically ill patients and poor source control still increase the risk of HAIs caused by MDR organisms.

4.
Infect Dis Health ; 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of hospitalized patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, few data are available about risk factors and mortality in subjects with nosocomially acquired respiratory infection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated in a multicentric study -during the pre-vaccination era-all patients admitted with confirmed diagnosis of nosocomial COVID-19 (NC). Patients were classified according to provenance: hospital-acquired NC or long-term care (LTC) facilities. RESULTS: Among overall 1047 patients evaluated with COVID-19, 137 had a confirmed diagnosis of NC (13%). 78 (56.9%) patients had hospital-acquired NC and 59 (43%) had LTC NC. Overall mortality was 35.8%, in hospital-acquired NC 24.4%, in LTC NC 50.8% (p < 0.001) (Log Rank test: p = 0.001). Timing of diagnosis was significantly different between hospital acquired and LTC NC (3.5 vs 10 days, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis age, intensive-care unit admission, LTC provenance and sepsis were significant predictors of mortality in patients with NC infection. CONCLUSION: Patients with NC are at higher risk of mortality (especially for LTC NC) and required preventive strategies, early diagnosis, and treatment to avoid COVID-19 cluster.

5.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0220, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe patients according to the maximum degree of respiratory support received and report their inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Analysis of patients in the Coracle registry from February 22, 2020, to April 1, 2020. SETTING: Hospitals in the Piedmont, Lombardy, Tuscany, and Lazio regions of Italy. PATIENTS: Nine-hundred forty-eight patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. The median (quartile 1-quartile 3) age was 65 years (54-76.59 yr), and there was evidence of differential respiratory treatment by decade of life (p = 0.0046); patients greater than 80 years old were generally not intubated. There were 606 men (63.9%) in this study, and they were more likely to receive respiratory support than women (p < 0.0001). The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither. Overall, invasive ventilation recipients who died were significantly older than those who survived (median age: 68.5 yr [60-81.36 yr] vs 62.5 yr [55.52-71 yr]; p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, 13% received mechanical ventilation, which was associated with a mortality rate of 23%.

6.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 80-85, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772291

ABSTRACT

Introduction: liver abnormalities are common in COVID-19 patients and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate clinical significance and effect on the mortality of abnormal liver function tests (ALFTs) in COVID-19 patients. Methods: we retrospectively evaluated in a multicentre study all patients admitted with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Results: 434 patients were included in this analysis. Among overall patients, 311 (71.6%) had normal baseline ALT levels. 123 patients showed overall abnormal liver function tests (ALFTs) at baseline [101 ALFTs <2x UNL and 22 ≥2 UNL]. Overall in-hospital mortality was 14% and mean duration of hospitalization was 10.5 days. Hypertension (50.5%), cardiovascular diseases (39.6%), diabetes (23%) were frequent comorbidities and 53.7% of patients had ARDS. At multivariate analysis, the presence of ARDS at baseline (OR=6.11; 95% CI: 3.03-12.32; p<0.000); cardiovascular diseases (OR=4; 95% CI: 2.05-7.81; p<0.000); dementia (OR=3.93; 95%CI:1.87-8.26; p<0.000) and no smoking (OR=4.6; 95% CI: 1.45-14.61; p=0.010) resulted significantly predictive of in-hospital mortality. The presence of ALFTs at baseline was not significantly associated with mortality (OR=3.44; 95% CI=0.81-14.58; p=0.094). Conclusion: ALFTs was frequently observed in COVID-19 patients, but the overall in-hospital mortality was mainly determined by the severity of illness, comorbidities and presence of ARDS.

7.
BioMed ; 2(1):127-132, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1731938

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFI) have been described in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-related cytokine storm, immune dysregulation and lymphopenia may increase IFI susceptibility in comorbid patients. We described the case of a 64-year-old man with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated with disseminated cryptococosis. We analyzed the role played by the SARS-CoV-2-associated lymphopenia and the cumulative risk factors that lead to secondary infection by Cryptococcus neoformans, and its part in the dysregulation of the immunity response.

