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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(692): eade9078, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292152

ABSTRACT

The best assay or marker to define mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibodies as a correlate of protection (CoP) is unclear. In the COVE trial, participants received two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine or placebo. We previously assessed IgG binding antibodies to the spike protein (spike IgG) or receptor binding domain (RBD IgG) and pseudovirus neutralizing antibody 50 or 80% inhibitory dilution titer measured on day 29 or day 57, as correlates of risk (CoRs) and CoPs against symptomatic COVID-19 over 4 months after dose. Here, we assessed a new marker, live virus 50% microneutralization titer (LV-MN50), and compared and combined markers in multivariable analyses. LV-MN50 was an inverse CoR, with a hazard ratio of 0.39 (95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.83) at day 29 and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 1.04) at day 57 per 10-fold increase. In multivariable analyses, pseudovirus neutralization titers and anti-spike binding antibodies performed best as CoRs; combining antibody markers did not improve correlates. Pseudovirus neutralization titer was the strongest independent correlate in a multivariable model. Overall, these results supported pseudovirus neutralizing and binding antibody assays as CoRs and CoPs, with the live virus assay as a weaker correlate in this sample set. Day 29 markers performed as well as day 57 markers as CoPs, which could accelerate immunogenicity and immunobridging studies.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Humans , Vaccine Efficacy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259411

ABSTRACT

A patient with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had persistent, progressive pneumonia with viremia after 5 months of infection despite monoclonal antibodies, IV remdesivir and prolonged oral steroids. Twenty days of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and 10 days of IV remdesivir led to full recovery.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e230191, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288771

ABSTRACT

Importance: Earlier detection of emerging novel SARS-COV-2 variants is important for public health surveillance of potential viral threats and for earlier prevention research. Artificial intelligence may facilitate early detection of SARS-CoV2 emerging novel variants based on variant-specific mutation haplotypes and, in turn, be associated with enhanced implementation of risk-stratified public health prevention strategies. Objective: To develop a haplotype-based artificial intelligence (HAI) model for identifying novel variants, including mixture variants (MVs) of known variants and new variants with novel mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used serially observed viral genomic sequences globally (prior to March 14, 2022) to train and validate the HAI model and used it to identify variants arising from a prospective set of viruses from March 15 to May 18, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Viral sequences, collection dates, and locations were subjected to statistical learning analysis to estimate variant-specific core mutations and haplotype frequencies, which were then used to construct an HAI model to identify novel variants. Results: Through training on more than 5 million viral sequences, an HAI model was built, and its identification performance was validated on an independent validation set of more than 5 million viruses. Its identification performance was assessed on a prospective set of 344 901 viruses. In addition to achieving an accuracy of 92.8% (95% CI within 0.1%), the HAI model identified 4 Omicron MVs (Omicron-Alpha, Omicron-Delta, Omicron-Epsilon, and Omicron-Zeta), 2 Delta MVs (Delta-Kappa and Delta-Zeta), and 1 Alpha-Epsilon MV, among which Omicron-Epsilon MVs were most frequent (609/657 MVs [92.7%]). Furthermore, the HAI model found that 1699 Omicron viruses had unidentifiable variants given that these variants acquired novel mutations. Lastly, 524 variant-unassigned and variant-unidentifiable viruses carried 16 novel mutations, 8 of which were increasing in prevalence percentages as of May 2022. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, an HAI model found SARS-COV-2 viruses with MV or novel mutations in the global population, which may require closer examination and monitoring. These results suggest that HAI may complement phylogenic variant assignment, providing additional insights into emerging novel variants in the population.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Haplotypes , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Mutation
4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 36, 2023 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251837

ABSTRACT

In the phase 3 trial of the AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine conducted in the U.S., Chile, and Peru, anti-spike binding IgG concentration (spike IgG) and pseudovirus 50% neutralizing antibody titer (nAb ID50) measured four weeks after two doses were assessed as correlates of risk and protection against PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). These analyses of SARS-CoV-2 negative participants were based on case-cohort sampling of vaccine recipients (33 COVID-19 cases by 4 months post dose two, 463 non-cases). The adjusted hazard ratio of COVID-19 was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.76) per 10-fold increase in spike IgG concentration and 0.28 (0.10, 0.77) per 10-fold increase in nAb ID50 titer. At nAb ID50 below the limit of detection (< 2.612 IU50/ml), 10, 100, and 270 IU50/ml, vaccine efficacy was -5.8% (-651%, 75.6%), 64.9% (56.4%, 86.9%), 90.0% (55.8%, 97.6%) and 94.2% (69.4%, 99.1%). These findings provide further evidence towards defining an immune marker correlate of protection to help guide regulatory/approval decisions for COVID-19 vaccines.

