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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 834844, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952363

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused increasing challenges for healthcare systems globally. The disease spread rapidly from Wuhan to the rest of the world, involving more than 400 million individuals and including more than 5 million deaths. In dealing with the pandemic, China and other countries took protective measures such as promoting social distancing, canceling public gatherings, closing schools, quarantining, and imposing lockdowns. All these measures lead to physical inactivity. Being physically inactive has significant repercussions on the status of physical and mental wellbeing, and it is associated with anxiety, stress, increased chronic disease risk, and worsening of chronic conditions. In this sense, the relevance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise has been outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this mini review is to discuss the importance of physical activity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the benefits of physical activity and exercise that could be potentially effective treatment strategies for comorbid chronic conditions, long covid syndrome (LCS), and symptoms such as depression and anxiety.

2.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939900

ABSTRACT

Introduction Several studies and meta-analyses suggested the role of vitamin D 25OH in preventing severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the evidence on the clinical benefits of vitamin D 25OH adequacy in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 remain conflicting and speculative. We aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D 25OH serum levels and mortality in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Method This prospective observational multicentre study included 361 consecutive patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 admitted to the Italian hospitals involved in the NUTRI-COVID19 trial from March to August 2020. For each patient, serum vitamin D 25OH levels were assessed 48 h since admission and classified as deficient (<20 ng/mL) or adequate (≥20 ng/mL). We built a propensity score for low/adequate vitamin D 25OH levels to balance the clinical and demographic properties of the cohort, which resulted in 261 patients with good common support used for the survival analysis. Results Two Hundred-seventy-seven (77%) of the 361 enrolled patients (207 [57%] males, median age 73 ± 15.6 years) had vitamin D 25OH deficiency. Fifty-two (20%) of the 261 matched patients died during the hospital stay, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 1.18 for vitamin D 25OH deficiency (95% confidence interval: 0.86–1.62;p = 0.29). Discussion The prevalence of vitamin D 25OH deficiency was confirmed to be very high in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The use of a propensity score demonstrate an absence of significant association between vitamin D deficiency and mortality in hospitalized patients.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870729

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused increasing challenges for healthcare systems globally. The disease spread rapidly from Wuhan to the rest of the world, involving more than 400 million individuals and including more than 5 million deaths. In dealing with the pandemic, China and other countries took protective measures such as promoting social distancing, canceling public gatherings, closing schools, quarantining, and imposing lockdowns. All these measures lead to physical inactivity. Being physically inactive has significant repercussions on the status of physical and mental wellbeing, and it is associated with anxiety, stress, increased chronic disease risk, and worsening of chronic conditions. In this sense, the relevance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise has been outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this mini review is to discuss the importance of physical activity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the benefits of physical activity and exercise that could be potentially effective treatment strategies for comorbid chronic conditions, long covid syndrome (LCS), and symptoms such as depression and anxiety.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732070

ABSTRACT

Almost two years have passed since the outbreak reported for the first time in Wuhan of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus, rapidly evolved into a pandemic. This infectious disease has stressed global health care systems. The mortality rate is higher, particularly in elderly population and in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. Among them, subjects with diabetes have a high risk of developing severe form of COVID-19 and show increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Vitamin D (VD) is a modulator of immune-response. Data from literature showed that vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients increases COVID-19 severity, likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, the use of vitamin D might play a role in some aspects of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients. Moreover, a piece of evidence highlighted a link among vitamin D deficiency, obesity and diabetes, all factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Given this background, we performed an overview of the systematic reviews to assess the association between vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes; furthermore, vitamin D's possible role in COVID-19 patients was assessed as well. Three databases, namely MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, were reviewed to retrieve the pertinent data. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the recent advances about the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, immune response, inflammation, diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329133

