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1.
Montalto, Francesca, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Noto, Alberto, Madotto, Fabiana, Gelardi, Filippa, Savatteri, Paolino, Giarratano, Antonino, Cortegiani, Andrea, Brescia, Fabrizio, Fabiani, Fabio, Zanier, Chiara, Nadalini, Elisa, Gambaretti, Eros, Gabriele, Francesco, Astuto, Marinella, Murabito, Paolo, Sanfilippo, Filippo, Misseri, Giovanni, Moscarelli, Alessandra, Spadaro, Savino, Bussolati, Enrico, Squadrani, Eleonora, Villa, Gianluca, D’Errico, Raffaella, Cocci, Giulia, Lanini, Iacopo, Mirabella, Lucia, Morelli, Alessandra, Tullo, Livio, Caggianelli, Girolamo, Ball, Lorenzo, Iiriti, Margherita, Giordani, Francesca, Giardina, Massimiliano, Mazzeo, Anna Teresa, Grasselli, Giacomo, Cattaneo, Emanuele, Alongi, Salvatore, Marenghi, Cristina, Marmiere, Marilena, Rocchi, Margherita, Turi, Stefano, Landoni, Giovanni, Torrano, Vito, Tinti, Giulia, Giorgi, Antonio, Fumagalli, Roberto, Salvo, Francesco, Blangetti, Ilaria, Cascella, Marco, Forte, Cira Antonietta, Navalesi, Paolo, Montalbano, Marta, Chiarelli, Valentina, Bonanno, Giuseppe, Ferrara, Francesco Paolo, Pernice, Innocenza, Catalisano, Giulia, Marino, Claudia, Presti, Gabriele, Fricano, Dario Calogero, Fucà, Rosa, Palmeri di Villalba, Cesira, Strano, Maria Teresa, Caruso, Sabrina, Scafidi, Antonino, Mazzarese, Vincenzo, Augugliaro, Ettore, Terranova, Valeria, Forfori, Francesco, Corradi, Francesco, Taddei, Erika, Isirdi, Alessandro, Pratesi, Giorgia, Puccini, Francesca, Paternoster, Gianluca, Barile, Alessio, Tescione, Marco, Santacaterina, Irene, Siclari, Eliana Maria, Tripodi, Vincenzo Francesco, Vadalà, Mariacristina, Agrò, Felice Eugenio, Pascarella, Giuseppe, Piliego, Chiara, Aceto, Paola, De Pascale, Gennaro, Dottarelli, Alessandra, Romanò, Bruno, Russo, Andrea, Covotta, Marco, Giorgerini, Valeria, Sardellitti, Federica, Vitelli, Giulia Maria, Coluzzi, Flaminia, Bove, Tiziana, Vetrugno, Luigi.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 1(1):17-17, 2021.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1542137
3.
Ultraschall Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500782

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this survey was to describe the use and diffusion of lung ultrasound (LUS), the level of training received before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clinical impact LUS has had on COVID-19 cases in intensive care units (ICU) from February 2020 to May 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Italian Lung Ultrasound Survey (ITALUS) was a nationwide online survey proposed to Italian anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians carried out after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It consisted of 27 questions, both quantitative and qualitative. RESULTS: 807 responded to the survey. The median previous LUS experience was 3 years (IQR 1.0-6.0). 473 (60.9 %) reported having attended at least one training course on LUS before the COVID-19 pandemic. 519 (73.9 %) reported knowing how to use the LUS score. 404 (52 %) reported being able to use LUS without any supervision. 479 (68.2 %) said that LUS influenced their clinical decision-making, mostly with respect to patient monitoring. During the pandemic, the median of patients daily evaluated with LUS increased 3-fold (p < 0.001), daily use of general LUS increased from 10.4 % to 28.9 % (p < 0.001), and the daily use of LUS score in particular increased from 1.6 % to 9.0 % (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This survey showed that LUS was already extensively used during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic by anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians in Italy, and then its adoption increased further. Residency programs are already progressively implementing LUS teaching. However, 76.7 % of the sample did not undertake any LUS certification.