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(3): ofad069, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259370

ABSTRACT

Background: Hybrid immunity is associated with more durable protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe the antibody responses following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Methods: The 55 vaccine arm COVID-19 cases diagnosed during the blinded phase of the Coronavirus Efficacy trial were matched with 55 placebo arm COVID-19 cases. Pseudovirus neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity to the ancestral strain and binding antibody (bAb) responses to nucleocapsid and spike antigens (ancestral and variants of concern [VOCs]) were assessed on disease day 1 (DD1) and 28 days later (DD29). Results: The primary analysis set was 46 vaccine cases and 49 placebo cases with COVID-19 at least 57 days post-first dose. For vaccine group cases, there was a 1.88-fold rise in ancestral antispike bAbs 1 month post-disease onset, although 47% had no increase. The vaccine-to-placebo geometric mean ratios for DD29 antispike and antinucleocapsid bAbs were 6.9 and 0.04, respectively. DD29 mean bAb levels were higher for vaccine vs placebo cases for all VOCs. DD1 nasal viral load positively correlated with bAb levels in the vaccine group. Conclusions: Following COVID-19, vaccinated participants had higher levels and greater breadth of antispike bAbs and higher nAb titers than unvaccinated participants. These were largely attributable to the primary immunization series.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2251974, 2023 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2208821

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of infections and deaths and resulted in unprecedented international public health social and economic crises. As SARS-CoV-2 spread across the globe and its impact became evident, the development of safe and effective vaccines became a priority. Outlining the processes used to establish and support the conduct of the phase 3 randomized clinical trials that led to the rapid emergency use authorization and approval of several COVID-19 vaccines is of major significance for current and future pandemic response efforts. Observations: To support the rapid development of vaccines for the US population and the rest of the world, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases established the COVID-19 Prevention Network (CoVPN) to assist in the coordination and implementation of phase 3 efficacy trials for COVID-19 vaccine candidates and monoclonal antibodies. By bringing together multiple networks, CoVPN was able to draw on existing clinical and laboratory infrastructure, community partnerships, and research expertise to quickly pivot clinical trial sites to conduct COVID-19 vaccine trials as soon as the investigational products were ready for phase 3 testing. The mission of CoVPN was to operationalize phase 3 vaccine trials using harmonized protocols, laboratory assays, and a single data and safety monitoring board to oversee the various studies. These trials, while staggered in time of initiation, overlapped in time and course of conduct and ultimately led to the successful completion of multiple studies and US Food and Drug Administration-licensed or -authorized vaccines, the first of which was available to the public less than 1 year from the discovery of the virus. Conclusions and Relevance: This Special Communication describes the design, geographic distribution, and underlying principles of conduct of these efficacy trials and summarizes data from 136 382 prospectively followed-up participants, including more than 2500 with documented COVID-19. These successful efforts can be replicated for other important research initiatives and point to the importance of investments in clinical trial infrastructure integral to pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 331, 2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185838

ABSTRACT

In the PREVENT-19 phase 3 trial of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (NCT04611802), anti-spike binding IgG concentration (spike IgG), anti-RBD binding IgG concentration (RBD IgG), and pseudovirus 50% neutralizing antibody titer (nAb ID50) measured two weeks post-dose two are assessed as correlates of risk and as correlates of protection against COVID-19. Analyses are conducted in the U.S. cohort of baseline SARS-CoV-2 negative per-protocol participants using a case-cohort design that measures the markers from all 12 vaccine recipient breakthrough COVID-19 cases starting 7 days post antibody measurement and from 639 vaccine recipient non-cases. All markers are inversely associated with COVID-19 risk and directly associated with vaccine efficacy. In vaccine recipients with nAb ID50 titers of 50, 100, and 7230 international units (IU50)/ml, vaccine efficacy estimates are 75.7% (49.8%, 93.2%), 81.7% (66.3%, 93.2%), and 96.8% (88.3%, 99.3%). The results support potential cross-vaccine platform applications of these markers for guiding decisions about vaccine approval and use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 12(2): 607-621, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175274

