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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
2.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is an assessment scale of in-hospital patients' conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of a potential off-label use of NEWS by the emergency medical system (EMS) to facilitate the identification of critical patients and to trigger appropriate care in the pre-hospital setting. METHODS: A single centre, longitudinal, prospective study was carried out between July and August 2020 in the EMS service of Bologna. Home patients with age ≥ 18 years old were included in the study. The exclusion criterion was the impossibility to collect all the parameters needed to measure NEWS. RESULTS: A total of 654 patients were enrolled in the study. The recorded NEWS values increased along with the severity of dispatch priority code, the EMS return code, the emergency department triage code, and with patients' age (r = 0.135; p = 0.001). The aggregated value of NEWS was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (OR = 1.30 (1.17; 1.34); p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study showed that the use of NEWS in the urgent and emergency care services can help patient assessment while not affecting EMS crew operation and might assist decision making in terms of severity-code assignment and resources utilization.

3.
Neuroendocrinology ; 111(11): 1066-1085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health issue which has profound effects on most aspects of societal well-being, including physical and mental health. A plethora of studies globally have suggested the existence of a sex disparity in the severity and outcome of COVID-19 patients, mainly due to mechanisms of virus infection, immune response to the virus, development of systemic inflammation, and consequent systemic complications, particularly thromboembolism. Epidemiological data report a sex difference in the severity of COVID-19, with a more favorable course of the disease in women compared to men regardless of age, although the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be similar in both sexes. Sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, may not only impact virus entry and load, but also shape the clinical manifestations, complications, and ultimately the outcome of the disease. The current review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on sex disparities in susceptibility and outcome of COVID-19 as well as the literature underpinning the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms, which may provide a rationale to a sex disparity. These mechanisms include sex hormone influence on factors that facilitate virus entry and priming, immune and inflammatory response, as well as coagulation and thrombosis diathesis. Based on present evidence, women appear to be relatively protected from COVID-19 because of a more effective immune response and a less pronounced systemic inflammation, with consequent moderate clinical manifestations of the disease, together with a lesser predisposition to thromboembolism. Conversely, men appear to be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 because of a less effective immune response with consequent severe clinical manifestations of the disease, together with a greater predisposition to thromboembolism. In the elderly, generally characterized by the phenomenon of inflammaging, sex disparities in overall mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection are even more palpable as elderly men appear to be more prone to severe COVID-19 because of a greater predisposition to infections, a weaker immune defense, and an enhanced thrombotic state compared to women. The information revealed from the review highlights potential novel therapeutic approaches employing the administration of hormonal or antihormonal therapy in combination with antiviral drugs in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/antagonists & inhibitors , Hormone Antagonists/pharmacology , Hormone Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 22(2): 275-296, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092722

ABSTRACT

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in hospitalized patients. Out of 3714 retrieved articles, 87 studies were considered, including 35,486 patients (mean age 60.9 ± 8.2 years) and 5867 deaths. After adjustment for confounders, diabetes mellitus was the best predictors of MR in an age- and sex-dependent manner, followed by chronic pulmonary obstructive diseases and malignancies. In both the US and Europe, MR was higher than that reported in Asia (25[20;29] % and 20[17;23] % vs. 13[10;17]%; both p < 0.02). Among clinical parameters, dyspnea, fatigue and myalgia, along with respiratory rate, emerged as the best predictors of MR. Finally, reduced lymphocyte and platelet count, along with increased D-dimer levels, all significantly contributed to increased mortality. The optimization of glucose profile along with an adequate thrombotic complications preventive strategy must become routine practice in diseased SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Aged , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
Andrology ; 9(1): 88-98, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of new severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has stressed the importance of effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of clinical worsening and mortality. Epidemiological data showing a differential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on women and men have suggested a potential role for testosterone (T) in determining gender disparity in the SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between T level and SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes (defined as conditions requiring transfer to higher or lower intensity of care or death) in a cohort of patients admitted in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 31 male patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and recovered in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of the "Carlo Poma" Hospital in Mantua were analyzed. Several biochemical risk factors (ie, blood count and leukocyte formula, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6)) as well as total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined. RESULTS: Lower TT and cFT were found in the transferred to ICU/deceased in RICU group vs groups of patients transferred to IM or maintained in the RICU in stable condition. Both TT and cFT showed a negative significant correlation with biochemical risk factors (ie, the neutrophil count, LDH, and PCT) but a positive association with the lymphocyte count. Likewise, TT was also negatively associated with CRP and ferritin levels. A steep increase in both ICU transfer and mortality risk was observed in men with TT < 5 nmol/L or cFT < 100 pmol/L. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates for the first time that lower baseline levels of TT and cFT levels predict poor prognosis and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected men admitted to RICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Andrology ; 9(1): 19-22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186333

ABSTRACT

Preliminary published data depict a much greater prevalence of males with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) referred for intensive care unit admission and severe sequelae in several countries. In this context, males seem to not only be more susceptible to the infection compared to female subjects, at least in Western countries, but their case fatality rate attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection is also highest. Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another option is that SARS-CoV-2 infection per se causes an acute stage of male hypogonadism, the depletion of androgenic action triggering serious or an even fatal course of the disease. Therefore, we strongly advocate the development of a prospective multidimensional andrological translational research project in men, which we called the PROTEGGIMI study. In this Opinion Article, we will not only highlight novel research activity in this area but also invite other researchers and learned scientific societies to join us in our efforts to understand an important and very newly discovered gap in knowledge, which may have serious implications for the lives of millions of men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Frailty/virology , Health Status Disparities , Hypogonadism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Testosterone/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Frailty/metabolism , Frailty/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypogonadism/metabolism , Hypogonadism/mortality , Male , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
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