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1.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.03.07.23286893

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trials on convalescent plasma (ConvP) were performed without preceding dose-finding studies. This study aimed to assess potential protective dosing regimens by constructing a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model describing neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers following the administration of ConvP or hyperimmune globulins(COVIg). Methods: Immunocompromised patients, testing negative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies despite vaccination received a range of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the form of COVIg or ConvP infusion. The popPK analysis was performed using NONMEM v7.4. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess potential COVIg and ConvP dosing regimens for prevention of COVID-19. Results: 44 patients were enrolled, and data from 42 were used for constructing the popPK model. A two-compartment elimination model with mixed residual error best described the Nab-titers after administration. Inter individual variation was associated to CL (44.3%), V1 (27.3%), and V2 (29.2%). Lean body weight and type of treatment (ConvP/COVIg) were associated with V1 and V2, respectively. Median elimination half-life was 20 days (interquartile-range: 17-25 days). Simulations demonstrated that even monthly infusions of 600ml of the ConvP or COVIg used in this trial would not achieve potentially protective serum antibody levels for >90% of the time. However, as a result of hybrid immunity and/or repeated vaccination plasma donors with extremely high Nab-titers are now readily available, and a >90% target attainment should be possible. Conclusion: The results of this study may inform future intervention studies on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of antiviral antibodies in the form of ConvP or COVIg.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
2.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.18.22283593

ABSTRACT

Background Bivalent mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines encoding the ancestral and Omicron spike protein were developed as a countermeasure against antigenically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants. We compared the (variant-specific) immunogenicity and reactogenicity of mRNA-based bivalent Omicron BA.1 vaccines in individuals who were primed with adenovirus- or mRNA-based vaccines. Methods In this open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, healthcare workers primed with Ad26.COV2.S or mRNA-based vaccines were boosted with mRNA-1273.214 or BNT162b2 OMI BA.1. The primary endpoint was the fold change in S1-specific IgG antibodies pre- and 28 days after booster vaccination. Secondary outcomes were fast response, (antibody levels on day 7), reactogenicity, neutralization of circulating variants and (cross-reactive) SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses. Findings No effect of different priming regimens was observed on bivalent vaccination boosted S1-specific IgG antibodies. The largest increase in S1-specific IgG antibodies occurred between day 0 and 7 after bivalent booster. Neutralizing antibodies targeting the variants in the bivalent vaccine (ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron BA.1) were boosted. In addition, neutralizing antibodies against the circulating Omicron BA.5 variant increased after BA.1 bivalent booster. T-cell responses were boosted and retained reactivity with variants from the Omicron sub-lineage. Interpretation Bivalent booster vaccination with mRNA-1273.214 or BNT162b2 OMI BA.1 resulted in a rapid recall of humoral and cellular immune responses independent of the initial priming regimen. Although no preferential boosting of variant-specific responses was observed, the induced antibodies and T-cells cross-reacted with Omicron BA.1 and BA.5. It remains crucial to monitor immunity at the population level, and simultaneously antigenic drift at the virus level, to determine the necessity (and timing) of COVID-19 booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
3.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.07.15.22277639

ABSTRACT

A large proportion of the global population received a single dose of the Ad26.COV2.S coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine as priming vaccination, which was shown to provide protection against moderate to severe COVID-19. However, the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that harbor immune-evasive mutations in the spike protein led to the recommendation of booster vaccinations after Ad26.COV2.S priming. Recent studies showed that heterologous booster vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine following Ad26.COV2.S priming leads to high antibody levels. However, how heterologous booster vaccination affects other functional aspects of the immune response remains unknown. Here, we performed immunological profiling on samples obtained from Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals before and after a homologous (Ad26.COV2.S) or heterologous (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2) booster vaccination. Both homologous and heterologous booster vaccination increased antibodies with multiple functionalities towards ancestral SARS-CoV-2, the Delta and Omicron BA.1 variants. Especially, mRNA-based booster vaccination induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies and antibodies with various Fc-mediated effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis. In contrast, T cell responses were similar in magnitude following homologous or heterologous booster vaccination, and retained functionality towards Delta and Omicron BA.1. However, only heterologous booster vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine led to the expansion of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell clones, without an increase in the breadth of the T cell repertoire as assessed by T cell receptor sequencing. In conclusion, we show that Ad26.COV2.S priming vaccination provides a solid immunological base for heterologous boosting with an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine, increasing humoral and cellular responses targeting newly emerging variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19
5.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.03.15.484448

