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1.
The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819546

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to circulate, multiple variants of concern (VOC) have emerged. New variants pose challenges for diagnostic platforms since sequence diversity can alter primer/probe binding sites (PBS), causing false-negative results. The Agena MassARRAY SARS-CoV-2 Panel utilizes reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and mass-spectrometry to detect five multiplex targets across N and ORF1ab genes. Herein, we utilize a dataset of 256 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected between April 11, 2021-August 28, 2021 to evaluate target performance with paired sequencing data. During this timeframe, two targets in the N gene (N2, N3) were subject to the greatest sequence diversity. In specimens with N3 dropout, 69% harbored the Alpha-specific A28095U polymorphism that introduces a 3’-mismatch to the N3 forward PBS and increases risk of target dropout relative to specimens with 28095A (relative risk (RR): 20.02;p<0.0001;95% Confidence Interval (CI): 11.36-35.72). Furthermore, among specimens with N2 dropout, 90% harbored the Delta-specific G28916U polymorphism that creates a 3’-mismatch to the N2 probe PBS and increases target dropout risk (RR: 11.92;p<0.0001;95% CI: 8.17-14.06). These findings highlight the robust capability of Agena MassARRAY SARS-CoV-2 Panel target results to reveal circulating virus diversity and underscore the power of multi-target design to capture VOC.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756616

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still challenging public health systems worldwide, particularly with the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations that increase their transmissibility and immune escape. This is the case of the variant of concern Omicron that rapidly spread globally. Here, using epidemiological and genomic data we compared the situations in South Africa as the epicenter of emergence, United Kingdom, and with particular interest New York City. This rapid global dispersal from the place of first report reemphasizes the high transmissibility of Omicron, which needed only two weeks to become dominant in the United Kingdom and New York City. Our analyses suggest that as SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, global authorities must prioritize equity in vaccine access and continued genomic surveillance. Future studies are still needed to fully unveil the biological properties of Omicron, but what is certain is that vaccination, large-scale testing, and infection prevention efforts are the greatest arsenal against the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1606-1616, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718406

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sparked the rapid development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostics. However, emerging variants pose the risk for target dropout and false-negative results secondary to primer/probe binding site (PBS) mismatches. The Agena MassARRAY® SARS-CoV-2 Panel combines reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry to probe for five targets across N and ORF1ab genes, which provides a robust platform to accommodate PBS mismatches in divergent viruses. Herein, we utilize a deidentified data set of 1262 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens from Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) from December 2020 to April 2021 to evaluate target results and corresponding sequencing data. Overall, the level of PBS mismatches was greater in specimens with target dropout. Of specimens with N3 target dropout, 57% harbored an A28095T substitution that is highly specific for the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant of concern. These data highlight the benefit of redundancy in target design and the potential for target performance to illuminate the dynamics of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Med Care ; 60(5): 332-341, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is needed to identify predictors of outcomes among older adults with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine patient and health system factors predictive of in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and readmission among patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort study of patients aged 18 years and older with COVID-19 discharged from 5 New York hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System (March 1, 2020-June 30, 2020). MEASURES: Patient-level characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidities/serious illness, transfer from skilled nursing facility, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, treatments); hospital characteristics. OUTCOMES: All-cause in-hospital mortality; ICU admission; 30-day readmission. RESULTS: Among 7556 subjects, mean age 61.1 (62.0) years; 1556 (20.6%) died, 949 (12.6%) had an ICU admission, and 227 (9.1%) had a 30-day readmission. Increased age [aged 55-64: odds ratio (OR), 3.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.41-4.46; aged 65-74: OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 3.43-6.35; aged 75-84: OR, 10.73; 95% CI, 7.77-14.81; aged 85 y and older: OR, 20.57; 95% CI, 14.46-29.25] and comorbidities (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.16, 2.13) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Yet older adults (aged 55-64 y: OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.40-0.77; aged 65-74: OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.65; aged 75-84: OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.18-0.40; aged above 85 y: OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.13-0.34) and those with Medicaid (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99) were less likely to be admitted to the ICU. Race/ethnicity, crowding, population density, and health system census were not associated with study outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Increased age was the single greatest independent risk factor for mortality. Comorbidities and serious illness were independently associated with mortality. Understanding these risk factors can guide medical decision-making for older adults with COVID-19. Older adults and those admitted from a skilled nursing facility were half as likely to be admitted to the ICU. This finding requires further investigation to understand how age and treatment preferences factored into resource allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2471-2478, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694693