8.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 878-896, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718374

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with a severe respiratory disease in China, that rapidly spread across continents. Since the beginning of the pandemic, available data suggested the asymptomatic transmission and patients were treated with specific drugs with efficacy and safety data not always satisfactory. The aim of this review is to describe the vaccines developed by three companies, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and University of Oxford/AstraZeneca, in terms of both technological and pharmaceutical formulation, safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity. A critical analysis of Phases 1, 2, and 3 clinical trial results available was conducted, comparing the three vaccine candidates, underlining their similarities and differences. All candidates showed consistent efficacy and tolerability; although some differences can be noted, such as their technological formulation, temperature storage, which will be related to logistics and costs. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate long-term effects and to assess the vaccine safety and efficacy in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Technology
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 878-896, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568193

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with a severe respiratory disease in China, that rapidly spread across continents. Since the beginning of the pandemic, available data suggested the asymptomatic transmission and patients were treated with specific drugs with efficacy and safety data not always satisfactory. The aim of this review is to describe the vaccines developed by three companies, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and University of Oxford/AstraZeneca, in terms of both technological and pharmaceutical formulation, safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity. A critical analysis of Phases 1, 2, and 3 clinical trial results available was conducted, comparing the three vaccine candidates, underlining their similarities and differences. All candidates showed consistent efficacy and tolerability; although some differences can be noted, such as their technological formulation, temperature storage, which will be related to logistics and costs. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate long-term effects and to assess the vaccine safety and efficacy in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Technology
11.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526802

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 quickly became a pandemic causing millions of infections and mortalities. It required real-time adjustments to healthcare systems and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures to limit the spread and protect healthcare providers and hospitalized patients. IPC guidelines were adopted and developed based on experience gained during the MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV outbreaks. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize current evidence on IPC in healthcare settings and patients with COVID-19 to prevent nosocomial infections during the actual pandemic. A search was run on PubMed using the terms ('COVID-19' [Mesh]) AND ('Infection Control' [Mesh]) between 2019 and 2021. We identified 86 studies that were in accordance with our aim and summarized them under certain themes as they related to COVID-19 infection control measures. All the guidelines recommend early diagnosis and rapid isolation of COVID-19 patients. The necessary precautions should be taken comprising the whole process, starting with an infectious disease plan, administrative and engineering controls, triage, and PPE training. Guidelines should target modes of transmission, droplet, aerosol, and oral-fecal, while recommending control precautions. Healthcare facilities must promptly implement a multidisciplinary defense system to combat the outbreak.

12.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480578

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide approved for treatment of Gram-positive infections of skin and skin-associated structures (ABSSSI). Currently, off-label use at high dosages for osteoarticular infections deserves attention. This work aimed to study the long-term plasma pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in outpatients with ABSSSI or osteoarticular infections, treated either with one or two 1500 mg doses of dalbavancin. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure total dalbavancin concentrations in plasma samples. The results were analyzed through a non-compartmental analysis (NCA). Breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to calculate AUC/MIC and T > MIC parameters, adjusted by 93% protein binding. A total of 14 patients were enrolled, 11 with osteoarticular infection and 3 with ABSSSI. Long-term pharmacokinetics showed median T > MIC (0.125 mg/L) of 11.9 and 13.7 weeks for single and dual dose, respectively. Similarly, median AUC0-2w/MIC ratios of 20,590 and 31,366 were observed for single and dual dose regimens, respectively. No adverse events were observed, and treatment success was achieved in 12/14 patients. Failure was associated with the worst clinical conditions, bone infections, and single dose. The results of this study show that dalbavancin exposure exceeds previously suggested pharmacodynamic targets. Optimization of these targets is needed for the osteoarticular setting.

13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108200, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440133

ABSTRACT

The world is facing up the most considerable vaccination effort in history to end the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) direct against the Receptor binding domain of the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) received an Emergency Use Authorization for outpatient management of mild to moderate manifestation from COVID-19. MAbs could prevent the transmission SARS-CoV-2 infection and protect individuals from progression to severe disease. Under the pressure of different treatment strategies, SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to select for different sets of mutations named "variants" that could impair the effectiveness of mAbs by modifying target epitopes. We provide an overview of both completed and unpublished, or ongoing clinical trials of mAbs used and review state of art in order to describe clinical options, possible indications, and the place in therapy for these agents in the treatment of COVID-19 with a particular focus on anti-spike agents. Then, we reassume the current evidence on mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 that might confer resistance to neutralization by multiple mAbs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Resistance/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 1837-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