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant is characterized by a high number of mutations in the viral genome, associated with immune-escape and increased viral spread. It remains unclear whether milder COVID-19 disease progression observed after infection with Omicron BA.1 in humans is due to reduced pathogenicity of the virus or due to pre-existing immunity from vaccination or previous infection. Here, we inoculated hamsters with Omicron BA.1 to evaluate pathogenicity and kinetics of viral shedding, compared to Delta (B.1.617.2) and to animals re-challenged with Omicron BA.1 after previous SARS-CoV-2 614G infection. Omicron BA.1 infected animals showed reduced clinical signs, pathological changes, and viral shedding, compared to Delta-infected animals, but still showed gross- and histopathological evidence of pneumonia. Pre-existing immunity reduced viral shedding and protected against pneumonia. Our data indicate that the observed decrease of disease severity is in part due to intrinsic properties of the Omicron BA.1 variant.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Lung Diseases , COVID-19
6.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.02.23.481644

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants may impact vaccine efficacy significantly. The Omicron variant termed BA.2, which differs genetically substantially from BA.1, is currently replacing BA.1 in several countries, but its antigenic characteristics have not yet been assessed. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 variants using hamster sera obtained after primary infection. Whereas early variants are antigenically similar, clustering relatively close to each other in antigenic space, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 have evolved as two distinct antigenic outliers. Our data show that BA.1 and BA.2 both escape (vaccine-induced) antibody responses as a result of different antigenic characteristics. Close monitoring of the antigenic changes of SARS-CoV-2 using antigenic cartography can be helpful in the selection of future vaccine strains.

7.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.11.30.21266810

ABSTRACT

Background: Convalescent plasma (CP) for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has not demonstrated clear benefits. However, data on outpatients with early symptoms are scarce. We aimed to assess whether treatment with CP administered during the first 7 days of symptoms reduced the disease progression or risk of hospitalization of outpatients. Methods: Two double-blind randomized trials (NCT04621123, NCT04589949) were merged with data pooling starting when <20% of their predefined sample size had been recruited. A Bayesian adaptive individual patient data meta-analysis was implemented. Analyses were done with Bayesian proportional odds and logistic models, where odds ratios (OR)<1.0 indicate a favorable outcome for CP. Fourteen study sites across the Netherlands and Catalonia in Spain participated in the trial. The two studies included outpatients aged [≥]50 years and diagnosed with COVID-19 and symptomatic for [≤]7days. The intervention consisted of one unit (200-300mL) of CP with a predefined minimum level of antibodies. The two primary endpoints were (a) a 5-point disease severity scale (fully recovered by day 7 or not, hospital or ICU admission and death) and (b) a composite of hospitalization or death. Results: Of 797 patients included, 390 received CP and 392 placebo. At baseline, they had a median age of 58 years, 1 comorbidity, symptoms for 5 days and 93% tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 S-protein IgG antibodies. Seventy-four patients were hospitalized, 6 required mechanical ventilation and 3 died. The OR of CP for an improved disease severity scale was 0.936 (credible interval (CI) 0.667-1.311). The OR for hospitalization or death was 0.919 (CI 0.592-1.416). The effect of CP on hospital admission or death was largest in patients with [≤]5 days of symptoms (OR 0.658, 95% CI 0.394-1.085). CP did not decrease the time to full symptom resolution (p=0.62). Conclusion: Treatment with CP of outpatients in the first 7 days of symptoms did not improve the outcome of COVID-19. The possible beneficial effect in patients with [≤]5 days of symptoms requires further study. Registration: NCT04621123 and NCT04589949 on https://www.clinicaltrials.gov


Subject(s)
Convalescence , Death , COVID-19
8.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.10.18.21264979

ABSTRACT

Background In face of the developing COVID-19 pandemic with a need for rapid and practical vaccination strategies, Ad26.COV2.S was approved as single shot immunization regimen. While effective against severe COVID-19, Ad26.COV2.S vaccination induces lower SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels compared to its mRNA-based counterparts. To support decision making on the need for booster vaccinations in Ad26.COV2.S-primed individuals, we assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of homologous and heterologous booster vaccinations in Ad26.COV2.S-primed health care workers (HCWs). Methods The SWITCH trial is a single-(participant)-blinded, multi-center, randomized controlled trial among 434 HCWs who received a single Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. HCWs were randomized to no boost, Ad26.COV2.S boost, mRNA-1273 boost, or BNT162b2 boost. We assessed the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies against infectious virus, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses, and reactogenicity. Results Homologous and heterologous booster vaccinations resulted in an increase in SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses when compared to single Ad26.COV.2.S vaccination. In comparison with the homologous boost, the increase was significantly larger in heterologous regimens with the mRNA-based vaccines. mRNA-1273 boosting was most immunogenic, associated with higher reactogenicity. Only mild to moderate local and systemic reactions were observed on the first two days following booster. Conclusions Boosting of Ad26.COV2.S-primed HCWs was well-tolerated and immunogenic. Strongest responses were detected after boosting with mRNA-based vaccines. Based on our data, efficacy on infection and transmission of boosters is expected. In addition to efficacy, decision making on boost vaccinations should include timing, target population, level of SARS CoV-2 circulation, and the global inequity in vaccine access. Trial registration. Funded by ZonMW (10430072110001); ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04927936.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
9.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.08.20.21262158