ABSTRACT

Saliva is a promising specimen for the detection of viruses that cause upper respiratory infections including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to its cost-effectiveness and noninvasive collection. However, together with intrinsic enzymes and oral microbiota, children's unique dietary habits may introduce substances that interfere with diagnostic testing. To determine whether children's dietary choices impact SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection in saliva, we performed a diagnostic study that simulates testing of real-life specimens provided from healthy children (n = 5) who self-collected saliva at home before and at 0, 20, and 60 min after eating 20 foods they selected. Each of 72 specimens was split into two volumes and spiked with SARS-CoV-2-negative or SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical standards before side-by-side testing by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF) assay. Detection of internal extraction control and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids was reduced in replicates of saliva collected at 0 min after eating 11 of 20 foods. Interference resolved at 20 and 60 min after eating all foods except hot dogs in one participant. This represented a significant improvement in the detection of nucleic acids compared to saliva collected at 0 min after eating (p = 0.0005). We demonstrate successful detection of viral nucleic acids in saliva self-collected by children before and after eating a variety of foods. Fasting is not required before saliva collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing by RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF, but waiting for 20 min after eating is sufficient for accurate testing. These findings should be considered for SARS-CoV-2 testing and broader viral diagnostics in saliva specimens.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324876

ABSTRACT

A novel clinical assay for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was adapted from an in-house, research-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Development and validation were performed under regulatory guidelines, and the test obtained emergency use authorization (EUA) from the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Mount Sinai COVID-19 antibody assay is an orthogonal, quantitative direct ELISA test which detects antibodies reactive to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the spike protein of the novel SARS-CoV-2. The assay is performed on 96-well plates coated with either SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD or spike proteins. The test is divided into two stages, a qualitative screening assay against RBD and a quantitative assay against the full-length spike protein. The test uses pooled high titer serum as a reference standard. Negative pre-COVID-19 and positive post-COVID-19, PCR-confirmed specimens were incorporated in each ELISA test run, and the assays were performed independently at two different locations. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 serology performed with high sensitivity and specificity, 92.5% (95% CI: 0.785 – 0.980) and 100% (CI: 0.939 – 1.000) respectively. Between-run precision was assessed with a single run repeated over 22 days;and within-run precision was assessed with 10 replicates per day over 22 days. Both were within reported acceptance criteria (CV ≤20%). This population-based study reveals the applicability and reliability of this novel orthogonal COVID-19 serology test for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, allowing a broad set of clinical applications, including the broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different population subsets.Funding: This work was partially supported by the JPB foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (#2020-215611) and other philanthropic donations.Declaration of Interests: Mount Sinai has licensed serological assays to commercial entities and has filed for patent protection for serological assays. The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has filed patent applications relating to the COVID-19 serological assay (“Serology Assay”) and NDV-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines which list Florian Krammer (“Serology Assay”, vaccines), Daniel Stadlbauer (“Serology Assay”), Damodara Rao Mendu (“Serology Assay”), and Carlos Cordon-Cardo (“Serology Assay”) as co-inventors. The foundational “Serology Assay” intellectual property (IP) was licensed by the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai to commercial entities including Kantaro Biosciences, a company in which Mount Sinai has a financial interest. Florian Krammer consulted for Merck, Curevac, and Pfizer in the past (before 2020) and is currently consulting for Pfizer, Seqirus, and Avimex. The Krammer laboratory is collaborating with Pfizer on animal models of SARS-CoV-2.Patient Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

8.
J Pathol Inform ; 13: 2, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675005

ABSTRACT

Background: Pandemics are unpredictable and can rapidly spread. Proper planning and preparation for managing the impact of outbreaks is only achievable through continuous and systematic collection and analysis of health-related data. We describe our experience on how to comply with required reporting and develop a robust platform for surveillance data during an outbreak. Materials and Methods: At Mount Sinai Health System, New York City, we applied Visiun, a laboratory analytics dashboard, to support main response activities. Epic System Inc.'s SlicerDicer application was used to develop clinical and research reports. We followed World Health Organization (WHO); federal and state guidelines; departmental policies; and expert consultation to create the framework. Results: The developed dashboard integrated data from scattered sources are used to seamlessly distribute reports to key stakeholders. The main report categories included federal, state, laboratory, clinical, and research. The first two groups were created to meet government and state reporting requirements. The laboratory group was the most comprehensive category and included operational reports such as performance metrics, technician performance assessment, and analyzer metrics. The close monitoring of testing volumes and lab operational efficiency was essential to manage increasing demands and provide timely and accurate results. The clinical data reports were valuable for proper managing of medical surge requirements, such as healthcare workforce and medical supplies. The reports included in the research category were highly variable and depended on healthcare setting, research priorities, and available funding. We share a few examples of queries that were included in the designed framework for research projects. Conclusion: We reviewed here the key components of a conceptual surveillance framework required for a robust response to COVID-19 pandemics. We demonstrated leveraging a lab analytics dashboard, Visiun, combined with Epic reporting tools to function as a surveillance system. The framework could be used as a generic template for possible future outbreak events.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1606-1616, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589045

