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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869853

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify individual features associated with increased risk of post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 illness. We performed a nested case-control study based on 5,350,295 citizens from Lombardy, Italy, aged ≥ 12 years who received a complete anti-COVID-19 vaccination from 17 January 2021 to 31 July 2021, and followed from 14 days after vaccine completion to 11 November 2021. Overall, 17,996 infections and 3023 severe illness cases occurred. For each case, controls were 1:1 (infection cases) or 1:10 (severe illness cases) matched for municipality of residence and date of vaccination completion. The association between selected predictors (sex, age, previous occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, type of vaccine received, number of previous contacts with the Regional Health Service (RHS), and the presence of 59 diseases) and outcomes was assessed by using multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Sex, age, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, type of vaccine and number of contacts with the RHS were associated with the risk of infection and severe illness. Moreover, higher odds of infection and severe illness were significantly associated with 14 and 34 diseases, respectively, among those investigated. These results can be helpful to clinicians and policy makers for prioritizing interventions.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza can cause serious morbidity, mortality, and financial burden in pediatric and adult populations. The influenza vaccine (IV) is considered the most effective way to prevent influenza and influenza-like-illness (ILI) complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the IV in a cohort of healthy children in Italy. METHODS: From the Pedianet database, all healthy children aged six months-14 years between 2009-2019 were enrolled. Cox proportional-hazards models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios and the 95% confidence interval for the association between IV exposure during each season of interest (from October to April of each year) with incident influenza/ILI. Exposure was considered as a time-varying variable. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as (1-HR) × 100. The additive and prolonged effects of IV were evaluated across the seasons. RESULTS: We found a high IV effectiveness among healthy children. No additional or prolonged effects were found. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that IV was effective in preventing influenza/ILI in healthy children. Therefore, IV should be encouraged and provided free of charge to healthy children in all the Italian regions every year, reducing disease spread and lowering the burden on the pediatric population.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(5): 649-656, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scarce information is available on the duration of the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination against the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe clinical consequences. We investigated the effect of time since vaccine completion on the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe forms. METHODS: In this retrospective observational analysis using the vaccination campaign integrated platform of the Italian region of Lombardy, 5 351 085 individuals aged 12 years or older who received complete vaccination from Jan 17 to July 31, 2021, were followed up from 14 days after vaccine completion until Oct 20, 2021. Changes over time in outcome rates (ie, SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness among vaccinated individuals) were analysed with age-period-cohort models. Trends in vaccine effectiveness (ie, outcomes comparison in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals) were also measured. FINDINGS: Overall, 14 140 infections and 2450 severe illnesses were documented, corresponding to incidence rates of 6·7 (95% CI 6·6-6·8) and 1·2 (1·1-1·2) cases per 10 000 person-months, respectively. From the first to the ninth month since vaccine completion, rates increased from 4·6 to 10·2 infections, and from 1·0 to 1·7 severe illnesses every 10 000 person-months. These figures correspond to relative reduction of vaccine effectiveness of 54·9% (95% CI 48·3-60·6) for infection and of 40·0% (16·2-57·0) for severe illness. The increasing infection rate was greater for individuals aged 60 years or older who received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 4·0 to 23·5 cases every 10 000 person-months). The increasing severe illness rates were similar for individuals receiving mRNA-based vaccines (from 1·1 to 1·5 every 10 000 person-months) and adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 0·5 to 0·9 every 10 000 person-months). INTERPRETATION: Although the risk of infection after vaccination, and even more of severe illness, remains low, the gradual increase in clinical outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the booster campaign should be accelerated and that social and individual protection measures against COVID-19 spread should not be abandoned. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , mRNA Vaccines
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792368