ABSTRACT

Background: iron and calcium dysmetabolism, with hyperferritinemia, hypoferremia, hypocalcemia and anemia have been documented in the majority of COVID-19 patients at later/worse stages. Furthermore, complementary to ACE2, both sialic acid (SA) molecules and CD147 proved relevant host receptors for SARS-CoV-2 entry, which explains the viral attack to multiple types of cells, including erythrocytes, endothelium and neural tissue. Several authors advocated that cell ferroptosis may be the core and final cell degenerative mechanism. Methods: a literature research was performed in several scientific search engines, such as PubMed Central, Cochrane Library, Chemical Service. More than 500 articles were retrieved until mid-December 2021, to highlight the available evidence about the investigated issues. Results: based on COVID-19 literature data, we have highlighted a few pathophysiological mechanisms, associated with virus-based cation dysmetabolism, multi-organ attack, mitochondria degeneration and ferroptosis. Our suggested elucidated pathological sequence is: a) spike protein subunit S1 docking with sialylated membrane glycoproteins/receptors (ACE2, CD147), and S2 subunit fusion with the lipid layer;b) cell membrane morpho-functional changes due to the consequent electro-chemical variations and viroporin action, which induce an altered ion channel function and intracellular cation accumulation;c) additional intracellular iron concentration due to a deregulated hepcidin-ferroportin axis, with higher hepcidin levels. Viral invasion may also affect erythrocytes/erythroid precursors, endothelial cells and macrophages, through SA and CD147 receptors, with relative hemoglobin and iron/calcium dysmetabolism. AB0 blood group, hemochromatosis, or environmental elements may represent possible factors which affect individual susceptibility to COVID-19.     Conclusions: our literature analysis confirms the combined role of SA molecules, ACE2, CD147, viroporins and hepcidin in determining the cation dysmetabolism and final ferroptosis in the cells infected by SARS-CoV-2. The altered ion channels and electrochemical gradients of the cell membrane have a pivotal role in the virus entry and cell dysmetabolism, with subsequent multi-organ immune-inflammatory degeneration and erythrocyte/hemoglobin alterations.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328354

ABSTRACT

Background: iron and calcium dysmetabolism, with hyperferritinemia, hypoferremia, hypocalcemia and anemia have been documented in the majority of COVID-19 patients at later/worse stages. Furthermore, complementary to ACE2, both sialic acid (SA) molecules and CD147 proved relevant host receptors for SARS-CoV-2 entry, which explains the viral attack to multiple types of cells, including erythrocytes, endothelium and neural tissue. Several authors advocated that cell ferroptosis may be the core and final cell degenerative mechanism. Methods: </ns3:bold>: a literature research was performed in several scientific search engines, such as PubMed Central, Cochrane Library, Chemical Abstract Service. More than 500 articles were retrieved until mid-December 2021, to highlight the available evidence about the investigated issues. Results: </ns3:bold>: based on COVID-19 literature data, we have highlighted a few pathophysiological mechanisms, associated with virus-based cation dysmetabolism, multi-organ attack, mitochondria degeneration and ferroptosis. Our suggested elucidated pathological sequence is: a) spike protein subunit S1 docking with sialylated membrane glycoproteins/receptors (ACE2, CD147), and S2 subunit fusion with the lipid layer;b) cell membrane morpho-functional changes due to the consequent electro-chemical variations and viroporin action, which induce an altered ion channel function and intracellular cation accumulation;c) additional intracellular iron concentration due to a deregulated hepcidin-ferroportin axis, with higher hepcidin levels. Viral invasion may also affect erythrocytes/erythroid precursors, endothelial cells and macrophages, through SA and CD147 receptors, with relative hemoglobin and iron/calcium dysmetabolism. AB0 blood group, hemochromatosis, or environmental elements may represent possible factors which affect individual susceptibility to COVID-19.     Conclusions: </ns3:bold>: our literature analysis confirms the combined role of SA molecules, ACE2, CD147, viroporins and hepcidin in determining the cation dysmetabolism and final ferroptosis in the cells infected by SARS-CoV-2. The altered ion channels and electrochemical gradients of the cell membrane have a pivotal role in the virus entry and cell dysmetabolism, with subsequent multi-organ immune-inflammatory degeneration and erythrocyte/hemoglobin alterations.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580655

ABSTRACT

Evidence on treatments for early-stage COVID-19 in outpatient setting is sparse. We explored the pattern of use of drugs prescribed for COVID-19 outpatients' management in Southern Italy in the period February 2020-January 2021. This population-based cohort study was conducted using COVID-19 surveillance registry from Caserta Local Health Unit, which was linked to claims databases from the same catchment area. The date of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis was the index date (ID). We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics of the study drug users and the pattern of use of drugs prescribed for outpatient COVID-19 management. Overall, 40,030 patients were included in the analyses, with a median (IQR) age of 44 (27-58) years. More than half of the included patients were asymptomatic at the ID. Overall, during the study period, 720 (1.8%) patients died due to COVID-19. Azithromycin and glucocorticoids were the most frequently prescribed drugs, while oxygen was the less frequently prescribed therapy. The cumulative rate of recovery from COVID-19 was 84.2% at 30 days from ID and it was lower among older patients. In this study we documented that the drug prescribing patterns for COVID-19 treatment in an outpatient setting from Southern Italy was not supported from current evidence on beneficial therapies for early treatment of COVID-19, thus highlighting the need to implement strategies for improving appropriate drug prescribing in general practice.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22913, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537333