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sotrovimab, a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (mAb) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had US Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization for the treatment of high-risk outpatients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from 26 May 2021 to 5 April 2022. Real-world clinical effectiveness of sotrovimab in reducing the risk of 30-day all-cause hospitalization and/or mortality was evaluated for the period when the prevalence of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants changed between Delta and Omicron in the USA. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of de-identified patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 September 2021 to 30 April 2022 in the FAIR Health National Private Insurance Claims database. Patients meeting high-risk criteria were divided into two cohorts: sotrovimab and not treated with a mAb ("no mAb"). All-cause hospitalizations and facility-reported mortality ≤ 30 days of diagnosis ("30-day hospitalization or mortality") were identified. Multivariable and propensity score-matched Poisson and logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the adjusted relative risk (RR) and odds of 30-day hospitalization or mortality in each cohort. RESULTS: Compared with the no mAb cohort (n = 1,514,868), the sotrovimab cohort (n = 15,633) was older and had a higher proportion of patients with high-risk conditions. In the no mAb cohort, 84,307 (5.57%) patients were hospitalized and 8167 (0.54%) deaths were identified, while in the sotrovimab cohort, 418 (2.67%) patients were hospitalized and 13 (0.08%) deaths were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, the sotrovimab cohort had a 55% lower risk of 30-day hospitalization or mortality (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.41-0.49) and an 85% lower risk of 30-day mortality (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.08-0.29). Monthly, from September 2021 to April 2022, the RR reduction for 30-day hospitalization or mortality in the sotrovimab cohort was maintained, ranging from 46% to 71% compared with the no mAb cohort; the RR estimate in April 2022 was uncertain, with wide confidence intervals due to the small sample size. CONCLUSION: Sotrovimab was associated with reduced risk of 30-day all-cause hospitalization and mortality versus no mAb treatment. Clinical effectiveness persisted during Delta and early Omicron variant waves and among all high-risk subgroups assessed.

10.
JCI Insight ; 7(21)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108450

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV-1 (PLWH) exhibit more rapid antibody decline following routine immunization and elevated baseline chronic inflammation than people without HIV-1 (PWOH), indicating potential for diminished humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conflicting reports have emerged on the ability of PLWH to maintain humoral protection against SARS-CoV-2 coinfection during convalescence. It is unknown whether peak COVID-19 severity, along with HIV-1 infection status, associates with the quality and quantity of humoral immunity following recovery. Using a cross-sectional observational cohort from the United States and Peru, adults were enrolled 1-10 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or symptom resolution. Serum antibodies were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2-specific response rates, binding magnitudes, ACE2 receptor blocking, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Overall, (a) PLWH exhibited a trend toward decreased magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, despite modestly increased overall response rates when compared with PWOH; (b) PLWH recovered from symptomatic outpatient COVID-19 had comparatively diminished immune responses; and (c) PLWH lacked a corresponding increase in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with increased COVID-19 severity when asymptomatic versus symptomatic outpatient disease was compared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult
11.
J Clin Invest ; 132(18)2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029589

ABSTRACT

BackgroundWe report updated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) from an ongoing phase 3 trial.MethodsAdults at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection were randomized (2:1), stratified by age, to receive 2 doses of AZD1222 or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) symptomatic COVID-19 at 15 or more days after a second dose in baseline SARS-CoV-2-seronegative participants. The 21,634 and 10,816 participants were randomized to AZD1222 and placebo, respectively.FindingsData cutoff for this analysis was July 30, 2021; median follow-up from second dose was 78 and 71 days for the double-blind period (censoring at unblinding or nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination) and 201 and 82 days for the period to nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination (regardless of unblinding) in the AZD1222 and placebo groups, respectively. For the primary efficacy end point in the double-blind period (141 and 184 events; incidence rates: 39.2 and 118.8 per 1,000 person years), vaccine efficacy was 67.0% (P < 0.001). In the period to nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination, incidence of events remained consistently low and stable through 6 months in the AZD1222 group; for the primary efficacy end point (328 and 219 events; incidence rates: 36.4, 108.4) and severe/critical disease (5 and 13 events; incidence rates: 0.6, 6.4), respective vaccine efficacy estimates were 65.1% and 92.1%. AZD1222 elicited humoral immune responses over time, with waning at day 180. No emergent safety issues were seen.ConclusionAZD1222 is safe and well tolerated, demonstrating durable protection and immunogenicity with median follow-up (AZD1222 group) of 6 months.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04516746.FundingAstraZeneca; US government.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2230293, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013243