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sparked the rapid development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostics. However, emerging variants pose the risk for target dropout and false-negative results secondary to primer/probe binding site (PBS) mismatches. The Agena MassARRAY® SARS-CoV-2 Panel combines reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry to probe for five targets across N and ORF1ab genes, which provides a robust platform to accommodate PBS mismatches in divergent viruses. Herein, we utilize a deidentified data set of 1262 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens from Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) from December 2020 to April 2021 to evaluate target results and corresponding sequencing data. Overall, the level of PBS mismatches was greater in specimens with target dropout. Of specimens with N3 target dropout, 57% harbored an A28095T substitution that is highly specific for the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant of concern. These data highlight the benefit of redundancy in target design and the potential for target performance to illuminate the dynamics of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296714

ABSTRACT

Background Saliva is an optimal specimen for detection of viruses that cause upper respiratory infections including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to its cost-effectiveness and non-invasive collection. However, together with intrinsic enzymes and oral microbiota, children’s unique dietary habits may introduce substances that interfere with diagnostic testing. Methods To determine whether children’s dietary choices impact SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva, we performed a diagnostic study that simulates testing of real-life specimens provided from healthy children (n=5) who self-collected saliva at home before and at 0, 20, and 60 minutes after eating from 20 foods they selected. Each of seventy-two specimens was split into two volumes and spiked with SARS-CoV-2-negative or -positive standards prior to side-by-side testing by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF) assay. Results Detection of internal extraction control and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids was reduced in replicates of saliva collected at 0 minutes after eating 11 of 20 foods. Interference resolved at 20 and 60 minutes after eating all foods except hot dog in one participant. This represented a significant improvement in detection of nucleic acids compared to saliva collected at 0 minutes after eating (P=0.0005). Conclusions We demonstrate successful detection of viral nucleic acids in saliva self-collected by children before and after eating a variety of foods. Fasting is not required before saliva collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing by RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF, but waiting 20 minutes after eating is sufficient for accurate testing. These findings should be considered for SARS-CoV-2 testing and broader viral diagnostics in saliva specimens.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296713

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to circulate, multiple variants of concern (VOC) have emerged. New variants pose challenges for diagnostic platforms since sequence diversity can alter primer/probe binding sites (PBS), causing false-negative results. The Agena MassARRAY ® SARS-CoV-2 Panel utilizes reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and mass-spectrometry to detect five multiplex targets across N and ORF1ab genes. Herein, we utilize a dataset of 256 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected between April 11, 2021-August 28, 2021 to evaluate target performance with paired sequencing data. During this timeframe, two targets in the N gene (N2, N3) were subject to the greatest sequence diversity. In specimens with N3 dropout, 69% harbored the Alpha-specific A28095U polymorphism that introduces a 3’-mismatch to the N3 forward PBS and increases risk of target dropout relative to specimens with 28095A (relative risk (RR): 20.02;p<0.0001;95% Confidence Interval (CI): 11.36-35.72). Furthermore, among specimens with N2 dropout, 90% harbored the Delta-specific G28916U polymorphism that creates a 3’-mismatch to the N2 probe PBS and increases target dropout risk (RR: 11.92;p<0.0001;95% CI: 8.17-14.06). These findings highlight the robust capability of Agena MassARRAY ® SARS-CoV-2 Panel target results to reveal circulating virus diversity and underscore the power of multi-target design to capture VOC.

13.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08444, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521002

ABSTRACT

A novel clinical assay for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was adapted from an in-house, research-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Development and validation were performed under regulatory guidelines, and the test obtained emergency use authorization (EUA) from the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Mount Sinai coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibody assay is an orthogonal, quantitative direct ELISA test which detects antibodies reactive to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the spike protein of the novel SARS-CoV-2. The assay is performed on 96-well plates coated with either SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD or spike proteins. The test is divided into two stages, a qualitative screening assay against RBD and a quantitative assay against the full-length spike protein. The test uses pooled high titer serum as a reference standard. Negative pre-COVID-19 and positive post-COVID-19, PCR-confirmed specimens were incorporated in each ELISA test run, and the assays were performed independently at two different locations. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 serology performed with high sensitivity and specificity, 92.5% (95% CI: 0.785-0.980) and 100% (CI: 0.939-1.000) respectively. Between-run precision was assessed with a single run repeated over 22 days; and within-run precision was assessed with 10 replicates per day over 22 days. Both were within reported acceptance criteria (CV ≤ 20%). This population-based study reveals the applicability and reliability of this novel orthogonal COVID-19 serology test for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, allowing a broad set of clinical applications, including the broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different population subsets.