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a physiological process whose deregulation causes some diseases including cancer. Nuclear Factor kB (NF-kB) is a family of ubiquitous and inducible transcription factors, in which the p65/p50 heterodimer is the most abundant complex, that play critical roles mainly in inflammation. Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and immunosuppressant. Thus, NF-kB and GR are physiological antagonists in the inflammation process. Here we show that in mice and humans there is a spliced variant of p65, named p65 iso5, which binds the corticosteroid hormone dexamethasone amplifying the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor and is expressed in the liver of patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, we have quantified the gene expression level of p65 and p65 iso5 in the PBMC of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 disease. The results showed that in these patients the p65 and p65 iso5 mRNA levels are higher than in healthy subjects. The ability of p65 iso5 to bind dexamethasone and the regulation of the glucocorticoid (GC) response in the opposite way of the wild type improves our knowledge and understanding of the anti-inflammatory response and identifies it as a new therapeutic target to control inflammation and related diseases.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/immunology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/metabolism , Adult , Alternative Splicing , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Dexamethasone/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Hepatitis/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Isoforms , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcription Factor RelA/immunology , Transcription Factor RelA/physiology
9.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the association between the parameters used in nutritional screening assessment (body mass index [BMI], unintentional weight loss [WL] and reduced food intake) and clinical outcomes in non-critically ill, hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter real-life study carried out during the first pandemic wave in 11 Italian Hospitals. In total, 1391 patients were included. The primary end-point was a composite of in-hospital mortality or admission to ICU, whichever came first. The key secondary end-point was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Multivariable models were based on 1183 patients with complete data. Reduced self-reported food intake before hospitalization and/or expected by physicians in the next days since admission was found to have a negative prognostic impact for both the primary and secondary end-point (P < .001 for both). No association with BMI and WL was observed. Other predictors of outcomes were age and presence of multiple comorbidities. A significant interaction between obesity and multi-morbidity (≥2) was detected. Obesity was found to be a risk factor for composite end-point (HR = 1.36 [95%CI, 1.03-1.80]; P = .031) and a protective factor against in-hospital mortality (HR = 0.32 [95%CI, 0.20-0.51]; P < .001) in patients with and without multiple comorbidities, respectively. Secondary analysis (patients, N = 829), further adjusted for high C-reactive protein (>21 mg/dL) and LDH (>430 mU/mL) levels yielded consistent findings. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced self-reported food intake before hospitalization and/or expected by physicians in the next days since admission was associated with negative clinical outcomes in non-critically ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This simple and easily obtainable parameter may be useful to identify patients at highest risk of poor prognosis, who may benefit from prompt nutritional support. The presence of comorbidities could be the key factor, which may determine the protective or harmful role of a high body mass index in COVID-19.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 609470, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191680

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has involved more than one hundred million individuals, including more than two million deaths. Diabetes represents one of the most prevalent chronic conditions worldwide and significantly increases the risk of hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discuss the prevalence, the pathophysiological mechanisms, and the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in people with diabetes. We propose a rationale for using drugs prescribed in patients with diabetes and some pragmatic clinical recommendations to deal with COVID-19 in this kind of patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Disease Management , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178371

ABSTRACT

More than one year has passed since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus were reported in Wuhan (China), rapidly evolving into a global pandemic. This infectious disease has become a major public health challenge in the world. Unfortunately, to date, no specific antivirals have been proven to be effective against COVID-19, and although a few vaccines are available, the mortality rate is not decreasing but is still increasing. One therapeutic strategy has been focused on infection prevention and control measures. In this regard, the use of nutraceutical supports may play a role against some aspect of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients, thus representing a strategy to control the worst outcomes of this pandemic. For this reason, we performed an overview including meta-analyses and systematic reviews to assess the association among melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc supplementation and inflammatory markers using three databases, namely, MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. According to the evidence available, an intake of 50,000 IU/month of vitamin D showed efficacy in CRP. An amount of 1 to 2 g per day of vitamin C demonstrated efficacy both in CRP and endothelial function, and a dosage of melatonin ranging from 5 to 25 mg /day showed good evidence of efficacy in CRP, TNF and IL6. A dose of 50 mg/day of elemental zinc supplementation showed positive results in CRP. Based on the data reported in this review, the public health system could consider whether it is possible to supplement the current limited preventive measures through targeted nutraceutical large-scale administration.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage
12.
Clin Pract ; 11(1): 151-161, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125597