ABSTRACT

Background. Limited evidence exists on the balance between the benefits and harms of the COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of this study is to compare the benefits and safety of mRNA-based (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) and adenovirus-vectored (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccines in subpopulations defined by age and sex. Methods. All citizens who are newly vaccinated from 27 December 2020 to 3 May 2021 are matched to unvaccinated controls according to age, sex, and vaccination date. Study outcomes include the events that are expected to be avoided by vaccination (i.e., hospitalization and death from COVID-19) and those that might be increased after vaccine inoculation (i.e., venous thromboembolism). The incidence rate ratios (IRR) of vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens are separately estimated within strata of sex, age category and vaccine type. When suitable, number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) are calculated to evaluate the balance between the benefits and harm of vaccines within each sex and age category. Results. In total, 2,351,883 citizens are included because they received at least one dose of vaccine (755,557 Oxford-AstraZeneca and 1,596,326 Pfizer/Moderna). A reduced incidence of COVID-19-related outcomes is observed with a lowered incidence rate ranging from 55% to 89% and NNT values ranging from 296 to 3977. Evidence of an augmented incidence of harm-related outcomes is observed only for women aged <50 years within 28 days after Oxford-AstraZeneca (being the corresponding adjusted IRR of 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6, and NNH value of 23,207, 95% CI 10,274-89,707). Conclusions. A favourable balance between benefits and harms is observed in the current study, even among younger women who received Oxford-AstraZeneca.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might affect mental health. Data from population-representative panel surveys with multiple waves including pre-COVID data investigating risk and protective factors are still rare. METHODS: In a stratified random sample of the German household population (n = 6684), we conducted survey-weighted multiple linear regressions to determine the association of various psychological risk and protective factors assessed between 2015 and 2020 with changes in psychological distress [(PD; measured via Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4)] from pre-pandemic (average of 2016 and 2019) to peri-pandemic (both 2020 and 2021) time points. Control analyses on PD change between two pre-pandemic time points (2016 and 2019) were conducted. Regularized regressions were computed to inform on which factors were statistically most influential in the multicollinear setting. RESULTS: PHQ-4 scores in 2020 (M = 2.45) and 2021 (M = 2.21) were elevated compared to 2019 (M = 1.79). Several risk factors (catastrophizing, neuroticism, and asking for instrumental support) and protective factors (perceived stress recovery, positive reappraisal, and optimism) were identified for the peri-pandemic outcomes. Control analyses revealed that in pre-pandemic times, neuroticism and optimism were predominantly related to PD changes. Regularized regression mostly confirmed the results and highlighted perceived stress recovery as most consistent influential protective factor across peri-pandemic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several psychological risk and protective factors related to PD outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. A comparison of pre-pandemic data stresses the relevance of longitudinal assessments to potentially reconcile contradictory findings. Implications and suggestions for targeted prevention and intervention programs during highly stressful times such as pandemics are discussed.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320241

ABSTRACT

Objective: to investigate both muscular manifestations and CK levels of a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection and to determine whether hyperckemia is associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods: Data of 615 patients discharged from ASST Ovest Milanese (Milan, Lombardy, Italy) with final diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were retrospectively extracted from electronical medical records from 21 February to 1 May 2020. Patients were descriptively analyzed with respect to the following variables: sex, age, muscular manifestations (including myalgia/arthralgia and fatigue), respiratory involvement (SARS pneumonia or respiratory failure) and history of falls. Association between patients’ characteristics and CK levels was investigated. In addition, the proportion of patients who died following access to the ER was calculated. Finally, the effect of CK levels and other patients’ features on mortality was estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: 176 (28.6%) patients had raised serum CK levels. 88 (14.3%) had muscular manifestations, of which 81 (13.2%) complained fatigue and 17 (2.8%) had myalgia and/or arthralgia. CK levels were significantly associated with respiratory involvement and fatal outcome. Conclusions: Our study provides preliminary evidence that hyperckemia is a predictor of respiratory involvement and fatal outcome in patients with COVID-19 infection. For patients with muscle damage symptoms, screening for COVID-19 infection is recommended together with the dosage of CK level.