4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 46, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403246

ABSTRACT

On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pandemics , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , International Cooperation , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration
5.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(4): 432-438, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether measurement of diaphragm thickness (DT) by ultrasonography may be a clinically useful noninvasive method for identifying patients at risk of adverse outcomes defined as need of invasive mechanical ventilation or death. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 77 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to our intermediate care unit in Pisa between March 5 and March 30, 2020, with follow-up until hospital discharge or death. Logistic regression was used identify variables potentially associated with adverse outcomes and those P<0.10 were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. Cumulative probability for lack of adverse outcomes in patients with or without low baseline diaphragm muscle mass was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator. RESULTS: The main findings of this study are that: 1) patients who developed adverse outcomes had thinner diaphragm than those who did not (2.0 vs. 2.2 mm, P=0.001); and 2) DT and lymphocyte count were independent significant predictors of adverse outcomes, with end-expiratory DT being the strongest (ß=-708; OR=0.492; P=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragmatic ultrasound may be a valid tool to evaluate the risk of respiratory failure. Evaluating the need of mechanical ventilation treatment should be based not only on PaO2/FiO2, but on a more comprehensive assessment including DT because if the lungs become less compliant a thinner diaphragm, albeit free of intrinsic abnormality, may become exhausted, thus contributing to severe respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Muscles/anatomy & histology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Diaphragm/anatomy & histology , Diaphragm/pathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
6.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(4): 444-454, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the application of a lung ultrasound (LUS)-based diagnostic approach to patients suspected of COVID-19, combining the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia with patient's symptoms and clinical history. METHODS: This is an international multicenter observational study in 20 US and European hospitals. Patients suspected of COVID-19 were tested with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) swab test and had an LUS examination. We identified three clinical phenotypes based on pre-existing chronic diseases (mixed phenotype), and on the presence (severe phenotype) or absence (mild phenotype) of signs and/or symptoms of respiratory failure at presentation. We defined the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia according to four different patterns: high (HighLUS), intermediate (IntLUS), alternative (AltLUS), and low (LowLUS) probability. The combination of patterns and phenotypes with RT-PCR results was described and analyzed. RESULTS: We studied 1462 patients, classified in mild (n = 400), severe (n = 727), and mixed (n = 335) phenotypes. HighLUS and IntLUS showed an overall sensitivity of 90.2% (95% CI 88.23-91.97%) in identifying patients with positive RT-PCR, with higher values in the mixed (94.7%) and severe phenotype (97.1%), and even higher in those patients with objective respiratory failure (99.3%). The HighLUS showed a specificity of 88.8% (CI 85.55-91.65%) that was higher in the mild phenotype (94.4%; CI 90.0-97.0%). At multivariate analysis, the HighLUS was a strong independent predictor of RT-PCR positivity (odds ratio 4.2, confidence interval 2.6-6.7, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combining LUS patterns of probability with clinical phenotypes at presentation can rapidly identify those patients with or without COVID-19 pneumonia at bedside. This approach could support and expedite patients' management during a pandemic surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Adult , Aged , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Middle Aged
8.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 25(1): e135-e140, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069135

ABSTRACT

Introduction Percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a well-established practice that shows a reduced risk of wound infection compared with surgical tracheostomy, thus facilitating mechanical ventilation, nursing procedures, reduction in sedation and early mobilization. Objective This is an observational case-control study that compares the results of PT in ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prospectively enrolled to a similar group of subjects, retrospectively recruited, without COVID-19. Methods Ninety-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU at Pisa Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana between March 11th and May 20 th , 2020 were prospectively studied. Thirty of them underwent PT using different techniques. Another 30 non-COVID-19 ICU patients were used as a control-group. The main outcome was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of PT in COVID-19 patients. We measured the rate of complications. Results Percutaneous tracheostomy was performed with different techniques in 30 of the 98 COVID-19 ICU patients admitted to the ICU. Tracheostomy was performed on day 10 (mean 10 ± 3.3) from the time of intubation. Major tracheal complications occurred in 5 patients during the procedure. In the control group of 30 ICU patients, no differences were found with regards to the timing of the tracheostomy, whereas a statistically significant difference was observed regarding complications with only one tracheal ring rupture reported. Conclusion Percutaneous tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients showed a higher rate of complications compared with controls even though the same precautions and the same expertise were applied. Larger studies are needed to understand whether the coronavirus disease itself carries an increased risk of tracheal damage.