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective at preventing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. As no vaccine is 100% effective, breakthrough infections are expected to occur. MethodsWe analyzed the virological characteristics of 161 vaccine breakthrough infections in a population of 24,706 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs), using RT-PCR and virus culture. ResultsThe delta variant (B.1.617.2) was identified in the majority of cases. Despite similar Ct-values, we demonstrate lower probability of infectious virus detection in respiratory samples of vaccinated HCWs with breakthrough infections compared to unvaccinated HCWs with primary SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nevertheless, infectious virus was found in 68.6% of breakthrough infections and Ct-values decreased throughout the first 3 days of illness. ConclusionsWe conclude that rare vaccine breakthrough infections occur, but infectious virus shedding is reduced in these cases.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Breakthrough Pain , COVID-19
10.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3893900

ABSTRACT

A new phase of the COVID-19 pandemic has started as SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging globally, raising concerns for increased transmissibility. Early 2021 the B.1.1.7 (or Alpha) variant, became the dominant variant globally and epidemiological data suggests this variant spreads faster than its ancestors. However, this does not prove that a variant is intrinsically phenotypically different, let alone more transmissible or fit. Therefore, rapid phenotyping of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern is urgently needed. We found that airway, intestinal and alveolar organoids infected with the B.1.1.7 variant produced higher levels of infectious virus late in infection compared to its 614G-containing ancestor. The B.1.1.7 variant also had a clear fitness advantage in human airway organoids. In alveolar organoids, the B.1.1.7 variant induced lower levels of innate immunity. These findings suggest that the B.1.1.7 variant is phenotypically different from its ancestor and may explain why this clade has spread rapidly across the globe.Funding Information: This work was supported by Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (10150062010008; B.L.H.), PPP allowance (LSHM19136; B.L.H.). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 874735. Declaration of Interests: H.C. is inventor on patents held by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences that cover organoid technology. H.C.’s full disclosure is given at https://www.uu.nl/staff/JCClevers. All other authors have nothing to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus MC Rotterdam granted permission for this study (METC 2012-512). The study was approved by the UMC Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands) ethical committee and was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and according to Dutch law. This study is compliant with all relevant ethical regulations regarding research involving human participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
11.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-670949.v1

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  To study the effect of Interferon-α auto-antibodies (IFN-α Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. Methods: : Sera from cases of COVID-19 and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-αAbs by ELISA and bioassay. IFN-α Abslevels were compared between critically, severely and moderately ill groups in both acute and convalescent stages. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine whether IFN-α Abs levels change after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: : Critically ill COVID-19 caseshad significantly higher IFN-α Abs detection rate and levels compared tonon-COVID-19 controls.Neutralizing IFN-α Abs levels were found in 1 out of 118plasma donors.Plasma from 2 positive donors was administered to 5 patients, with no subsequent elevation of IFN-α Abs levels in the recipients. Neutralizing levels of IFN-α Abswere associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. Conclusions: : IFN-α Abs can be detected by ELISA in critical, severe, moderate and mild COVID-19 cases in both the acute and convalescent stages of disease. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. Levels of IFN-α Abs inCOVID-19 convalescent plasma donorsare likely too low to be clinically relevant to the recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
12.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.05.07.21252267