ABSTRACT

Importance: With timely collection of SARS-CoV-2 viral genome sequences, it is important to apply efficient data analytics to detect emerging variants at the earliest time. Objective: To evaluate the application of a statistical learning strategy (SLS) to improve early detection of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants using viral sequence data from global surveillance. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series applied an SLS to viral genomic sequence data collected from 63 686 individuals in Africa and 531 827 individuals in the United States with SARS-CoV-2. Data were collected from January 1, 2020, to December 28, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was an indicator of Omicron variant derived from viral sequences. Centering on a temporally collected outcome, the SLS used the generalized additive model to estimate locally averaged Omicron caseload percentages (OCPs) over time to characterize Omicron expansion and to estimate when OCP exceeded 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the caseload. Additionally, an unsupervised learning technique was applied to visualize Omicron expansions, and temporal and spatial distributions of Omicron cases were investigated. Results: In total, there were 2698 cases of Omicron in Africa and 12 141 in the United States. The SLS found that Omicron was detectable in South Africa as early as December 31, 2020. With 10% OCP as a threshold, it may have been possible to declare Omicron a variant of concern as early as November 4, 2021, in South Africa. In the United States, the application of SLS suggested that the first case was detectable on November 21, 2021. Conclusions and Relevance: The application of SLS demonstrates how the Omicron variant may have emerged and expanded in Africa and the United States. Earlier detection could help the global effort in disease prevention and control. To optimize early detection, efficient data analytics, such as SLS, could assist in the rapid identification of new variants as soon as they emerge, with or without lineages designated, using viral sequence data from global surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South Africa , United States/epidemiology
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1258-1265, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoassays for determining past SARS-CoV-2 infection have not been systematically evaluated in vaccinated persons in comparison with unvaccinated persons. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antinucleocapsid antibody (anti-N Ab) seropositivity in mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccinees with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Nested substudy of a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04470427). SETTING: 99 sites in the United States, July 2020 through March 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were aged 18 years or older, had no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and were at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe COVID-19. Substudy participants were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the trial's blinded phase. INTERVENTION: 2 mRNA-1273 or placebo injections 28 days apart. MEASUREMENTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs from days 1 and 29 (vaccination days) and from symptom-prompted illness visits were tested for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples from days 1, 29, and 57 and the participant decision visit (PDV, when participants were informed of treatment assignment; median day 149) were tested for anti-N Abs by the Elecsys immunoassay. RESULTS: Among 812 participants with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 illness during the blinded phase of the trial (through March 2021), seroconversion to anti-N Abs (median of 53 days after diagnosis) occurred in 21 of 52 mRNA-1273 vaccinees (40% [95% CI, 27% to 54%]) versus 605 of 648 placebo recipients (93% [CI, 92% to 95%]). Each 1-log increase in SARS-CoV-2 viral copies at diagnosis was associated with 90% higher odds of anti-N Ab seroconversion (odds ratio, 1.90 [CI, 1.59 to 2.28]). LIMITATION: The scope was restricted to mRNA-1273 vaccinees and the Elecsys assay, the sample size was small, data on Delta and Omicron infections were lacking, and the analysis did not address a prespecified objective of the trial. CONCLUSION: Vaccination status should be considered when interpreting seroprevalence and seropositivity data based solely on anti-N Ab testing. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States , Vaccine Efficacy
16.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 76: 102206, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797036

ABSTRACT

The remarkable success of the US government-backed COVID-19 vaccine development in 2020 offers several lessons on how to effectively foster rapid vaccine discovery and development. Conceptually, the formation of a public-private partnership that included innovative government and academic involvement at all levels of the program was instrumental in promulgating and overseeing the effort. Decades of NIH-sponsored research on vaccine backbones, immunogen design, and clinical trial operations enabled evaluation of vaccine candidates within months of pathogen discovery. Operation Warp Speed fostered industry participation, permitted accelerated movement from preclinical/early phase to efficacy trials, and developed structured clinical trial testing that allowed independent assessment of, yet reasonable comparison between, each vaccine platform by harmonizing protocols, endpoints, laboratories, and statistical analytical criteria for efficacy. This coordinated effort by the US government, pharmaceutical companies, regulators, and academic research institutions resulted in the streamlined, safe, and transparent development and deployment of multiple COVID-19 vaccines in under a year. Lessons learned from this collaborative endeavor should be used to advance additional vaccines of public health importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccinology
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e289-e292, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769236