9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(12): ofaa563, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998449

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on the outcome of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Methods: This is a prospective observational study including consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (March 4-April 30, 2020). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The secondary endpoint was a composite of death or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low-molecular-weight heparin, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, macrolides, antiretrovirals, remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, and steroids were evaluated as treatment exposures of interest. First, a Cox regression analysis, in which treatments were introduced as time-dependent variables, was performed to evaluate the association of exposures and outcomes. Then, a time-dependent propensity score (PS) was calculated and a PS matching was performed for each treatment variable. Results: Among 315 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 70 (22.2%) died during hospital stay. The composite endpoint was achieved by 114 (36.2%) patients. Overall, 244 (77.5%) patients received LMWH, 238 (75.5%) received hydroxychloroquine, 201 (63.8%) received proteases inhibitors, 150 (47.6%) received doxycycline, 141 (44.8%) received steroids, 42 (13.3%) received macrolides, 40 (12.7%) received baricitinib, 13 (4.1%) received tocilizumab, and 13 (4.1%) received remdesivir. At multivariate analysis, LMWH was associated with a reduced risk of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.6; P < .001) and composite endpoint (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95; P = .029). The PS-matched cohort of 55 couples confirmed the same results for both primary and secondary endpoint. Conclusions: This study suggests that LMWH might reduce the risk of in-hospital mortality and severe ARDS in coronavirus disease 2019. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

10.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(12): 1340-1345, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994926

ABSTRACT

Acute cardiac injury incidence in COVID-19 is about 13 times higher in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/severely ill than in less critical patients. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities seem to be more prone to develop higher acuity of the infection, and myocardial injury has been reported amongst them in up to 15% of those hospitalized and up to 30% of ICU-admitted ones. The symptoms of over ischemia/heart failure may be challenging to distinguish as dyspnea and chest discomfort overlap with those due to COVID-19. Therefore, beside close monitoring with electrocardiography, biomarkers and, in case of demonstrated cardiac involvement, echocardiography, strategies to improve myocardial oxygen delivery should be promptly applied. The cytokine release with complement and iNO dysregulation are established mechanisms potentially leading to sepsis-related cardiomyopathy, making sepsis per se one of the potential mechanism leading to acute cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the hyper-inflammation with endothelial dysfunction is likely be responsible of both pulmonary in-situ platelet aggregation and deep thrombosis potentially leading to severe pulmonary embolism and right ventricular failure. Besides the customary antithrombotic prophylaxis for critical patients, D-dimer levels and tighter coagulation monitoring are recommended and should guide the choice for anticoagulation treatment. We summarize the current knowledge regarding cardiovascular involvement in patient with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy
11.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 702, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992527

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused great devastation in the past year. Multi-organ point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) including lung ultrasound (LUS) and focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) as a clinical adjunct has played a significant role in triaging, diagnosis and medical management of COVID-19 patients. The expert panel from 27 countries and 6 continents with considerable experience of direct application of PoCUS on COVID-19 patients presents evidence-based consensus using GRADE methodology for the quality of evidence and an expedited, modified-Delphi process for the strength of expert consensus. The use of ultrasound is suggested in many clinical situations related to respiratory, cardiovascular and thromboembolic aspects of COVID-19, comparing well with other imaging modalities. The limitations due to insufficient data are highlighted as opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Consensus , Echocardiography/standards , Expert Testimony/standards , Internationality , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Expert Testimony/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Triage/methods , Triage/standards , Ultrasonography/standards
12.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 284: 103585, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a variable number of Covid-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, non-invasive breathing support strategies cannot provide adequate oxygenation, thus making invasive mechanical ventilation necessary. Factors predicting this unfavorable outcome are unknown, but we hypothesized that diaphragmatic weakness may contribute. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the data of 27 consecutive patients admitted to the general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from March 19, 2020, to April 20, 2020 and submitted to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) before considering invasive ventilation. Diaphragmatic thickening fraction (DTF) inferred by ultrasound was determined before applying CPAP. RESULTS: Eighteen patients recovered with CPAP, whereas nine required invasive mechanical ventilation with longer stay in ICU (p < 0.001) and hospital (p = 0.003). At univariate logistic regression analysis, CPAP failure was significantly associated with low DTF [ß: -0.396; OR: 0.673; p < 0.001] and high respiratory rate [ß: 0.452; OR: 1.572; p < 0.001] but only DTF reached statistical significance at multivariate analysis [ß: -0.384; OR: 0.681; p < 0.001]. The DTF best threshold predicting CPAP failure was 21.4 % (AUC: 0.944; sensitivity: 94.4 %, specificity: 88.9 %). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with Covid-19 respiratory failure admitted to ICU, a reduced DTF could be a potential predictor of CPAP failure and requirement of invasive ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Diaphragm/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Aged , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
13.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-933881