16.
Am J Pathol ; 191(12): 2064-2071, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506649

ABSTRACT

Current understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology is limited by disease heterogeneity, complexity, and a paucity of studies assessing patient tissues with advanced molecular tools. Rapid autopsy tissues were evaluated using multiscale, next-generation RNA-sequencing methods (bulk, single-nuclei, and spatial transcriptomics) to provide unprecedented molecular resolution of COVID-19-induced damage. Comparison of infected/uninfected tissues revealed four major regulatory pathways. Effectors within these pathways could constitute novel therapeutic targets, including the complement receptor C3AR1, calcitonin receptor-like receptor, or decorin. Single-nuclei RNA sequencing of olfactory bulb and prefrontal cortex highlighted remarkable diversity of coronavirus receptors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was rarely expressed, whereas basigin showed diffuse expression, and alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane, was associated with vascular/mesenchymal cell types. Comparison of lung and lymph node tissues from patients with different symptoms (one had died after a month-long hospitalization with multiorgan involvement, and the other had died after a few days of respiratory symptoms) with digital spatial profiling resulted in distinct molecular phenotypes. Evaluation of COVID-19 rapid autopsy tissues with advanced molecular techniques can identify pathways and effectors, map diverse receptors at the single-cell level, and help dissect differences driving diverging clinical courses among individual patients. Extension of this approach to larger data sets will substantially advance the understanding of the mechanisms behind COVID-19 pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Autopsy , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Profiling , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex/virology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Salivary Glands/pathology , Salivary Glands/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction/genetics
17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 734963, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468359

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become an unprecedented global health emergency, with fatal outcomes among adults of all ages throughout the world. There is a high incidence of infection and mortality among cancer patients with evidence to support that patients diagnosed with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 have an increased likelihood of a poor outcome. Clinically relevant changes imposed as a result of the pandemic, are either primary, due to changes in timing or therapeutic modality; or secondary, due to altered cooperative effects on disease progression or therapeutic outcomes. However, studies on the clinical management of patients with genitourinary cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic are limited and do little to differentiate primary or secondary impacts of COVID-19. Here, we provide a review of the epidemiology and biological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in GU cancer patients as well as the impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis and management of these patients, and the use and development of novel and innovative diagnostic tests, therapies, and technology. This article also discusses the biomedical advances to control the virus and evolving challenges in the management of prostate, bladder, kidney, testicular, and penile cancers at all stages of the patient journey during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5481-5486, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363685

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections continue, there is a substantial need for cost-effective and large-scale testing that utilizes specimens that can be readily collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in various community settings. Although multiple diagnostic methods utilize nasopharyngeal specimens, saliva specimens represent an attractive alternative as they can rapidly and safely be collected from different populations. While saliva has been described as an acceptable clinical matrix for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, evaluations of analytic performance across platforms for this specimen type are limited. Here, we used a novel sensitive RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based assay (Agena MassARRAY®) to detect SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimens. The platform demonstrated high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when compared to matched patient upper respiratory specimens. We also evaluated the analytical sensitivity of the platform and determined the limit of detection of the assay to be 1562.5 copies/ml. Furthermore, across the five individual target components of this assay, there was a range in analytic sensitivities for each target with the N2 target being the most sensitive. Overall, this system also demonstrated comparable performance when compared to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva by the cobas® 6800/8800 SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR Test (Roche). Together, we demonstrate that saliva represents an appropriate matrix for SARS-CoV-2 detection on the novel Agena system as well as on a conventional real-time RT-PCR assay. We conclude that the MassARRAY® system is a sensitive and reliable platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva, offering scalable throughput in a large variety of clinical laboratory settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/standards , Benchmarking , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/instrumentation , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Specimen Handling/standards , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/instrumentation , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3463, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261999

ABSTRACT

Numerous reports document the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited information on its introduction before the identification of a local case. This may lead to incorrect assumptions when modeling viral origins and transmission. Here, we utilize a sample pooling strategy to screen for previously undetected SARS-CoV-2 in de-identified, respiratory pathogen-negative nasopharyngeal specimens from 3,040 patients across the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. The patients had been previously evaluated for respiratory symptoms or influenza-like illness during the first 10 weeks of 2020. We identify SARS-CoV-2 RNA from specimens collected as early as 25 January 2020, and complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from multiple pools of samples collected between late February and early March, documenting an increase prior to the later surge. Our results provide evidence of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 infections a full month before both the first officially documented case and emergence of New York as a COVID-19 epicenter in March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , New York/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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