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. This disease has a spectrum of different clinical pictures with different outcomes. Herein, we report all the data from three paucisymptomatic patients during a hospital stay that might represent a paradigmatic example of the method by which SARS-CoV-2 is shed. We demonstrated the lack of an adequate qualitative and quantitative immune response by multiparametric flow cytometry analysis. Our data can provide a new perspective about the method by which SARS-CoV-2 is shed and the clinical weight of viral persistence. In all three cases, the long persistence of the virus and the consistent reduction in both innate and adaptative immune cells are not associated with greater disease severity. These patients might represent at least part of the population. In particular, one patient oscillated between positive and negative swab tests several times without presenting any immune response. In all three cases, the immune response failure was not associated with a clinically significant involvement, indicating that it is not the virus's ability to impair the immune system, as well as its presence and persistence the fundamental mechanism that might causally lead to death. Finally, this kind of immune response in paucisymptomatic patients could pose a considerable danger to public health that questions the quarantine period. It is urgent to quantify the phenomenon with a large sample study.

13.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1125-1134, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Many preliminary data seem to support its use in other indications, such as osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, and infective endocarditis. AREAS COVERED: A search in the literature using validated keywords (dalbavancin, Gram-positive infections, Gram-positive cocci, ABSSSI, intravenous treatment, and long-acting antibiotics) was conducted on biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMed and Embase) from 2004 to 30 September 2020. Results were analyzed during two consensus conferences with the aim to review the current evidence on dalbavancin in Gram-positive infections, mainly ABSSSI, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis, highlight the main limitations of available studies and suggest possible advantages of the molecule. EXPERT OPINION: The board identifies some specific subgroups of patients with ABSSSIs who could mostly benefit from a treatment with dalbavancin and agrees that the design of homogenous and robust studies would allow a broader use of dalbavancin even in other clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care/methods , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Teicoplanin/administration & dosage , Teicoplanin/pharmacology
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110449

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is posing a threat to global health. This disease has different clinical manifestations and different outcomes. The immune response to the novel 2019 coronavirus is complex and involves both innate and adaptive immunity. In this context, cell-mediated immunity plays a vital role in effective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Significant differences have been observed when comparing severe and non-severe patients. Since these immunological characteristics have not been fully elucidated, we aimed to use cluster analysis to investigate the immune cell patterns in patients with COVID-19 who required hospitalization but not intensive care. We identified four clusters of different immunological patterns, the worst being characterized by total lymphocytes, T helper lymphocytes CD4+ (CD4+), T cytotoxic lymphocytes CD8+ (CD8+) and natural killer (NK) cells below the normal range, together with natural killer lymphocyte granzyme < 50% (NK granzyme+) and antibody-secreting plasma cells (ASCs) equal to 0 with fatal outcomes. In the worst group, 50% of patients died in the intensive care unit. Moreover, a negative trend was found among four groups regarding total lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and B lymphocytes (p < 0.001, p < 0.005, p < 0.000, p < 0.044, respectively). This detailed analysis of immune changes may have prognostic value. It may provide a new perspective for identifying subsets of COVID-19 patients and selecting novel prospective treatment strategies. Notwithstanding these results, this is a preliminary report with a small sample size, and our data may not be generalizable. Further cohort studies with larger samples are necessary to quantify the prognostic value's weight, according to immunological changes in COVID-19 patients, for predicting prognoses and realizing improvements in clinical conditions.

15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(3): 1085-1092.e3, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the postoperative course of patients after cardiac surgery is unknown. We experienced a major severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in our cardiac surgery unit, with several patients who tested positive early after surgery. Here we describe the characteristics, postoperative course, and laboratory findings of these patients, along with the fate of the health care workers. We also discuss how we reorganize and reallocate hospital resources to resume the surgical activity without further positive patients. METHODS: After diagnosis of the first symptomatic patient, surgery was suspended. Nasopharyngeal swabs were performed in all patients and health care workers. Patients who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 were isolated and monitored throughout the in-hospital stay and followed up after discharged until death or clinical recovery. RESULTS: Twenty patients were found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 sometime after cardiac surgery (mean age 69 ± 10.4 years; median European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II score 3 [interquartile range, 5.1]); the median time from surgery to diagnosis was 15 days (interquartile range, 11). Among the patients, 18 had undergone cardiac surgery and 2 of them transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Overall mortality was 15%. Specific COVID-19-related symptoms were identified in 7 patients (35%). Among the 12 health care workers infected, 1 developed a bilateral mild-grade interstitial pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection after cardiac surgery, regardless the time of the onset, is a serious condition. The systemic inflammatory state that follows extracorporeal circulation may mask the typical COVID-19 laboratory findings, making the diagnosis more difficult. A strict reorganization of the hospital resources is necessary to safely resume the cardiac surgical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Disease Outbreaks , Postoperative Complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895388