7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 52, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several new variants, and few data are available on the impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 variants. We aimed to assess the association between natural (previous infection) and induced (partial or complete vaccination) exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the onset of new infection supported by the delta variant, and of comparing it with that supported by alpha. METHODS: We performed a test-negative case-control study, by linking population-based registries of confirmed diagnoses of infection with SARS-CoV-2, vaccinations against Covid-19 and healthcare utilization databases of the Italian Lombardy Region. Four hundred ninety-six persons who between 27 December 2020 and 16 July 2021 had an infection by the delta variant were 1:1 matched with citizens affected by alphavariant and 1:10 matched with persons who had a negative molecular test, according to gender, age and date of molecular ascertainment. We used a conditional logistic regression for estimating relative risk reduction of either variants associated with natural and/or induced immunization and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Previous infection was associated with 91% (95% CI 85% to 95%) reduced relative risk of reinfection, without evidence of significant differences between delta and alpha cases (p=0.547). Significant lower vaccinal protection against delta than alpha variant infection was observed with reduced relative risk associated with partial vaccination respectively of 29% (7% to 45%), and 62% (48% to 71%) (p=0.001), and with complete vaccination respectively of 75% (66% to 82%) and 90% (85% to 94%) (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Lower protection towards infections caused by the delta variant with respect to alpha variant was noticed, even after the completion of the vaccination cycle. This finding would support efforts to maximize both vaccine uptake with two doses and fulfilment with individual protection measures, especially as the delta variant is rampant worldwide presently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using the knowledge gained during the first eleven months of the vaccine campaign in Lombardy, Italy, we provide an overview of the benefits of using reliable, complete, and rapidly available observational data to monitor the progress of the vaccine strategy. METHODS: A population-based platform was implemented by linking four registries reporting individual data on: (i) date, type, and dose of vaccine dispensed; (ii) SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospital admissions and deaths due to COVID-19; (iii) inpatient diagnoses and outpatient services supplied by the Regional Health Services (RHS); and the (iv) health registry reporting and updating data on patient status. Background, methods, findings, and implications of eight COVID-19 relevant questions are reported. RESULTS: Before starting the vaccine campaign, we identified high-risk individuals who need to be prioritized. During the vaccine campaign, we: (i) monitored the trend in the speed of the vaccine campaign progression and the number of prevented clinical outcomes; (ii) verified that available vaccines work in real-life, assessed their effectiveness-harm profile, and measured their reduced effectiveness against the delta variant. Finally, we studied the reduced effectiveness of the vaccine over time and identified risk factors of post-vaccine infection and severe illness. CONCLUSIONS: The correct use of rapidly available observational data of good quality and completeness generates reliable evidence to promptly inform patients and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053281, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a population-based risk stratification model (COVID-19 Vulnerability Score) for predicting severe/fatal clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, using the multiple source information provided by the healthcare utilisation databases of the Italian National Health Service. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Population-based study using the healthcare utilisation database from five Italian regions. PARTICIPANTS: Beneficiaries of the National Health Service, aged 18-79 years, who had the residentship in the five participating regions. Residents in a nursing home were not included. The model was built from the 7 655 502 residents of Lombardy region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The score included gender, age and 29 conditions/diseases selected from a list of 61 conditions which independently predicted the primary outcome, that is, severe (intensive care unit admission) or fatal manifestation of COVID-19 experienced during the first epidemic wave (until June 2020). The score performance was validated by applying the model to several validation sets, that is, Lombardy population (second epidemic wave), and the other four Italian regions (entire 2020) for a total of about 15.4 million individuals and 7031 outcomes. Predictive performance was assessed by discrimination (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and calibration (plot of observed vs predicted outcomes). RESULTS: We observed a clear positive trend towards increasing outcome incidence as the score increased. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the COVID-19 Vulnerability Score ranged from 0.85 to 0.88, which compared favourably with the areas of generic scores such as the Charlson Comorbidity Score (0.60). A remarkable performance of the score on the calibration of observed and predicted outcome probability was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: A score based on data used for public health management accurately predicted the occurrence of severe/fatal manifestations of COVID-19. Use of this score may help health decision-makers to more accurately identify high-risk citizens who need early preventive or treatment interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
10.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 142: 45-53, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Methodological challenges for investigating the changes in healthcare utilization during COVID-19 pandemic must be considered for obtaining unbiased estimates. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A population-based study in the Lombardy region (Italy) measured the association between the level of epidemic restrictions (increasing exposure during pre-epidemic, post-lockdown, and lockdown periods) and the recommended healthcare (outcome) for patients with schizophrenia, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, breast cancer, and pregnancy women. Two designs are applied: the self-controlled case series (SCCS) and the usual cohort design. Adjustments for between-patients unmeasured confounders and seasonality of medical services delivering were performed. RESULTS: Compared with pre-epidemic, reductions in delivering recommended healthcare during lockdown up to 73% (95% confidence interval: 63%-80%) for timeliness of breast cancer surgery, and up to 20% (16%-23%) for appropriated gynecologic visit during pregnancy were obtained from SCCS and cohort design, respectively. Healthcare provision came back to pre-epidemic levels during the post-lockdown, with the exception of schizophrenic patients for whom the SCCS showed a reduction in continuity of care of 11% (11%-12%). CONCLUSION: Strategies for investigating the changes in healthcare utilization during pandemic must be implemented. Recommendations for taking into account sources of systematic uncertainty are discussed and illustrated by using motivating examples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/trends , COVID-19/economics , Chronic Disease/economics , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Quarantine
12.
J Hypertens ; 39(8): 1726-1727, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331602
13.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 765-767, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331174