ABSTRACT

We report a 23% asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) Omicron carriage rate in participants being enrolled into a clinical trial in South Africa, 15-fold higher than in trials before Omicron. We also found lower CD4 + T-cell counts in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strongly correlated with increased odds of being SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , South Africa/epidemiology
19.
Cytometry A ; 101(6): 483-496, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750349

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, antibody responses and antibody effector functions targeting SARS-CoV-2-infected cells have been understudied. Consequently, the role of these types of antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) and immunity is still undetermined. To provide tools to study these responses, we used plasma from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals (n = 50) and SARS-CoV-2 naive healthy controls (n = 20) to develop four specific and reproducible flow cytometry-based assays: (i) two assessing antibody binding to, and antibody-mediated NK cell degranulation against, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and (ii) two assessing antibody binding to, and antibody-mediated NK cell degranulation against, SARS-CoV-2 Spike-transfected cells. All four assays demonstrated the ability to detect the presence of these functional antibody responses in a specific and reproducible manner. Interestingly, we found weak to moderate correlations between the four assays (Spearman rho ranged from 0.50 to 0.74), suggesting limited overlap in the responses captured by the individual assays. Lastly, while we initially developed each assay with multiple dilutions in an effort to capture the full relationship between antibody titers and assay outcome, we explored the relationship between fewer antibody dilutions and the full dilution series for each assay to reduce assay costs and improve assay efficiency. We found high correlations between the full dilution series and fewer or single dilutions of plasma. Use of single or fewer sample dilutions to accurately determine the response rates and magnitudes of the responses allows for high-throughput use of these assays platforms to facilitate assessment of antibody responses elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in large clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cell Degranulation , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Lancet ; 399(10330): 1141-1153, 2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a single dose of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Johnson & Johnson) in health-care workers in South Africa during two waves of the South African COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: In the single-arm, open-label, phase 3B implementation Sisonke study, health-care workers aged 18 years and older were invited for vaccination at one of 122 vaccination sites nationally. Participants received a single dose of 5 × 1010 viral particles of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Vaccinated participants were linked with their person-level data from one of two national medical insurance schemes (scheme A and scheme B) and matched for COVID-19 risk with an unvaccinated member of the general population. The primary outcome was vaccine effectiveness against severe COVID-19, defined as COVID-19-related admission to hospital, hospitalisation requiring critical or intensive care, or death, in health-care workers compared with the general population, ascertained 28 days or more after vaccination or matching, up to data cutoff. This study is registered with the South African National Clinical Trial Registry, DOH-27-022021-6844, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04838795, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR202102855526180, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Feb 17 and May 17, 2021, 477 102 health-care workers were enrolled and vaccinated, of whom 357 401 (74·9%) were female and 119 701 (25·1%) were male, with a median age of 42·0 years (33·0-51·0). 215 813 vaccinated individuals were matched with 215 813 unvaccinated individuals. As of data cutoff (July 17, 2021), vaccine effectiveness derived from the total matched cohort was 83% (95% CI 75-89) to prevent COVID-19-related deaths, 75% (69-82) to prevent COVID-19-related hospital admissions requiring critical or intensive care, and 67% (62-71) to prevent COVID-19-related hospitalisations. The vaccine effectiveness for all three outcomes were consistent across scheme A and scheme B. The vaccine effectiveness was maintained in older health-care workers and those with comorbidities including HIV infection. During the course of the study, the beta (B.1.351) and then the delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns were dominant, and vaccine effectiveness remained consistent (for scheme A plus B vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospital admission during beta wave was 62% [95% CI 42-76] and during delta wave was 67% [62-71], and vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related death during beta wave was 86% [57-100] and during delta wave was 82% [74-89]). INTERPRETATION: The single-dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine shows effectiveness against severe COVID-19 disease and COVID-19-related death after vaccination, and against both beta and delta variants, providing real-world evidence for its use globally. FUNDING: National Treasury of South Africa, the National Department of Health, Solidarity Response Fund NPC, The Michael & Susan Dell Foundation, The Elma Vaccines and Immunization Foundation, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
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