ABSTRACT

Despite safety recommendations for the management of corpses with COVID-19 infection and the high number of deaths worldwide, the post-mortem investigation rate is extremely low as well as the scientific contributions describing the pathological features. The first results of post-mortem investigations provided interesting findings and contributed to promoting unexplored therapeutic approaches and new frontiers of research. A systematic review is provided with the aim of summarizing all autopsy studies up to February 2020 in which a complete post-mortem investigation in patients with COVID-19 disease was performed, focusing on histopathological features. We included case reports, case series, retrospective and prospective studies, letters to the editor, and reviews. A total of 28 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, producing a pooled dataset of 407 full autopsies. Analyzing the medical history data, only 12 subjects had died without any comorbidities (for 15 cases the data were not available). The post-mortem investigation highlighted that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure represent the main clinical features of COVID-19 disease, often leading to pulmonary thromboembolism and superimposed bronchopneumonia. The discussed data showed a strict relationship among the inflammatory processes, diffuse alveolar, and endothelial damage. In light of these results, the full autopsy can be considered as the gold standard to investigate unknown infections or pathogens resulting in death.

17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(2): 389-400, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680151

ABSTRACT

Currently, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents the fourth cause of death worldwide with significant economic burden. Comorbidities increase in number and severity with age and are identified as important determinants that influence the prognosis. In this observational study, we retrospectively analyzed data collected from the RePoSI register. We aimed to investigate comorbidities and outcomes in a cohort of hospitalized elderly patients with the clinical diagnosis of COPD. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were considered. The association between variables and in-hospital, 3-month and 1-year follow-up were analyzed. Among 4696 in-patients, 932 (19.8%) had a diagnosis of COPD. Patients with COPD had more hospitalization, a significant overt cognitive impairment, a clinically significant disability and more depression in comparison with non-COPD subjects. COPD patients took more drugs, both at admission, in-hospital stay, discharge and 3-month and 1-year follow-up. 14 comorbidities were more frequent in COPD patients. Cerebrovascular disease was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. At 3-month follow-up, male sex and hepatic cirrhosis were independently associated with mortality. ICS-LABA therapy was predictor of mortality at in-hospital, 3-month and 1-year follow-up. This analysis showed the severity of impact of COPD and its comorbidities in the real life of internal medicine and geriatric wards.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Internal Medicine , Male , Registries , Retrospective Studies
18.
Clin Pract ; 10(2): 1271, 2020 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663099

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has been regarded as an infective-inflammatory disease, which affects mainly lungs. More recently, a multi-organ involvement has been highlighted, with different pathways of injury. A hemoglobinopathy, hypoxia and cell iron overload might have a possible additional role. Scientific literature has pointed out two potential pathophysiological mechanisms: i) severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV- 2) interaction with hemoglobin molecule, through CD147, CD26 and other receptors located on erythrocyte and/or blood cell precursors; ii) hepcidin-mimetic action of a viral spike protein, inducing ferroportin blockage. In this translational medicinebased narrative review, the following pathologic metabolic pathways, deriving from hemoglobin denaturation and iron metabolism dysregulation, are highlighted: i) decrease of functioning hemoglobin quote; ii) iron overload in cell/tissue (hyperferritinemia); iii) release of free toxic circulating heme; iv) hypoxemia and systemic hypoxia; v) reduction of nitric oxide; vi) coagulation activation; vii) ferroptosis with oxidative stress and lipoperoxidation; viii) mitochondrial degeneration and apoptosis. A few clinical syndromes may follow, such as pulmonary edema based on arterial vasoconstriction and altered alveolo-capillary barrier, sideroblastic-like anemia, endotheliitis, vasospastic acrosyndrome, and arterio- venous thromboembolism. We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration. A more comprehensive diagnostic/therapeutic approach to COVID-19 is proposed, including potential adjuvant interventions aimed at improving hemoglobin dysfunction, iron over-deposit and generalized hypoxic state.

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