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: What effects did the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic have on natural and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-mediated birth rates? DESIGN: Regional registries were consulted with permission from the Health Authorities of Lombardy Region, Northern Italy, an area particularly affected by the early phase of the epidemic. Deliveries occurring in the area between 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2020 from women beneficiaries of the National Health System and resident in Lombardy were identified. Comparisons mainly focused on December 2020, when women who conceived after 8 March (the start of the stringent lockdown imposed by the authorities) were expected to deliver. RESULTS: When comparing the periods January to November in 2019 and 2020, a 5.1% reduction of monthly general birth rate (from 5732 in 2019 to 5438 in 2020) was observed. The contribution of ART births was similar in 2019 and 2020, being 4.4% and 4.5%, respectively. In December 2020, a notable drop in natural (-17.8%), ART-mediated (-86.6%) and overall (-21.0%) births was observed compared with December 2019. After adjusting for the expected 5.1% reduction, the inferred effect of the COVID-19 crisis corresponded to a 16.7% reduction in birth rate, of which 76% was related to natural (707 births) and 24% to ART (218 births) conceptions. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study providing population-based evidence on the effects of COVID-19 and its related stringent restrictions on birth rates. The birth rate was dramatically reduced following the critical period, and the closure of ART centres played only a marginal role (24%) in the overall detrimental effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy, Multiple/statistics & numerical data , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Birth Rate , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Registries
14.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(2): 365-373, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All over the world, the COVID-19 pandemic, not unlikely other epidemics, has hit harder people in low socioeconomic conditions.In Western countries, undocumented migrants are a growing component of this disadvantaged segment of the population.Their health conditions are frequently burdened by a number of chronic conditions, and they experience many difficulties in accessing public health services. Frequently, the only medical assistance they can get is provided by non-governmental organisations. METHODS: We studied the medical records (including pharmacological treatments) of all patients attending the outpatient clinics of Opera San Francesco (OSF; a big charity in Milano, Italy), in the first 5 months of 2020. These comprise the outbreak of the pandemic and the lockdown period. The 1914 patients (1814 undocumented migrants and 100 Italians) seen during the lockdown were compared with those seen in the same period of 2019 and with those seen in the preceding months of 2020. We especially focused on three chronic conditions: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The number of consultations during the first 5 months of 2020 was much smaller than that of the same period of 2019. During the lockdown, we found 4048 consultations for 1914 patients, while they were 8051 in the same period of 2019 and 5681 in the first 2 months of 2020.The quantity of medicines dispensed by OSF showed a marked decrease in the period of the study and mainly during the lockdown.The decrease in consultations and dispensation of medicines was most evident for psychiatric patients and almost not existent for patients with diabetes. Female patients suffered a more pronounced reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Western countries need strategies to better assist the very poor during epidemics.Differences among different groups of disadvantaged persons should be taken into account when designing recovery plans.

15.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 604-606, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284908

Subject(s)
Bias , Humans
16.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may persist over time; however, knowledge regarding pediatric subjects is limited. METHODS: A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted on 57 family clusters of coronavirus disease 2019, including children of neonatal and pediatric age attending the University Hospital of Padua (Italy). For each patient, blood samples were collected for both the quantification of nAbs through a plaque reduction neutralizing test and the detection of antinucleocapsid-spike protein immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M. RESULTS: We analyzed 283 blood samples collected from 152 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases (82 parents and 70 children or older siblings of median age of 8 years, interquartile range: 4-13), presenting asymptomatic or with mildly symptomatic disease. Despite the decrease of immunoglobulin G over time, nAbs were found to persist up to 7 to 8 months in children, whereas adults recorded a modest declining trend. Interestingly, children aged <6 years, and, in particular, those aged <3 years, developed higher long-lasting levels of nAbs compared with older siblings and/or adults. CONCLUSIONS: Mild and asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in family clusters elicited higher nAbs among children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Data Collection , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
17.
Acta Myol ; 40(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate both muscular manifestations and CK levels in a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection and to determine whether hyperckemia is associated with morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Data of 615 patients discharged from ASST Ovest Milanese (Milan, Lombardy, Italy) with final diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were retrospectively extracted from electronical medical records from 21 February to 1 May 2020. Patients were descriptively analyzed with respect to the following variables: sex, age, muscular manifestations (myalgia and/or arthralgia), fatigue, respiratory involvement (SARS pneumonia or respiratory failure) and history of falls. Association between patients' characteristics and CK levels was investigated. In addition, the proportion of patients who died following access to the ER was calculated. Finally, the effect of CK levels and other patients' features on mortality was estimated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: 176 (28.6%) patients had raised serum CK levels. CK levels were significantly associated with history of falls, male gender, SARS pneumonia, respiratory failure and in-hospital death. No correlation was found between hyperckemia and muscular manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides preliminary evidence that hyperckemia is associated with respiratory failure and fatal outcome in patients with COVID-19 infection.In these patients, among other testing, CK dosage is recommended.