ABSTRACT

Assays to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies are important to monitor seroprevalence, to study asymptomatic infections and to reveal (intermediate) hosts. A recently developed assay, the surrogate virus-neutralization test (sVNT) is a quick and commercially available alternative to the 'gold standard' virus neutralization assay using authentic virus, and does not require processing at BSL-3 level. The assay relies on the inhibition of binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) on the spike (S) protein to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) by antibodies present in sera. As the sVNT does not require species- or isotype-specific conjugates, it can be similarly used for antibody detection in human and animal sera. In this study, we used 298 sera from PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 151 sera from patients confirmed with other coronavirus or other (respiratory) infections, to evaluate the performance of the sVNT. To analyze the use of the assay in a One Health setting, we studied the presence of RBD-binding antibodies in 154 sera from nine animal species (cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, ferrets, rabbits, hamsters, cats, cattle, mink and dromedary camels). The sVNT showed a moderate to high sensitivity and a high specificity using sera from confirmed COVID-19 patients (91.3% and 100%, respectively) and animal sera (93.9% and 100%), however it lacked sensitivity to detect low titers. Significant correlations were found between the sVNT outcomes and PRNT50 and the Wantai total Ig and IgM ELISAs. While species-specific validation will be essential, our results show that the sVNT holds promise in detecting RBD-binding antibodies in multiple species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
13.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.05.03.21256520

ABSTRACT

Summary The mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech was the first registered COVID-19 vaccine and has been shown to be up to 95% effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections. Little is known about the broad effects of the new class of mRNA vaccines, especially whether they have combined effects on innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we confirmed that BNT162b2 vaccination of healthy individuals induced effective humoral and cellular immunity against several SARS-CoV-2 variants. Interestingly, however, the BNT162b2 vaccine also modulated the production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells upon stimulation with both specific (SARS-CoV-2) and non-specific (viral, fungal and bacterial) stimuli. The response of innate immune cells to TLR4 and TLR7/8 ligands was lower after BNT162b2 vaccination, while fungi-induced cytokine responses were stronger. In conclusion, the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine induces complex functional reprogramming of innate immune responses, which should be considered in the development and use of this new class of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
14.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.03.18.21253874

ABSTRACT

Background Pre-/asymptomatic close contacts of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals were tested at day 5 after contact by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Diagnostic accuracy of antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) in pre-/asymptomatic close contacts was up till now unknown. Methods We performed a prospective cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy study. Close contacts (e.g. selected via the test-and-trace program or contact tracing app) aged [≥]16 years and asymptomatic when requesting a test, were included consecutively and tested at day 5 at four Dutch public health service test sites. We evaluated two Ag-RDTs (BD VeritorTM System Ag-RDT (BD), and Roche/SD Biosensor Ag-RDT (SD-B)) with RT-PCR as the reference standard. Virus culture was performed in RT-PCR positive individuals to determine the viral load cut-off above which 95% was culture positive, as a proxy of infectiousness. Results Of 2,678 BD-tested individuals, 233 (8.7%) were RT-PCR positive and BD detected 149 (sensitivity 63.9%; 95% confidence interval 57.4%-70.1%). Out of 1,596 SD-B-tested individuals, 132 (8.3%) were RT-PCR positive and SD-B detected 83 (sensitivity 62.9%; 54.0%-71.1%). When applying an infectiousness viral load cut-off >= 5.2 log10 gene copies/mL, the sensitivity was 90.1% (84.2%-94.4%) for BD, 86.8% (78.1% to 93.0%) for SD-B overall, and 88.1% (80.5%-93.5%) for BD, 85.1% (74.3%-92.6%) for SD-B for those still asymptomatic at the actual time of sampling. Specificity was >99% for both Ag-RDTs in all analyses. Conclusions The sensitivity for detecting SARS-CoV-2 of both Ag-RDTs in pre-/asymptomatic close contacts is over 60%, increasing to over 85% after applying an infectiousness viral load cut-off.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19
15.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.12.18.423439

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presented a crisis for global healthcare systems. Human SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been characterised as an acute respiratory illness, with most patients displaying flu-like symptoms, such as a fever, cough and dyspnoea. However, the range and severity of individual symptoms experienced by patients can vary significantly, indicating a role for host genetics in impacting the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 disease. Whilst most symptomatic infections are known to manifest in mild to moderate respiratory symptoms, severe pneumonia and complications including cytokine release syndrome, which can lead to multi-organ dysfunction, have also been observed in cases worldwide. Global initiatives to sequence the genomes of patients with COVID-19 have driven an expanding new field of host genomics research, to characterise the genetic determinants of COVID-19 disease. The functional annotation and analysis of incoming genomic data, within a clinically relevant turnaround time, is therefore imperative given the importance and urgency of research efforts to understand the biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. To address these requirements, we developed SNPnexus COVID. This is a web-based variant annotation tool, powered by the SNPnexus software.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Fever , Cough , COVID-19 , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency
16.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.12.18.423467