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the impact of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods Prospective observational study including consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (4th March-30th April 2020). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The secondary endpoint was a composite of death or severe ARDS. LMWH, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, macrolides, antiretrovirals, remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, and steroids were evaluated as treatment exposures of interest. First, a Cox-regression analysis, in which treatments were introduced as time-dependent variables, was performed to evaluate the association of exposures and outcomes. Then, a time-dependent Propensity-score (PS) was calculated and a PS-matching performed for each treatment variable. Results Among 315 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 70 (22.2%) died during hospital stay. The composite endpoint was achieved by 114 (36.2%) patients. Overall, 244 (77.5%) patients received LMWH, 238 (75.5%) hydroxychloroquine, 201 (63.8%) proteases inhibitors, 150 (47.6%) doxycycline, 141 (44.8%) steroids, 42 (13.3%) macrolides, 40 (12.7%) baricitinib, 13 (4.1%) tocilizumab, and 13 (4.1%) remdesivir. At multivariate analysis, LMWH was associated with a reduced risk of 30-day mortality (HR 0.36 [95% CI 0.21-0.6], p<0.001) and composite endpoint (HR 0.61 [95% CI 0.39-0.95], p=0.029). The PS-matched cohort of 55 couples confirmed the same results for both primary and secondary endpoint. Conclusions This study suggests that LMWH might reduce the risk of in-hospital mortality and severe ARDS in Covid-19. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

15.
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care ; 2020.
Article | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-759369

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus spread rapidly around the world infecting millions of people. It was thus declared a pandemic. This new virus damages the lungs. In the most severe cases, it leads to acute respiratory failure that requires intensive care treatment. However, many clinical reports have listed different neurological symptoms, leading to increased interest in the neurological involvement of COVID-19. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain these neurological aspects. Direct viral invasion of the nervous system, systemic cytokine storm and severe hypoxemia are key factors in the development of symptoms. Critically ill patients present several additional risk factors for nervous system damage. Reasons for these include deep sedation and extended muscular paralysis, bed rest for several days, and the inability to receive proper physical rehabilitation. After ICU treatment, COVID-19 patients generally require an extensive rehabilitation program. However, distancing restrictions mean that in many cases physiotherapists are unable to enter ICUs, delaying the process of rehabilitation. The role of telemedicine should be considered as an adjunctive tool in the rehabilitation of critically ill COVID-19 patients.

17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(6): 1866-1874, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593389

ABSTRACT

Lung ultrasound (LU) has a multitude of features and capacities that make it a useful medical tool to assist physicians contending with the pandemic spread of novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Thus, an LU approach to patients with suspected COVID-19 is being implemented worldwide. In noncritical COVID-19 patients, 2 new LU signs have been described and proposed, the "waterfall" and the "light beam" signs. Both signs have been hypothesized to increase the diagnostic accuracy of LU for COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia. In critically ill patients, a distinct pattern of LU changes seems to follow the disease's progression, and this information can be used to guide decisions about when a patient needs to be ventilated, as occurs in other disease states similar to COVID-19. Furthermore, a new algorithm has been published, which enables the automatic detection of B-lines as well as quantification of the percentage of the pleural line associated with lung disease. In COVID-19 patients, a direct involvement of cardiac function has been demonstrated, and ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction might be present due to the prolonged mechanical ventilation often involved, as reported for similar diseases. For this reason, cardiac and diaphragm ultrasound evaluation are highly important. Last but not least, due to the thrombotic tendency of COVID-19 patients, particular attention also should be paid to vascular ultrasound. This review is primarily devoted to the study of LU in COVID-19 patients. The authors explain the significance of its "light and shadows," bearing in mind the context in which LU is being used-the emergency department and the intensive care setting. The use of cardiac, vascular, and diaphragm ultrasound is also discussed, as a comprehensive approach to patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diaphragm , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
19.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 25, 2020 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38538

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic underlines the importance of a mindful utilization of financial and human resources. Preserving resources and manpower is paramount in healthcare. It is important to ensure the ability of surgeons and specialized professionals to function through the pandemic. A conscious effort should be made to minimize infection in this sector. A high mortality rate within this group would be detrimental.This manuscript is the result of a collaboration between the major Italian surgical and anesthesiologic societies: ACOI, SIC, SICUT, SICO, SICG, SIFIPAC, SICE, and SIAARTI. We aim to describe recommended clinical pathways for COVID-19-positive patients requiring acute non-deferrable surgical care. All hospitals should organize dedicated protocols and workforce training as part of the effort to face the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgeons/standards
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