Subject(s)
Arthralgia/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Creatine Kinase/blood , Hyperkalemia/blood , Hyperkalemia/mortality , Myalgia/blood , Aged , Arthralgia/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Hypertens ; 39(5): 856-860, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several online sources provide up-to-date open-access data on numbers, rates and proportions of COVID-19 deaths. Our article aims of comparing and interpreting between-country trends of mortality rate, case-fatality and all-cause excess mortality. METHODS: We used data from open databases (Our World in Data mostly) for comparing mortality of eleven western countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, UK, USA). Between-country trends in mortality rate and case-fatality (both including deaths for COVID-19 as numerator and therefore labelled as COVID-19 mortality metrics) and all-cause excess mortality (i.e. observed deaths during the epidemic compared with those expected based on mortality in the same periods of previous years) were compared. RESULTS: Although Belgium ranks first in mortality from COVID-19 (possibly due to the broadest criterion for attributing a death to COVID-19), it does not rank first for all-cause excess mortality. Conversely, compared with Belgium, the UK, Italy and Spain have reported lower COVID-19 mortality (possibly due to the narrower definitions for a COVID-19 death) but higher all-cause excess mortality. Germany and Austria are the unique countries for which COVID-19 mortality, case-fatality and all-cause excess mortality consistently exhibited the lowest rates. CONCLUSION: Between-country heterogeneity of COVID-19 mortality metrics could be largely explained by differences of criteria for attributing a death to COVID-19; in age/comorbidity structures; in policies for identifying asymptomatic people affected from SARS-CoV-2 infection. All-cause excess mortality is recommended as a more reliable metric for comparing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Mortality/trends
19.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 784-794, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112117

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We sought to evaluate the association of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or AT1 blockers (ARB) therapy with clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: Electronic databases were searched to identify published studies that reported clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 who were or were not taking an ACEI/ARB. We studied all-cause mortality and/or severe disease outcomes. Fully adjusted effect estimates from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. In total, 34 (31 cohort-based and three case-control) studies met our eligibility criteria. Due to the inherent differences between cohort and case-control studies, we did not combine results of these studies but used them to identify the consistency of their results. The 31 cohort studies provided outcome data for 87 951 patients with COVID-19, of whom 22 383/83 963 (26.7%) were on ACEI/ARB therapy. In pooled analysis, we found no association between the use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality/severe disease [relative risk: 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.03, I2 = 57%, P = 0.20] or occurrence of severe disease (relative risk: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.74-1.17, I2 = 56%, P = 0.55). Analysis of three population-based case-control studies identified no significant association between ACEI/ARB (pooled odds ratio: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.23, I2 = 0, P = 0.98) and all-cause mortality/severe disease. In 13 of the 31 cohort studies as well as in three case-control studies that reported outcomes separately for ACEI and ARB, there was no differential effect for mortality/severe disease outcomes. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, we found no association between ACEI/ARB treatment and mortality/severe disease. ACEI/ARB should not be discontinued, unless clinically indicated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Observational Studies as Topic , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 784-794, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072450

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We sought to evaluate the association of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or AT1 blockers (ARB) therapy with clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: Electronic databases were searched to identify published studies that reported clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 who were or were not taking an ACEI/ARB. We studied all-cause mortality and/or severe disease outcomes. Fully adjusted effect estimates from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. In total, 34 (31 cohort-based and three case-control) studies met our eligibility criteria. Due to the inherent differences between cohort and case-control studies, we did not combine results of these studies but used them to identify the consistency of their results. The 31 cohort studies provided outcome data for 87 951 patients with COVID-19, of whom 22 383/83 963 (26.7%) were on ACEI/ARB therapy. In pooled analysis, we found no association between the use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality/severe disease [relative risk: 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.03, I2 = 57%, P = 0.20] or occurrence of severe disease (relative risk: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.74-1.17, I2 = 56%, P = 0.55). Analysis of three population-based case-control studies identified no significant association between ACEI/ARB (pooled odds ratio: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.23, I2 = 0, P = 0.98) and all-cause mortality/severe disease. In 13 of the 31 cohort studies as well as in three case-control studies that reported outcomes separately for ACEI and ARB, there was no differential effect for mortality/severe disease outcomes. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, we found no association between ACEI/ARB treatment and mortality/severe disease. ACEI/ARB should not be discontinued, unless clinically indicated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Observational Studies as Topic , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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