ABSTRACT

Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard as diagnostic assays for the detection of COVID-19 and the specificity and sensitivity of these assays depend on the complementarity of the RT-PCR primers to the genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the virus mutates over time during replication cycles, there is an urgent need to continuously monitor the virus genome for appearances of mutations and mismatches in the PCR primers used in these assays. Here we present assayM, a web application to explore and monitor mutations introduced in the primer and probe sequences published by the World Health Organisation (WHO) or in any custom-designed assay primers for SARS-CoV-2 detection assays in globally available SARS-CoV-2 genome datasets.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19
17.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.12.17.423376

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated to a wide range of extra-respiratory complications, of which the pathogenesis is currently not fully understood. In this study we report the temporal kinetics of viral RNA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in serum during the course of COVID-19. We show that a RNAemia occurs more frequently and lasts longer in patients that develop critical disease compared to patients that develop moderate or severe disease. Furthermore we show that concentrations of IL-10 and MCP-1--but not IL-6--are associated with viral load in serum. However, higher levels of IL-6 were associated with the development of critical disease. The direct association of inflammatory cytokines with viral load or disease severity highlights the complexity of systemic inflammatory response and the role of systemic viral spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
18.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.11.18.20234104

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRapid detection of infectious individuals is essential in stopping the further spread of SARS-CoV-2. Although rapid antigen test is not as sensitive as the gold standard RT-PCR, the time to result is decreased by day(s), strengthening the effectiveness of contact tracing. MethodsThe Roche/SD Biosensor lateral flow antigen rapid test was evaluated in a mild symptomatic population at a large drive through testing site. A second nasopharyngeal swab was directly tested with the rapid test on site and results were compared to RT-PCR and virus culture. Date of onset and symptoms were analysed using data from a clinical questionnaire. ResultsWe included 970 persons with complete data. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 84.9% (CI95% 79.1-89.4) and 99.5% (CI95% 98.7-99.8) which translated into a positive predictive value of 97.5% (CI95% 94.0-99.5) under the current regional PCR positivity of 19.2%. Sensitivity for people with high loads of viral RNA (ct <30, 2.17E+05 E gene copy/ml) and who presented within 7 days since symptom onset increased to 95.8% (CI95% 90.5-98.2). Band intensity and time to result correlated strongly with viral load thus strong positive bands could be read before the recommended time. Around 98% of all viable specimen with ct <30 were detected successfully indicating that the large majority of infectious people can be captured with this test. ConclusionAntigen rapid tests can detect mildly symptomatic cases in the early phase of disease thereby identifying the most infectious individuals. Using this assay can have a significant value in the speed and effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak management. SummaryO_LIPeople with early onset and high viral load were detected with 98.2% sensitivity. C_LIO_LI97% of individuals in which virus could be cultured were detected by the rapid test. C_LIO_LIThis test is suitable to detect mild symptomatic cases. C_LI

19.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-105265.v1

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma could be an inexpensive and widely available treatment for COVID-19 patients but reports on effectiveness are inconclusive. We collected convalescent plasma from donors with high titers of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies effectively blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. In a randomized clinical trial of 86 COVID-19 patients, no overall clinical benefit of 300 mL convalescent plasma was found in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the Netherlands. Using a comprehensive translational approach, we unraveled the virological and immunological responses following plasma treatment which helps to understand which COVID-19 patients may benefit from this therapy and should be the focus of future studies. Convalescent plasma treatment in this patient group did not improve survival, had no effect on the clinical course of disease, nor did plasma enhance viral clearance in the respiratory tract, influence anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody development or serum proinflammatory cytokines levels. The vast majority of patients already had potent neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at hospital admission and at comparable titers as the carefully selected plasma donors. Together, these data indicate that the variable effectivity observed in trials on convalescent plasma for COVID-19 may be explained by the timing of treatment and varying levels of preexisting anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in patients. It also substantiates that convalescent plasma should be studied as early as possible in the disease course or at least preceding the start of an autologous humoral response. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04342182


Subject(s)
COVID-19
20.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.09.01.277152

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic origin of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is still unknown. Animal experiments have shown that non-human primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits and bats can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and humans living or working on these farms, using whole genome sequencing. We conclude that the virus was initially introduced from humans and has evolved, most likely reflecting widespread circulation among mink in the beginning of the infection period several weeks prior to detection. At the moment, despite enhanced biosecurity, early warning surveillance and immediate culling of infected farms, there is ongoing transmission between mink farms with three big transmission clusters with unknown modes of transmission. We also describe the first animal to human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in mink farms. One sentence summarySARS-CoV-2 transmission on mink farms.

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