15.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974

ABSTRACT

Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
16.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CORACLE is a retrospective and prospective, regional multicenter registry, developed to evaluate risk factors for mortality in a cohort of patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection within non-intensive wards. METHODS: The primary objective was to estimate the role of several prognostic factors on hospital mortality in terms of adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) with multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1538 patients were enrolled; 42% were female, and 58% were >70 years old. Deceased patients were 422 (27%), with a median age of 83 years (IQR (Inter Quartile Range) 76-87). Older age at admission (aOR 1.07 per year, 95%CI 1.06-1.09), diabetes (1.41, 1.02-1.94), cardiovascular disease (1.79, 1.31-2.44), immunosuppression (1.65, 1.04-2.62), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (3.53, 2.26-5.51), higher C-reactive protein values and a decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission were associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality. Amongst patients still alive on day 7, only hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment was associated with reduced mortality (0.57, 0.36-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Several risk factors were associated with mortality in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Although HCQ seems to be the only factor significantly associated with reduced mortality, this result is in contrast with evidence from randomized studies. These results should be interpreted in light of the study limitations.

18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222060

ABSTRACT

Ceftobiprole combines an excellent spectrum for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) pathogens, with a low/medium MDR risk, and the ß-lactams' safety in frail patients admitted to the hospital in internal medicine wards which may be at high risk of adverse events by anti-MRSA coverage as oxazolidinones or glycopeptides. We aimed to report the available evidence regarding ceftobiprole use in pneumonia and invasive bacterial infections, shedding light on ceftobiprole stewardship. The clinical application and real-life experiences of using ceftobiprole for bloodstream infections, including infective endocarditis, are limited but nevertheless promising. In addition, extended-spectrum ceftobiprole activity, including Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has theoretical advantages for use as empirical therapy in bacteremia potentially caused by a broad spectrum of microorganisms, such as catheter-related bacteremia. In the future, the desirable approach to sepsis and severe infections will be administered to patients according to their clinical situation, the intrinsic host characteristics, the susceptibility profile, and local epidemiology, while the "universal antibiotic strategy" will no longer be adequate.

19.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(8): 985-992, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218961

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Therapy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves evolving algorithms that include drugs aimed at reducing disease progression by counteracting two different, but intertwined processes: (i) the damage caused by the virus (with antivirals); (ii) the damage caused by a dysregulated host response (with immunomodulatory agents). AREAS COVERED: Herein, we discuss the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of antiviral agents employed over the past months for the treatment of COVID-19, and the reasons to be considered for antiviral selection. EXPERT OPINION: The available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) currently discourages the use of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferons, which did not show improved efficacy compared to standard care or placebo. Regarding remdesivir, the current body of evidence may conditionally support its use in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen supplementation but still not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Finally, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been proven efficacious in reducing the risk of severe disease development if administered early in the course of the disease to patients at risk of progression. The results of the ongoing RCT will certainly be crucial to further improve our understanding of the optimal place in therapy of antiviral agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Lopinavir , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 537-540, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206792

ABSTRACT

Congenitally- or perinatally-acquired viral infections can be harmful to the fetus but data are limited about prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease during the first trimester of pregnancy. We report epidemiologic data from a study investigating a cohort of women who became pregnant just before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 138 consecutive pregnant women attending for first trimester screening (11-13 weeks of gestation) at Sant'Anna Hospital, Turin, Piedmont, Italy, during the plateau and the falling phase of the COVID-19 epidemic curve. Patients were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2 detection in sera and nasopharyngeal swab samples. COVID-19 cumulative incidence during the first trimester was of 10.1% with high prevalence of asymptomatic patients (42.8%). Similar to the course of the disease in non pregnant adults, 80% to 90% of infections were not severe.The prevalence of reported symptoms was four-fold higher in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (57%) than in those negative (13%) (P < .001), suggesting that direct self-testing should open doors to confirmatory testing for COVID-19. Our findings support the need for COVID-19 screening in early pregnancy in epidemic areas to plan materno-fetal health surveillance programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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